German submarine U-275
|Ordered:||10 April 1941|
|Builder:||Bremer-Vulkan-Vegesacker Werft, Bremen|
|Laid down:||18 January 1941|
|Launched:||8 October 1942|
|Commissioned:||25 November 1942|
|Fate:||Sunk, in March 1945 in the English Channel by a mine|
|Type:||Type VIIC submarine|
|Displacement:||769 tonnes (757 long tons) surfaced
871 t (857 long tons) submerged
|Length:||67.1 m (220 ft 2 in) o/a
50.5 m (165 ft 8 in) pressure hull
|Beam:||6.2 m (20 ft 4 in) o/a
4.7 m (15 ft 5 in) pressure hull
|Draft:||4.74 m (15 ft 7 in)|
|Propulsion:||2 × supercharged Germaniawerft 6-cylinder 4-stroke F46 diesel engines, totalling 2,800–3,200 bhp (2,100–2,400 kW). Max rpm: 470-490
2 × electric motors, totalling 750 shp (560 kW) and max rpm: 296.
|Speed:||17.7 knots (32.8 km/h; 20.4 mph) surfaced
7.6 knots (14.1 km/h; 8.7 mph) submerged
|Range:||15,170 km (8,190 nmi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph) surfaced
150 km (81 nmi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph) submerged
|Test depth:||230 m (750 ft)
Crush depth: 250–295 m (820–968 ft)
|Complement:||44–52 officers and ratings|
|Armament:||5 × 53.3 cm (21 in) torpedo tubes (four bow, one stern)
14 × G7e torpedoes or 26 TMA mines
1 × 8.8 cm (3.46 in) deck gun (220 rounds)
Various AA guns
|Part of:||8th U-boat Flotilla
(25 November–31 May 1943)
3rd U-boat Flotilla
(1 June 1943–30 September 1944)
11th U-boat Flotilla
(1 October 1944–10 March 1945
|Commanders:||Oblt.z.S. Helmut Bork
(25 November 1942–July 1944)
Oblt.z.S. Helmuth Wehrkamp (July 1944–10 March 1945)
4 September–28 October 1943
24 November 1943–26 April 1944
20 May–23 May 1944
6 June–25 June 1944
15 July–2 August 1944
13 August–18 September 1944
2 December–12 December 1944
13 January–10 February 1945
25 February–10 March 1945
|Victories:||One ship sunk, 4,934 GRT,
one warship sunk 1,090 tons
German submarine U-275 was a Type VIIC U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II. The submarine was laid down on 18 January 1942 at the Bremer-Vulkan-Vegesacker Werft (yard) in Bremen as 'werk' 40. She was launched on 8 October 1942 and commissioned on 25 November under the command of Oberleutnant zur See Helmut Bork.
After training with the 8th U-boat Flotilla, the boat became operational on 1 June 1943 when she was transferred to the 3rd flotilla. U-275 carried out a series of short voyages between Kiel in Germany and Bergen and Trondheim in Norway in August 1943.
The boat's first patrol proper began when she departed Bergen on 24 September 1943. She entered the Atlantic Ocean after negotiating the gap between Iceland and the Faroe Islands. She was unsuccessfully attacked by a Lockheed Hudson southwest of Iceland. She reached La Pallice in occupied France on 28 October.
The boat's second foray was divided into a series of short bursts between La Pallice and Brest between November 1943 and April 1944. It was during one of these sallies that she sank the USS Leary, an American destroyer, on 24 December 1943.
Another moment of drama came when the submarine was obliged to return to base on 3 January with the captain suffering from appendicitis.
3rd and 4th patrols
Patrol number three was similarly short, starting and finishing in Brest on 20 and 23 May 1944.
Not long after D-Day (6 June 1944) on her fourth sortie, she was attacked by no less than 12 Hawker Typhoon strike attack aircraft of No. 263 Squadron RAF while leaving St. Peter Port, Guernsey on 14 June. No damage was caused to the submarine; the escorting vessels were not so lucky.
While negotiating the relatively shallow waters of the English Channel, the submarine was discovered by an aircraft which vectored a hunter-killer group onto her. She then spent seven hours being chased before she shook off her pursuers.
The situation had become so dire that the boat was chased every time she raised her periscope. She eventually reached comparative safety in Boulogne on 2 August 1944.
The U-275 reached Boulogne in the night from 31 Juli on 1 August 1944.
It was decided to send U-275 back to Norwegian waters. She sailed westward, the 'long' way around the British Isles. She had almost reached Bergen on 18 September 1944, when she was attacked by a total of eight De Havilland Mosquitos. Two were armed with the Tse tse 6 pounder cannon, four more were equipped with depth charges, (they were all from 248 Squadron), while the last two, from 235 Squadron, were there as escorts.
The submarine grounded in water that was only about 9 m (30 ft) deep. She was strafed and bombed while half submerged. However, luck was on the U-boat's side; one cannon jammed and two bombs failed to release. A coastal battery also fired on the British aircraft, causing them to leave the scene of the attack. The U-boat, having suffered some damage, then made her way to her destination.
7th and 8th patrols
These two patrols were relatively trouble-free, but the boat did return to the French Atlantic coast, docking at St. Nazaire on 10 February 1945.
9th patrol and loss
Having departed St. Nazaire on 25 February 1945, she headed for the English Channel once more. On 8 March she sank the Lonaston northwest of Fécamp. On the 10th she struck a mine off Beachy Head and sank.
Forty-eight men died; there were no survivors.
Summary of Raiding Career
|24 December 1943||USS Leary||United States Navy||1,090||Sunk|
|8 March 1945||Lornaston||United Kingdom||4,934||Sunk|
- Kemp, Paul: U-Boats Destroyed - German Submarine Losses in the World Wars, 1997, Arms & Armour, ISBN 1-85409-515-3, p. 236
- "The Type VIIC boat U-275 - German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net". uboat.net. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
- "War Patrols by German U-boat U-275 - Boats - uboat.net". uboat.net. Retrieved 2 August 2012.