German collective guilt
||The neutrality of this article is disputed. (September 2011)|
The concept was familiar in Allied propaganda and thinking during World War II in connection with ideas such as the Morgenthau plan, which proposed to deindustrialize Germany by completely dismantling its industrial capabilities, destroying its access to natural resources, and forcibly dispersing its technically skilled workforce. The psychoanalyst Carl Jung wrote an influential essay in 1945 about this concept as a psychological phenomenon, in which he asserted that the German people felt a collective guilt (Kollektivschuld) for the atrocities committed by their fellow countrymen, and so introduced the term into German intellectual discourse. Jung said collective guilt was "for psychologists a fact, and it will be one of the most important tasks of therapy to bring the Germans to recognize this guilt."
The British and US occupation forces promoted shame and guilt with a publicity campaign, which included posters depicting concentration camps with slogans such as "These Atrocities: Your Fault!" (Diese Schandtaten: Eure Schuld!).
The theologian Martin Niemöller and other churchmen accepted shared guilt in the Stuttgarter Schuldbekenntnis (Stuttgart Declaration of Guilt) of 1945. The philosopher and psychologist Karl Jaspers delivered lectures to students in 1946 which were published under the title The Question of German Guilt.
- Collective responsibility, a different concept from collective guilt.
- Glenn P. Hastedt (2004), Encyclopedia of American foreign policy, p. 321, ISBN 978-0-8160-4642-3, also, per original memo
- Jeffrey K. Olick, Andrew J. Perrin (2010), Guilt and Defense, Harvard University Press, pp. 24–25, ISBN 978-0-674-03603-1
- Jeffrey K. Olick (September 2003), "The Guilt of Nations?", Ethics & International Affairs 17 (2): 109–117, doi:10.1111/j.1747-7093.2003.tb00443.x
- Tracy Isaacs, Richard Vernon (2011), Accountability for Collective Wrongdoing, Cambridge University Press, pp. 196–199, ISBN 978-0-521-17611-8