German submarine U-155 (1941)

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Career (Nazi Germany)
Name: U-155
Ordered: 25 September 1939
Builder: DeSchiMAG AG Weser, Bremen
Yard number: 997
Laid down: 1 October 1940
Launched: 12 May 1941
Commissioned: August 23, 1941
Fate: Surrendered at Fredericia, 8 May 1945
Sunk during Operation Deadlight on 21 December 1945
General characteristics [1]
Displacement: 1,120 t (1,100 long tons) surfaced
1,232 t (1,213 long tons) submerged
Length: 76.76 m (251 ft 10 in) overall
58.7 m (192 ft 7 in) pressure hull
Beam: 6.76 m (22 ft 2 in) overall
4.4 m (14 ft 5 in) pressure hull
Height: 9.6 m (31 ft 6 in)
Draft: 4.7 m (15 ft 5 in)
Propulsion: 2 × MAN M 9 V 40/46 supercharged 9-cylinder diesel engines, 4,000 hp (2,983 kW)
2 × SSW 2 GU 345/34 double-acting electric motors, 1,000 hp (746 kW)
Speed: 18.3 knots (33.9 km/h) surfaced
7.3 knots (13.5 km/h) submerged
Range: 13,450 nmi (24,910 km; 15,480 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph) surfaced
64 nmi (119 km; 74 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph) submerged
Test depth: 230 m (750 ft)
Complement: 48 to 56
Armament:
Service record
Part of: Kriegsmarine
4th U-boat Flotilla
10th U-boat Flotilla
33rd U-boat Flotilla
Identification codes: M 01 188
Commanders: Adolf Cornelius Piening
Johannes Rudolph
Ludwig von Friedeburg
Erwin Witte
Friedrich Altmeier
Operations: 10 patrols
Victories: 25 ships sunk for a total of 126,664 gross register tons (GRT)
one warship sunk for a total of 13,785 tons
one auxiliary warship damaged for a total of 6,736 GRT

German submarine U-155 was a Type IXC U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine built for service during World War II. Her keel was laid down on 1 October 1940 by DeSchiMAG AG Weser in Bremen as yard number 997. She was launched on 12 May 1941 and commissioned on 23 August with Kapitänleutnant Adolf Cornelius Piening in command. Piening was relieved in February 1944 (after being promoted to Korvettenkapitän), by Oberleutnant zur See Johannes Rudolph.

Leutnant zur See Ludwig von Friedeburg relieved Rudolph from August to November 1944, when Rudolph resumed command for another month. During these four months, U-155 had the youngest U-boat commander during the war since Von Friedeburg was only 20 years old. In December, Kptlt. Erwin Witte took over, and was relieved in April 1945 by Oblt.z.S. Friedrich Altmeier. Altmeier commanded the boat for one month before the German surrender; she was then scuttled by the Royal Navy. The wreck was located, largely intact, in 2001.

U-155 conducted 10 patrols, sinking 26 ships totalling 126,664 gross register tons (GRT), one warship of 13,785 tons and damaging one auxiliary warship of 6,736 GRT. She was a member of one wolfpack. She sank a warship and a troop transport ship, and damaged a cargo ship, with one salvo of four torpedoes on 15 November 1942 during her fourth patrol, and shot down a P-51 Mustang aircraft on her final patrol.

1st patrol[edit]

U-155 left Kiel on her first patrol on 7 February 1942. Her route took her 'up' the North Sea, through the gap between the Faroe and Shetland Islands and into the Atlantic. South of Cape Farewell in Greenland, she sank Sama and Adellen on the 22nd.

She then moved on to the US east coast, sinking the SS Arabutan about 81 nmi (150 km; 93 mi) off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina on March 7. On the 10th the First Watch Officer (1WO) Oberleutnant zur See Gert Rentrop was washed overboard.

The boat docked at the Keroman Submarine Base in Lorient on the Atlantic coast of German-occupied France on March 27.

2nd patrol[edit]

Having left Lorient on 24 April 1942, U-155 steamed to the eastern Caribbean Sea and that portion of the Atlantic adjacent to it. She attacked Brabant southwest of Grenada on 14 May. The ship sank in eight minutes.

The U-boat sank another six ships; one of them, Sylvan Arrow, was torpedoed on 20 May, but did not go down until the 28th, following a salvage attempt.

The submarine returned to Lorient on 14 June.

3rd patrol[edit]

U-155 '​s third and most successful foray was conducted in similar waters to her second effort, beginning in Lorient on July 9. She sank Barbacena with torpedoes east of Barbados, but others, such as Piave, went to the bottom with the more economic deck gun. Another victim, Cranford, met her end within three minutes. Part of her cargo was 6,600 tons of chrome ore. Two injured survivors were treated on U-155 before water, supplies and directions were handed over to their colleagues.

The submarine's skipper apologized for sinking one ship (Empire Arnold on 4 August), to the Chief Officer, who told him it was a bad business and wished it [the war] was over. Piening replied: "So do I".

Maschinengefreiter Konrad Garneier was lost overboard during an air attack on 19 August.

In all, the boat sank ten ships, a total of 43,514 tons.

4th patrol[edit]

Three of a spread of four torpedoes hit targets, one aal (eel: U-boat slang for torpedo), damaged the USS Almaack, a US Navy-requisitioned cargo transport; two others sank escort carrier HMS Avenger and the British troop transport Ettrick on 15 November 1942 northwest of Gibraltar. Of 526 men on Avenger, there were 12 survivors. Etterick '​s master was awarded the Order of the British Empire (OBE).

The boat also sank Serroskerk in mid-Atlantic. There were no survivors.

5th patrol[edit]

U-155 '​s fifth sortie involved her move to the western Caribbean and southern Florida, USA. She sank Lysefjord west of Havana on 2 April 1943, and on 3 April sank the oil tanker Gulfstate about 50 nmi (93 km; 58 mi) east northeast of Marathon Key, Florida (in 2013 the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Remediation of Underwater Legacy Environmental Threats (RULET) project found the sunken Gulfstate to be a potential source of oil pollution.[2])

On the return journey U-155 was attacked by an unknown aircraft on 27 April northwest of Cape Finisterre, Spain.

6th patrol[edit]

To try and counter the air threat, U-155 was grouped together with U-68, U-159, U-415 and U-634 in the Bay of Biscay. The formation was attacked by four De Havilland Mosquito aircraft on 14 June—three from No. 307 (Polish) Squadron RAF and one from No. 410 Squadron RCAF. One Mosquito, hit in the port engine, was forced to break off its attack and return to base where it made a belly landing. Five men in the boat's crew were wounded; they were treated by U-68 '​s doctor on their return to Lorient on 16 June.

7th and 8th patrols[edit]

Patrol number seven was as long as any of the others, to a point northeast of the Cape Verde Islands; but the boat did not find any targets.

The submarine's eighth patrol took her toward the northeast coast of Brazil. While sinking Siranger she took the third mate prisoner (he had been wounded, and was operated-on by the boat's doctor). He was taken back to Lorient and was eventually transferred to the POW camp at Milag Nord near Bremen.

9th and 10th patrols[edit]

U-155 '​s ninth patrol was, at 105 days, her longest, but like her seventh, found no targets. On 23 June 1944, Mosquitos of 248 Squadron attacked, killing Matrosenobergefreiter Karl Lohmeier and Mechanikerobergefreiter Friedrich Feller and wounding seven others.

Her tenth and final patrol left Lorient on 9 September 1944, the last by a U-boat from the base. On 4 May 1945, the boat shot down a P-51 Mustang aircraft of No. 126 Squadron RAF. She returned to Germany by a circuitous route, and docked at Flensburg on October 21.

Fate[edit]

On 30 June 1945, after the German surrender, she was transferred from Wilhelmshaven to Loch Ryan, Scotland for Royal Navy Operation Deadlight, the scuttling of surrendered German U-boats,and sunk on 21 December the same year.

Post war[edit]

U-155 was located and identified in 2001 by a team of divers led by nautical archaeologist Innes McCartney, revealing the wreck was lying upright on the sea bed, largely intact, at a depth of 73 metres (240 ft; 40 fathoms).[3]

Her crew held their 25th reunion in 1995 with former Oberleutnant zur See Johannes Rudolph and one of the Mosquito pilots who attacked the boat in June 1944 'on board'.

Summary of raiding history[edit]

Date Ship Name Flag Tonnage (GRT) Fate[4]
22 February 1942 Adellen  United Kingdom 7,984 Sunk
22 February 1942 Sama  Norway 1,799 Sunk
7 March 1942 Arabutan  Brazil 7,874 Sunk
14 May 1942 Brabant  Belgium 2,483 Sunk
17 May 1942 Challenger  United States Navy 7,667 Sunk
17 May 1942 San Victorio  United Kingdom 8,136 Sunk
20 May 1942 Sylvan Arrow  Panama 7,797 Sunk
23 May 1942 Watsonville  Panama 2,220 Sunk
28 May 1942 Poseidon  Netherlands 1,928 Sunk
30 May 1942 Baghdad  Norway 2,161 Sunk
28 July 1942 Barbacena  Brazil 4,772 Sunk
28 July 1942 Piave  Brazil 2,347 Sunk
28 July 1942 Bill  Norway 2,445 Sunk
30 July 1942 Cranford  United States 6,096 Sunk
1 August 1942 Clan Macnaughton  United Kingdom 8,088 Sunk
1 August 1942 Kentaur  Netherlands 5,878 Sunk
4 August 1942 Empire Arnold  United Kingdom 7,045 Sunk
5 August 1942 Draco  Netherlands 389 Sunk
9 August 1942 San Emiliano  United Kingdom 8,071 Sunk
10 August 1942 Strabo  Netherlands 383 Sunk
15 November 1942 Ettrick  United Kingdom 11,279 Sunk
15 November 1942 HMS Avenger  Royal Navy 13,785 Sunk
15 November 1942 USS Almaack  United States Navy 6,736 Damaged
6 December 1942 Serooskerk  Netherlands 8,456 Sunk
2 April 1943 Lysefjord  Norway 1,091 Sunk
3 April 1943 Gulfstate  United States 6,882 Sunk
24 October 1943 Siranger  Norway 5,393 Sunk

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ Gröner 1985, pp. 105-7.
  2. ^ Julia Whitty (May 21, 2013). "How Hitler's U-Boats Are Still Attacking Us". Blue Marble. Mother Jones. Retrieved May 21, 2013. The vessel ranked worst on the NOAA's risk assessment scale is the WWII tanker Gulfstate, torpedoed and sunk off the Florida Keys in 1943. 
  3. ^ "The Discovery of U155". 
  4. ^ "Ships hit by U-155". 
Bibliography
  • Busch, Rainer; Röll, Hans-Joachim (1999). Deutsche U-Boot-Verluste von September 1939 bis Mai 1945. Der U-Boot-Krieg (in German) IV (Hamburg, Berlin, Bonn: Mittler). ISBN 3-8132-0514-2. 
  • Gröner, Erich (1985). U-Boote, Hilfskreuzer, Minenschiffe, Netzleger, Sperrbrecher. Die deutschen Kriegsschiffe 1815-1945 (in German) III (Koblenz: Bernard & Graefe). ISBN 3-7637-4802-4. 

External links[edit]

  • Helgason, Guðmundur. "The Type IX boat U-155". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 7 December 2014. 
  • Hofmann, Markus. "U-155". Deutsche U-Boote 1935-1945 - u-boot-archiv.de (in German). Retrieved 7 December 2014. 

Coordinates: 55°34′59″N 7°39′00″W / 55.583°N 7.650°W / 55.583; -7.650