German submarine U-196
|Career (Nazi Germany)|
|Ordered:||4 November 1940|
|Builder:||AG Weser, Bremen|
|Laid down:||10 June 1941|
|Launched:||24 April 1942|
|Commissioned:||11 September 1942|
|Fate:||Unknown; listed as missing ~ 12 December 1944|
|General characteristics |
|Displacement:||1,616 t (1,590 long tons) surfaced
1,804 t (1,776 long tons) submerged
|Length:||Overall: 87.60 m (287.4 ft)
Pressure hull: 68.50 m (224.7 ft)
|Beam:||Overall: 7.50 m (24.6 ft)
Pressure hull: 4.40 m (14.4 ft)
|Draught:||5.40 m (17.7 ft)|
|Propulsion:||surfaced 4,400 hp
submerged 1,000 hp
|Speed:||surfaced 19.2 kn (35.6 km/h; 22.1 mph)
submerged 6.9 kn (12.8 km/h; 7.9 mph)
|Range:||surfaced 23,700 nmi (43,900 km; 27,300 mi) at 12 kn (22 km/h; 14 mph)
submerged 57 nmi (106 km; 66 mi) at 4 kn (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph)
|Test depth:||Calculated crush depth: 230 m (750 ft)|
|Part of:||4th U-boat Flotilla
(11 September 1942–31 March 1943)
12th U-boat Flotilla
(1 April 1943–30 September 1944)
33rd U-boat Flotilla
(1 October–1 December 1944)
|Commanders:||K.Kapt. Eitel-Friedrich Kentrat
(11 September 1942–21 September 1944)
Oblt.z.S. Werner Striegler
(1 October–1 December 1944)
13 March–23 October 1943
16 March–10 August 1944
30 November–~12 December 1944
|Victories:||Three commercial ships sunk (17,739 GRT)|
German submarine U-196 was a Type IXD2 U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II. The submarine was laid down on 10 June 1941 at the AG Weser yard in Bremen, launched on 24 April 1942, and commissioned on 11 September 1942 under the command of Kapitänleutnant Eitel-Friedrich Kentrat. After training with the 4th U-boat Flotilla at Stettin, U-196 was transferred to the 12th flotilla for front-line service on 1 April 1943.
Under Kentrat's command she completed the longest patrol made by a submarine during World War II, leaving Kiel on 13 March 1943, and returning to Bordeaux on 23 October 1943, spending 225 days at sea. During that time she sailed all the way around the coast of South Africa and sank two British merchant ships in the Indian Ocean.
U-196 was transferred to the 33rd U-boat Flotilla on 1 October 1944. On 30 November, U-196 left Batavia (Java, in Indonesia), now commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Werner Striegler. After departure U-196 was reassigned to refuel a sister U-boat in the Indian Ocean, but the rendezvous never took place. Efforts to contact U-196 during early December 1944 failed to elicit a response.
Her wreck has never been found, the cause of U-196 's sinking remain unknown. It has been suggested that she struck an Allied mine laid by the British submarine HMS Porpoise. However, Porpoise did not lay the mines until 9 December 1944.
Oberleutnant Dr. Ing. Heinz Haake of U-196 is buried in a graveyard at Bogor, Java with members of the World War I German East Asia Squadron at Arca Domas, on the slopes of Mount Pangrango, Java. His date of death is listed on a memorial as 30 November 1944, the day U-196 sailed on her last voyage.
Summary of Raiding Career
|11 May 1943||Nailsea Meadow||United Kingdom||4,962||Sunk|
|3 August 1943||City of Oran||United Kingdom||7,323||Sunk|
|9 July 1944||Shahzada||United Kingdom||5,454||Sunk|
- Gröner 1985, pp. 105-7.
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- "Patrol of U-boat U-196 from 13 Mar 1943 to 23 Oct 1943 - U-boat patrols - uboat.net". uboat.net. Retrieved 8 March 2010.
- James E., Wise; Otto Giese (2003). Shooting the War: The Memoir and Photographs of a U-Boat Officer in World War II. Naval Institute Press. p. 179. ISBN 1-59114-298-9.
- "Patrol of U-boat U-196 from 16 Mar 1944 to 10 Aug 1944 - U-boat patrols - uboat.net". uboat.net. Retrieved 8 March 2010.
- Niestlé, Axel (1998). German U-boat Losses During World War II: Details of Destruction. Naval Institute Press. p. 239. ISBN 1-55750-641-8.
- Bennett, Geoffrey (2006). The Pepper Trader: True Tales of the German East Asia Squadron and the Man who Cast Them in Stone. Equinox Publishing. p. 10. ISBN 979-3780-26-6.
- "Nailsea Meadow (Steam merchant) - Ships hit by U-boats - uboat.net". uboat.net. Retrieved 8 March 2010.
- "City of Oran (Steam merchant) - Ships hit by U-boats - uboat.net". uboat.net. Retrieved 8 March 2010.
- "Shahzada (Steam merchant) - Ships hit by U-boats - uboat.net". uboat.net. Retrieved 8 March 2010.
- Busch, Rainer; Röll, Hans-Joachim (1999). Deutsche U-Boot-Verluste von September 1939 bis Mai 1945. Der U-Boot-Krieg (in German) IV (Hamburg, Berlin, Bonn: Mittler). ISBN 3-8132-0514-2.
- Gröner, Erich (1985). U-Boote, Hilfskreuzer, Minenschiffe, Netzleger, Sperrbrecher. Die deutschen Kriegsschiffe 1815-1945 (in German) III (Koblenz: Bernard & Graefe). ISBN 3-7637-4802-4.
- Helgason, Guðmundur. "The Type IXD boat U-196". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
- U-196 at ubootwaffe.net[dead link]
- Hofmann, Markus. "U-196". Deutsche U-Boote 1935-1945 - u-boot-archiv.de (in German). Retrieved 7 December 2014.