German submarine U-35 (1936)
|Ordered:||25 March 1935|
|Builder:||Friedrich Krupp Germaniawerft, Kiel|
|Laid down:||2 March 1936|
|Launched:||24 September 1936|
|Commissioned:||3 November 1936|
|Fate:||Scuttled, 29 November 1939|
|General characteristics |
|Type:||Type VIIA submarine|
|Displacement:||626 tonnes (616 long tons) surfaced
745 t (733 long tons) submerged
|Length:||64.5 m (211 ft 7 in) o/a
44.5 m (146 ft 0 in) pressure hull
|Beam:||5.85 m (19 ft 2 in) o/a
4.7 m (15 ft 5 in) pressure hull
|Draft:||4.4 m (14 ft 5 in)|
|Propulsion:||2 × MAN 6-cylinder 4-stroke M6V 40/46 diesel engines totalling 2,100–2,310 bhp (1,600–1,720 kW). Max rpm: 470-485
2 × BBC GG UB 720/8 electric motors, totalling 750 shp (560 kW). Max rpm: 322
|Speed:||17 knots (31 km/h; 20 mph) surfaced
8 knots (15 km/h; 9.2 mph) submerged
|Range:||6,200 nautical miles (11,500 km; 7,100 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph) surfaced
73–94 nautical miles (135–174 km; 84–108 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph) submerged
|Test depth:||220 m (720 ft)
Crush depth: 230–250 m (750–820 ft)
|Complement:||42–46 officers and ratings|
|Armament:||5 × 53.3 cm (21 in) torpedo tubes (four bow, one stern)
11 × torpedoes or 22 TMA mines or 33 TMB mines
1 × 8.8 cm SK C/35 naval gun (220 rounds)
1 × C30 20 mm AA
|Part of:||2nd U-boat Flotilla
(3 November 1936–29 November 1939)
|Identification codes:||M 21 203|
|Commanders:||Kptlt. Klaus Ewerth
(3 November–5 December 1936)
Kptlt. Hans Rudolf Rösing
(6 December 1936–February 1937)
Kptlt. Hermann Michahelles
(February–30 July 1937)
Oblt.z.S. Otto Kretschmer
(31 July–15 August 1937)
Kptlt. Werner Lott
(15 August 1937–29 November 1939)
|Operations:||last prewar patrol: 27 August–1 September 1939
1st war patrol: 9 September–12 October 1939
2nd war patrol: 18–29 November 1939
|Victories:||Four commercial ships sunk (7,850 GRT)
One commercial ship damaged (6,014 GRT)
German submarine U-35 was a Type VIIA U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine. She was built three years before the start of World War II. The submarine was laid down on 2 March 1936 by Friedrich Krupp Germaniawerft at Kiel, launched on 24 September 1936, and commissioned on 3 November that year under the command of Kapitänleutnant (Kptlt.) Klaus Ewerth. The U-boat was featured on the cover of Life magazine on 16 October 1939.
U-35 was scuttled just three months into World War II in November 1939. During her service, she conducted two war patrols and sank four vessels for a total loss of 7,850 tons while damaging one vessel of around 6,014 tons.
Construction and design
U-35 was ordered by the Kriegsmarine on 25 March 1935 (as part of Plan Z and in violation of the Treaty of Versailles). Her keel was laid down on 2 March 1936 by Friedrich Krupp Germaniawerft in Kiel as Werk 558. She was launched on 24 September 1936 and commissioned on 3 November of that year under the command of Kptlt. Klaus Ewerth.
Like all Type VIIA submarines, U-35 displaced 626 tonnes (616 long tons) while surfaced and 745 t (733 long tons) when submerged. She was 64.5 m (211 ft 7 in) in overall length and had a 44.5 m (146 ft 0 in) pressure hull. U-35's propulsion consisted of two MAN 6-cylinder 4-stroke M6V 40/46 diesel engines that totaled 2,100–2,310 bhp (1,600–1,720 kW). Her maximum rpm was between 470 and 485. The submarine was also equipped with two Brown, Boveri & Cie GG UB 720/8 electric motors that totaled 750 shp (560 kW). Their maximum rpm was 322. These power plants gave U-35 a total speed of 17 knots (31 km/h; 20 mph) while surfaced and 8 knots (15 km/h; 9.2 mph) when submerged. This resulted in a range of 6,200 nautical miles (11,500 km; 7,100 mi) while traveling at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph) on the surface and 73–94 nautical miles (135–174 km; 84–108 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph) when submerged. The U-boat's test depth was 220 m (720 ft) but she could go as deep as 230–250 m (750–820 ft) without having her hull crushed. U-35's armament consisted of five 53.3 cm (21 in) torpedo tubes, (four located in the bow and one in the stern). She could carry up to 11 torpedoes or 22 TMA mines or 33 TMB mines. U-35 was also equipped with a 8.8 cm SK C/35 naval gun and had 220 rounds stowed on board. Her anti-aircraft defenses consisted of one C30 20 mm AA gun.
U-35 was known as the "bad luck boat" of the 2nd U-Boat Flotilla ("Saltzwedel") due to several accidents. She was rammed by a freighter in 1937, overrun and badly damaged by the pocket battleship Admiral Graf Spee in 1938, and was struck by an aircraft in 1939. She also had some success; U-35 (together with U-28), was the first U-boat to patrol the Atlantic, sailing under the command of Hans-Rudolf Rösing to Ponta Delgada in the Azores. She then undertook several patrols to Spain, Ceuta, Gibraltar and Morocco under the command of Hermann Michahelles and Werner Lott. After the death of Michahelles in a car accident, Otto Kretschmer was briefly given U-35 as his first U-boat command. During a peacetime drill in 1938, her sister boat, U-30, was involved in a near-fatal collision with U-35.
Last pre-war patrol
First war patrol
The U-boat departed Wilhelmshaven on 9 September 1939. That day, the submarine HMS Ursula fired the first British submarine torpedoes of the war when attacking U-35 about 23 nautical miles (43 km; 26 mi) north of the Dutch island of Schiermonnikoog. The U-boat escaped without damage and sailed northabout the British Isles to attack shipping.
On 18 September she stopped a group of three fishing trawlers west-north-west of St.Kilda. She sank two with gunfire, the 326 ton Arlita and the 295 ton Lord Minto, but allowed the third, the Nancy Hague, to proceed after taking on the crews of the other vessels.
After 14:10 on 21 September, U-35 fired three torpedoes at Convoy OA-7 south-west of the Isles of Scilly. She missed a destroyer and a tanker, but damaged the 6,014 ton British tanker Teakwood. The damaged ship was taken to Falmouth in Cornwall, escorted by HMS Ardent. The one sailor killed onboard the Teakwood during this attack was the only person to have been killed during World War II in association with U-35.
At 18:45 on 1 October 1939, 42 miles off Ushant, U-35 stopped the unarmed neutral 2,239 ton Belgian merchant ship Suzon, which was carrying 2,400 tons of pit props from Bordeaux to Cardiff. After the crew abandoned ship she was torpedoed and sunk.
About 13:15 on 3 October, 40 miles west of the Scilly Islands, U-35 stopped the 4,990 ton Greek freighter Diamantis, which was taking 7,700 tons of manganese ore from Pepel, Sierra Leone, to Barrow-in-Furness. Like the Suzon, she was a neutral, but carrying a strategic cargo to Britain and therefore a "legitimate target". The crew, misunderstanding the U-boat's instructions, abandoned ship prematurely. After two G7a torpedoes exploded prematurely, the ship was sunk by a G7e torpedo. Because the ship's lifeboats were not suited for use in bad weather, Lott decided to take all crew members aboard.
|“||In the rough weather I would not have been able to examine the ship's papers, so I gave a signal to follow me. I wanted to go to the Irish coast where I knew there would not be such rough weather. They did not follow me so I fired a shot from my gun at the bow of the boat. This had the result that the crew panicked and jumped into the small boats. One could foresee that with the rough seas that they would overturn.||”|
The U-boat returned to Wilhelmshaven on 12 October after 34 days at sea.
On Saturday, 17 October 2009, more than 200 people attended various celebratory events in Ventry to mark the rescue and landing of the Greek seamen. The occasion was organised by the newly formed Ventry Historical Society.
The main ceremony was held on the green in front of Quinn's Pub, where an inscribed commemorative stone was erected. Guests included the German Ambassador Dr. Busso von Alvensleben and the Mayor of the Oinousses Islands in the Aegean, Evangelos Elias Angelakos, who unveiled the memorial stone. Other guests included descendants of Panagos Pateras, the captain and owner of the ill-fated Diamantis, officers of Southern Command, members of the Irish Coast Guard, the crew of the Valentia lifeboat, and a troop of Sea Scouts from Tralee.
The secretary of the historical society, Dr. Breandán Ó Ciobháin, delivered a welcoming address in Irish, English, Greek, and German, and invited the German ambassador to address the gathering:
|“||I'm deeply moved about this generous gesture of erecting this memorial. In that terrible war, which we all remember very well, it was indeed an exceptional action that we are going to honour today. I'm more than happy that nowadays our three countries are united in the European Union and that we can be sure that anything like that will never occur again. The only thing that should survive is the sense of magnanimity and of courage that will serve as an example for all of us.||”|
Mayor Angelakos said it was a great honor to attend the Ventry ceremony 70 years after the incident: "I would like to remind you of the magnanimous stance of Werner Lott, the commander of the U-35."
Second war patrol
U-35 sailed from Wilhelmshaven on her second and final war patrol on 18 November 1939. On 29 November 1939 U-35 was scuttled by its crew in the North Sea, in position Coordinates: , after a depth charge attack from the British destroyers Kingston, Icarus, and Kashmir. Unusual among U-boats lost during the war, all 43 hands on board survived and were taken prisoner. Indeed, every member of the U-35 crew during its second and final patrol survived the war.
Summary of raiding history
|Date||Name of Ship||Nationality||Tonnage||Fate|
|18 September 1939||Arlita||United Kingdom||326||Sunk|
|18 September 1939||Lord Minto||United Kingdom||295||Sunk|
|21 September 1939||Teakwood||United Kingdom||6,014||Damaged|
|1 October 1939||Suzon||Belgium||2,239||Sunk|
|3 October 1939||Diamantis||Greece||4,990||Sunk|
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