German submarine U-223
|Career (Nazi Germany)|
|Ordered:||15 August 1940|
|Laid down:||15 July 1941|
|Launched:||16 April 1942|
|Commissioned:||6 June 1942|
|Fate:||Sunk by a British warship, 30 March 1944|
|Type:||Type VIIC submarine|
|Displacement:||769 tonnes (757 long tons) surfaced
871 t (857 long tons) submerged
|Length:||67.1 m (220 ft 2 in) o/a
50.5 m (165 ft 8 in) pressure hull
|Beam:||6.2 m (20 ft 4 in) o/a
4.7 m (15 ft 5 in) pressure hull
|Draft:||4.74 m (15 ft 7 in)|
|Propulsion:||2 × supercharged Germaniawerft 6-cylinder 4-stroke F46 diesel engines, totalling 2,800–3,200 bhp (2,100–2,400 kW). Max rpm: 470-490
2 × electric motors, totalling 750 shp (560 kW) and max rpm: 296
|Speed:||17.7 knots (32.8 km/h; 20.4 mph) surfaced
7.6 knots (14.1 km/h; 8.7 mph) submerged
|Range:||8,500 nmi (15,700 km) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph) surfaced
80 nmi (150 km) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph) submerged
|Test depth:||230 m (750 ft)
Crush depth: 250–295 m (820–968 ft)
|Complement:||44–52 officers and ratings|
|Armament:||• 5 × 53.3 cm (21 in) torpedo tubes (four bow, one stern)
• 14 × torpedoes or 26 TMA mines
• 1 × 8.8 cm (3.46 in) deck gun (220 rounds)
• Various AA guns
|Part of:||5th U-boat Flotilla
7th U-boat Flotilla
(September 1942–September 1943)
|Commanders:||Oblt./Kptlt. Karl-Jürg Wächter
(6 June 1942–12 January 1944)
Oblt.z.S. Peter Gerlach (12 January–30 March 1944)
12 January–6 March 1943
15 April–24 May 1943
14 September–16 October 1943
20 November–17 December 1943
19 January–12 February 1944
16–30 March 1944
|Victories:||Two commercial vessels sunk (12,556 GRT)
One warship sunk (1,935 tons)
One ship a total loss (4,970 GRT)
One warship a total loss (1,300 tons)
Ordered on 15 August 1940 from the Germaniawerft shipyard in Kiel, she was laid down on 16 June 1941 as yard number 653, launched on 16 April 1942 and commissioned on 6 June under the command of Kapitänleutnant Karl-Jürg Wächter.
A member of eight wolfpacks, she sank two ships totalling 12,556 gross register tons (GRT) in six patrols. She also sank one warship of 1,935 tons and caused one ship of 4,970 GRT and one warship of 1,300 tons to be declared total losses.
She was sunk on 30 March 1944 by British warships in the Mediterranean Sea. 23 men died; there were 27 survivors.
For her first patrol, U-223 departed Kiel on 12 January 1943. Keeping to the Norwegian side of the North Sea, she entered the Atlantic Ocean having negotiated the gap between Iceland and the Faroe Islands. She moved to the south of Greenland. There, she sank the Dorchester west of Cape Farewell on 3 February. This steam passenger ship was sailing with a total of 904 people on board. 675 of them died. Four of the dead were chaplains of different faiths who had given up their lifebelts to soldiers among the incumbents. The clergymen were posthumously awarded the Distinguished Service Cross and the Purple Heart; the US Congress declared 3 February 'Chaplains Observance Day' in 1961.
She also sank the Winkler on 23 February; the ship went down in 45 seconds. The U-boat then prevented any retaliation from the convoy escort ships by diving underneath survivors in the water.
U-223 was attacked by a British Flying Fortress of No. 59 Squadron RAF on 1 March. The aircraft dropped seven depth charges which overshot. Damage to the U-boat was slight, but the Fortress was hit and only just managed to return to its base.
The submarine docked at St. Nazaire in occupied France on 6 March.
U-223 was depth charged to the surface and rammed by the destroyer HMS Hesperus in mid-Atlantic on 11 May 1943. Two men were lost overboard; one of them was rescued by U-359. Meanwhile, U-223 had escaped the wrath of the British ship and returned to St. Nazaire. Due to the repairs needed, she did not put to sea again until September.
Having left St. Nazaiare on 14 September, the boat had passed the heavily fortified British base at Gibraltar by the 26th. Before docking at Toulon on 16 October, she attacked the Stanmore on the 2nd near Cape Ivi, Algeria. The badly damaged ship was taken under tow by two tugs. She was beached at Cape Tenes where she broke in two and was declared a total loss.
4th and 5th patrols
U-223's fifth sortie was relatively uneventful, passing south of Sardinia and headed for the Italian mainland.
6th patrol and loss
The U-boat had left Toulon on 16 March 1944. She was detected by the ASDIC (sonar) of HMS Ulster on the 29th north of Palermo. Ulster was not alone; she was accompanied by two other destroyers - Laforey and Tumult. By early morning of the 30th, the U-boat, after heavy depth charging, was forced to the surface, where she was engaged by gunfire. Ulster had been replaced by two escort destroyers, HMS Hambledown and Blencartha. Before being sunk, U-223 managed to sink HMS Laforey.
23 men died; there were 27 survivors.
Summary of Raiding Career
|3 February 1943||Dorchester||United States||5,649||Sunk|
|23 February 1943||Winkler||Panama||6,907||Sunk|
|2 October 1943||Stanmore||United Kingdom||4,970||Total loss|
|11 December 1943||HMS Cuckmere||Royal Navy||1,300||Total loss|
|30 March 1944||HMS Laforey (G99)||Royal Navy||1,935||Sunk|
- Busch, Rainer; Röll, Hans-Joachim (1999). "Deutsche U-Boot-Verluste von September 1939 bis Mai 1945". Der U-Boot-Krieg (in German) IV (Hamburg, Berlin, Bonn: Mittler). ISBN 3-8132-0514-2.
- Gröner, Erich (1985). "U-Boote, Hilfskreuzer, Minenschiffe, Netzleger, Sperrbrecher". Die deutschen Kriegsschiffe 1815-1945 (in German) III (Koblenz: Bernard & Graefe). ISBN 3-7637-4802-4.