German submarine U-166 (1941)
|Career (Nazi Germany)|
|Ordered:||25 September 1939|
|Laid down:||6 December 1940|
|Launched:||1 November 1941|
|Commissioned:||23 March 1942|
|Fate:||Sunk, 30 July 1942 by the United States Navy patrol craft PC-566|
|Type:||Type IXC submarine|
|Displacement:||1,120 t (1,100 long tons) surfaced
1,232 t (1,213 long tons) submerged
|Length:||76.8 m (252 ft 0 in) o/a
58.7 m (192 ft 7 in) pressure hull
|Beam:||6.8 m (22 ft 4 in) o/a
4.4 m (14 ft 5 in) pressure hull
|Height:||9.4 m (30 ft 10 in)|
|Draft:||4.7 m (15 ft 5 in)|
|Propulsion:||2 × MAN M9V40/46 supercharged 9-cylinder diesel engines, 4,400 hp (3,281 kW)
2 × SSW GU345/34 double-acting electric motors, 1,000 hp (746 kW)
|Speed:||18.2 knots (33.7 km/h) surfaced
7.7 knots (14.3 km/h) submerged
|Range:||24,880 nmi (46,080 km; 28,630 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h) surfaced
117 nautical miles (217 km; 135 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph) submerged
|Test depth:||230 m (750 ft)|
|Complement:||48 to 56|
|Armament:||6 × torpedo tubes (four bow, two stern)
22 × 53.3 cm (21 in) torpedoes
1 × 10.5 cm SK C/32 naval gun (110 rounds)
|Part of:||4th U-boat Flotilla
(23 March–31 May 1942)
10th U-boat Flotilla
(1 June 1942–30 July 1942)
|Commanders:||Oblt.z.S. Hans-Günther Kuhlmann
(23 March 1942–30 July 1942)
|Operations:||1st patrol: 1–10 June 1942
2nd patrol: 17 June–30 July 1942
|Victories:||Four commercial ships sunk (7,593 GRT)|
German submarine U-166 was a Type IXC U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II. The submarine was laid down on 6 December 1940 at the Seebeckwerft (part of Deutsche Schiff- und Maschinenbau AG, Deschimag) at Wesermünde (modern Bremerhaven) as yard number 705, launched on 1 November 1941 and commissioned on 23 March 1942 under the command of Oberleutnant zur See Hans-Günther Kuhlmann. After training with the 4th U-boat Flotilla, U-166 was transferred to the 10th U-boat Flotilla for front-line service on 1 June 1942. The U-boat sailed on only two war patrols and sank four ships totalling 7,593 gross register tons (GRT). She was sunk on 30 July 1942 in Gulf of Mexico.
U-166 first sailed from Kiel to Kristiansand, Norway, on 30–31 May 1942. The U-boat sailed on her first combat patrol, from Kristiansand on 1 June 1942, around the British Isles, and arrived at Lorient, France, ten days later on 10 June.
Summary of Raiding Career
|Date of Action||Ship Name||Ship Type||Nationality||Tonnage (GRT)||Position||Deaths|
|11 July 1942||Carmen||Sailing Vessel||Dominican Republic||84||1|
|13 July 1942||Oneida||Steam Merchant||United States||2,309||6|
|16 July 1942||Gertrude||Motor Fishing Vessel||United States||16||0|
|30 July 1942||Robert E. Lee||Steam Passenger Ship||United States||5,184||25|
Robert E. Lee was under escort from the United States Navy patrol craft PC-566 approximately 45 miles (72 km) south of the Mississippi River Delta when she was torpedoed by U-166. PC-566 immediately attacked the U-boat, and claimed to have sunk her with depth charges.
On 1 August 1942, a United States Coast Guard J4F-1 Widgeon amphibious aircraft, spotted a U-boat approximately 100 miles (160 km) off the coast of Houma, Louisiana. The aircraft attacked, it appeared that the U-boat was hit in the attack. U-166 was reported missing in action on 30 July 1942, which coincided with the American aircraft's attack on "a U-Boat", leading to the aircraft being credited with the sinking of U-166. U-166's sinking sent 52 crew members to their deaths. Both crewmen were decorated for the action.
Wreckage located in 2001
However, in 2001, when the wreck of Robert E. Lee was located, in more than 5,000 feet (1,500 m) of water, the wreck of U-166 was also located, less than two miles from where it had attacked the Robert E. Lee. An archaeological survey of the seafloor prior to construction of a natural gas pipeline led to the discoveries. Petroleum companies operating in the Gulf of Mexico’s outer continental shelf are required to provide sonar data in areas that have archaeological potential. BP and Shell sponsored additional fieldwork to record detailed images, including a gun on the deck aft of the submarine’s conning tower. Upon investigation, it was discovered that another U-boat, U-171, also operating in the Gulf of Mexico, had reported coming under attack from an American aircraft on 1 August 1942, with little damage. Therefore, the credit for the sinking of U-166 should have gone to PC-566. Charles "C.J." Christ from Houma, LA spent most of his life searching for U-166 and was involved in the final identification of the U-boat.
- One of the foremost authorities on the subject is Charles "C.J." Christ from Houma, LA, who spent most of his life searching for U-166. His personal account about his search and the final locating and identification of the U-Boat can be found in a local newspaper, the The Houma Courier: C.J. Christ "WAR IN THE GULF: German submarine, U-166, found in the Gulf of Mexico" (The article can be found online as reprint by another local newspaper, the The Daily Comet).
- Kemp, Paul: U-Boats Destroyed - German Submarine Losses in the World Wars, 1999, Arms & Armour, ISBN 1-85409-515-3, p. 85.
- Kemp, p. 85.
- Campbell, John Naval Weapons of World War Two ISBN 0-87021-459-4 pp.248&249
- "The Type IXC boat U-166 - German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net". uboat.net. Retrieved 22 February 2010.
- "War Patrols by German U-boat U-166 - Boats - uboat.net". uboat.net. Retrieved 22 February 2010.
- "Historic Shipwrecks in the Gulf of Mexico". gomr.mms.gov. Retrieved 22 February 2010.
- "Patrol of U-boat U-166 from 1 Jun 1942 to 10 Jun 1942 - U-boat patrols - uboat.net". uboat.net. Retrieved 22 February 2010.
- "Patrol of U-boat U-166 from 17 Jun 1942 to 30 Jul 1942 - U-boat patrols - uboat.net". uboat.net. Retrieved 22 February 2010.
- "U-Boat Operations". ubootwaffe.net. Retrieved 2007-07-08.
- "U-166". US Coast Guard. Retrieved 2009-10-16.
- "173-FOOT STEEL-HULL PATROL CRAFT (PC, 461 - CLASS)". Patrol Craft Sailors Association. Retrieved 2007-07-08.
- "Petroleum Survey finds U-166". American Oil & Gas Historical Society.
- "Contents". World War II in the Gulf of Mexico. Retrieved 2007-07-08.
- "WAR IN THE GULF: German submarine, U-166, found in the Gulf of Mexico". The Daily Comet (Lafourche). Retrieved 2013-01-23.
- "U-Boat Crew Lists". ubootwaffe.net. Retrieved 2007-07-08.
- "History of the Offshore Oil and Gas Industry in Southern Louisiana". OCS Study MMS 2008-042 Volume 1,. p. 42. Retrieved 2013-01-23.
- "WAR IN THE GULF: German submarine, U-166, found in the Gulf of Mexico". The Daily Comet. Retrieved 2013-01-23.
- Busch, Rainer; Röll, Hans-Joachim (1999). "Deutsche U-Boot-Verluste von September 1939 bis Mai 1945". Der U-Boot-Krieg (in German) IV (Hamburg, Berlin, Bonn: Mittler). ISBN 3-8132-0514-2.
- U-166 at uboat.net
- U-166 at ubootwaffe.net[dead link]
- U-166 at u-boot-archiv.de (German)
- The Story of U-166: The Gulf of Mexico's Lost U-Boat
- Photograph and sonar image of the Robert E. Lee
- The U-166 - NOAA
- WWII Gulf of Mexico Shipwreck Survey Expedition 2004 - NOAA