German submarine U-38 (1938)
U-37, (an identical U-boat to U-38) at Lorient in 1940. Note the twin rudders
|Career (Nazi Germany)|
|Ordered:||29 July 1936|
|Builder:||AG Weser, Bremen|
|Laid down:||15 April 1937|
|Launched:||9 August 1938|
|Commissioned:||24 October 1938|
|Fate:||Scuttled on 5 May 1945 west of Wesermünde and later broken up in 1948|
|General characteristics |
|Type:||Type IXA submarine|
|Displacement:||1,032 t (1,016 long tons) surfaced
1,152 t (1,134 long tons) submerged
|Length:||76.6 m (251 ft 4 in) o/a
58.7 m (192 ft 7 in) pressure hull
|Beam:||6.5 m (21 ft 4 in) o/a
4.4 m (14 ft 5 in) pressure hull
|Height:||9.4 m (30 ft 10 in)|
|Draft:||4.7 m (15 ft 5 in)|
|Propulsion:||2 × MAN M9V40/46 supercharged 9-cylinder diesel engines, 4,400 hp (3,281 kW)
2 × SSW GU345/34 double-acting electric motors, 1,000 hp (746 kW)
|Speed:||18.2 knots (33.7 km/h) surfaced
7.7 knots (14.3 km/h) submerged
|Range:||19,425 nmi (35,975 km; 22,354 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h) surfaced
144 nautical miles (267 km; 166 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph) submerged
|Test depth:||230 m (750 ft)|
|Complement:||48 to 56|
|Armament:||6 × torpedo tubes (4 bow, 2 stern)
22 × 53.3 cm (21 in) torpedoes
1 × 10.5 cm SK C/32 naval gun (110 rounds)
AA guns (2 cm FlaK 30)
6th U-boat Flotilla
(24 October 1938 – 31 December 1939)
2nd U-boat Flotilla
(1 January 1940 – 30 November 1941)
24th U-boat Flotilla<br(1 December 1941 – 31 March 1942)
21st U-boat Flotilla
(1 April 1942 – 30 November 1943)
4th U-boat Flotilla
(1 December 1943 – 28 February 1945)
5th U-boat Flotilla
(1 March 1945 – 5 May 1945)
|Identification codes:||M 20 675|
|Commanders:||Kptlt. Heinrich Liebe
Oblt.z.S. Ludo Kregelin
Oblt.z.S. Helmut Laubert
Oblt.z.S. Paul Sander
Oblt.z.S. Goske von Möllendorff
Oblt.z.S. Herbert Kühn
Krvkpt. Georg Peters
|Victories:||35 ships sunk for a total of 188,967 gross register tons (GRT)
One ship damaged for a total of 3,670 GRT
U-38 conducted eleven patrols, as part of several flotillas. During her career, she sank over 30 enemy vessels and damaged a further one. U-38 ranks as one of the most successful U-boats in World War II. She was scuttled west of Wesermünde (modern Bremerhaven) on 5 May 1945. Throughout the war, the U-Boat suffered no losses among her crew.
On 5 September 1939 U-38 stopped the French ship Pluvoise, examined her papers and released her. Pluvoise broadcast the event, which would warn others of the U-boat. Liebe was reprimanded.
The British steam freighter SS Manaar was sunk on 6 September 1939. U-38 opened fire on the freighter; fire was returned. This was the first time that a merchantman fired at a U-boat. U-38 sank the Manaar with torpedoes. As Manaar had fired at him, Liebe did not assist the survivors. Radio Officer James Turner remained at his post until the last moment. As he was leaving he found two Lascars, one badly injured. Turner rescued both men while under continuous fire from U-38, for this he was awarded the Empire Gallantry Medal.
On 11 September 1939, while flying the Irish tricolour, the Inverliffey was shelled and sunk. In spite of Captain William Trowsdale's protestation that they were Irish, Liebe said that they "were sorry" but they would sink Inverliffey as she was carrying petrol, which was contraband, to England. The crew took to the lifeboats. Inverliffey burned fiercely, endangering the lifeboats. At risk to herself, the German submarine approached, threw lines to the lifeboats and towed them to safety. As Captain Trowsdale's lifeboat was damaged, the occupants were allowed to board the U-boat. The captain did not have a lifebelt, so he was given one. U-38 stopped the American tanker R.G. Stewart and put Inverliffey's crew on board. Just two days earlier, Inver tankers transferred its ships from the Irish to the British registry.
After nearly two months in port, U-38 left Wilhelmshaven, again with Heinrich Liebe in command, on 12 November 1939. This second patrol was to see the boat operate in the waters northwest of Norway.
On 17 November 1939, Naval High Command (SKL) issued orders for U-38 and U-36 to scout the location for Basis Nord, a secret German naval base to be used for raids on allied shipping which was located off the Kola Peninsula and provided by the Soviet Union. The mission required coded messages to be flashed to Soviet naval vessels patrolling the area preceding a Soviet escort to the prospective base location.
U-36 never left the Norwegian Sea and was sunk by the British submarine HMS Salmon. U-38 rounded the North Cape uneventfully and arrived in Teriberka Bay by mid-afternoon on 26 November. Running silently into the bay, U-38 had to avoid being spotted by merchant vessels in order to help maintain the Soviet Union's attempted appearance of neutrality at that time. U-38's captain commented that, while in the area of the North Cape and the Kola Peninsula, he had observed thirty to forty targets and regrettably had been "harmless to [all] of them."
After completing the clandestine reconnaissance mission, U-38 returned to raiding duties and sank three ships, two British and one Greek. The British steam freighter SS Thomas Walton was sunk on 7 December. The Greek steam freighter SS Garoufalia was destroyed on 11 December, as was the British steam freighter Deptford on 13 December. After an operational period of four and a half weeks, U-38 returned to Wilhelmshaven on 16 December.
U-38 sank six ships. First sent to the bottom was the neutral Irish steam trawler ST Leukos on 9 March, with a single shell at point-blank range off Tory Island, all 11 crew were lost. The Leukos was fishing in the company of British trawlers; it has been speculated that she positioned herself between the surfacing U-boat and the fleeing British in the belief that her neutral markings would protect her. This event was followed by the sinking of the Danish motor freighters SS Argentina on 17 March and the SS Algier and SS Christiansborg on 21 March. The Norwegian motor freighter MV Cometa was sunk on 26 March. The sixth and final ship sunk during this third patrol was the Finnish steam freighter SS Signe on 2 April. After nearly six weeks on the high seas, U-38 returned to Wilhelmshaven on 5 April 1940.
U-38 left her home port of Wilhelmshaven with Heinrich Liebe in command on 8 April 1940. She would sweep the waters off Norway, supporting the occupation of that country by Nazi troops. During this patrol, U-38 reported problems with her torpedoes, after HMS Effingham was fired upon with no result. U-38 would return to port on 27 April.
There were two naval battles of Narvik on 10 and 13 April 1940. U-38 and U-65 were positioned at the entrance to the fjord. When the Royal Navy arrived, U-38 fired at HMS Valiant and at HMS Southampton missing both. In the second battle, U-38 fired at Effingham, but the torpedoes malfunctioned, (exploding prematurely).
For her fifth patrol, U-38 would again depart from Wilhelmshaven with Heinrich Liebe in command on 6 June 1940. She was to patrol the waters off southern Ireland. During this operation, Liebe would hit six ships, two of which were sailing in convoy at the time. On 14 June, U-38 sank the Greek steam freighter SS Mount Myrto. The next day, U-38 sank two ships, both sailing as part of the HX-47 convoy, sailing from Halifax to England. First sunk was the Canadian steam freighter SS Erik Boye, followed by the Norwegian motor tanker MV Italia. Five days later, on 20 June, the Swedish steam freighter SS Tilia Gorthon was torpedoed and sunk. The Belgian steam freighter SS Luxembourg was destroyed on 21 June, followed by the Greek steam freighter SS Neion the following day. After three weeks at sea, U-38 returned to Wilhelmshaven on 2 July.
During this patrol, U-38 was able to land Walter Simon, a Nazi agent, at Dingle Bay in Ireland on 12 June. Not realising that the passenger services of the Tralee and Dingle Light Railway had been closed fourteen months earlier, he asked when the next train to Dublin was. He was arrested and interned in the Curragh Camp for the duration of the war.
U-38 would depart Wilhelmshaven for the last time on 1 August 1940, again with Heinrich Liebe in command. On this month long patrol off the western coast of Ireland, U-38 would hit and sink three ships, all of which were in convoy at the time of attack. On 7 August the Egyptian liner SS Mohamed Ali El-Kebir was sunk while traveling with HX-61, from Halifax to Gibraltar, 320 died. The British steam freighter SS Llanfair was hit and sunk, travelling as part of SL-41 from Sierra Leone to England. The third and final ship hit on the sixth patrol of U-38 was the British steam freighter SS Har Zion, while travelling with the Convoy OB-225, from Liverpool to the United States. After four weeks at sea Liebe returned U-38 to her new home port of Lorient in France on 3 September 1940.
For her first patrol from Lorient and her seventh overall, U-38 would again be under the command of Heinrich Liebe. She departed on 25 September, for the Northwest Approaches. She would attack five ships on this patrol, sinking four of them. On 1 October, the British motor freighter MV Highland Patriot was torpedoed. After two weeks of no victories, U-38 was successful against the Greek steam freighter SS Aenos on 17 October, sailing as part of Convoy SC 7, from Sydney, Nova Scotia to England. The following day, the British steam freighter SS Carsbreck was damaged, but not sunk, while traveling with the SC-7 convoy from Sydney to Grimsby, England. On 19 October, two ships were hit, both sailing as part of the HX 79 convoy: the Dutch SS Bilderdijk and the British steam freighter SS Matheran. Following these victories, U-38 returned to Lorient on 24 October 1940.
U-38 would depart Lorient with Liebe in command once again on 18 December 1940. The eighth war patrol of her career would involve operations again in the Northwest Approaches. During this patrol, the submarine would hit and sink two ships. On 27 December, U-38 destroyed the British ship SS Waiotira, and on 31 December, she sank the Swedish motor freighter SS Valparaiso, sailing as part of the HX-97 convoy from Halifax to Glasgow. U-38 returned to port on 22 January 1941.
U-38 would spend two and a half months in port, before leaving for operations off the west coast of Africa on 9 April 1941. This would prove to be her most successful patrol, with the sinking of eight ships. On 4 May, the Swedish steam freighter SS Japan was torpedoed while traveling with Convoy OB-310 from England to the United States. The following day, the British motor freighter MV Queen Maud was hit and sunk. On 23 May, the Dutch motor freighter SS Berhala was sunk while traveling with the Convoy OB 318, from England to America. The British steam freighter SS Vulcain was torpedoed and sunk on 24 May. Six days later, on 29 May, the British steam freighter SS Tabaristan was another victim. The following day the destruction continued, the British steam freighter SS Empire Protector was sent to the bottom, as was the Norwegian steam freighter SS Rinda on the 31st. The eighth and final ship sunk during U-38's eighth patrol was the British cargo steamship SS Kingston Hill on 8 June. The boat then returned to Lorient on 29 June 1941, after spending eleven and a half weeks at sea.
For the first time in her career, U-38 would head to sea with a new commander, Kapitän zur See Heinrich Schuch. She left on 6 August, for a five-week patrol in the North Atlantic. During this time one ship was hit, the Panamanian steam freighter SS Longtanker on 18 August. U-38 returned to Lorient on 14 September 1941.
11th and 12th Patrols
U-38 would depart from Lorient for the last time on 15 October, again with Heinrich Schuch in command. Her eleventh patrol was to take place in the North Atlantic. However, during a period of five weeks, not a single ship was hit. U-38 traveled to the U-boat base in Bergen, Norway on 21 November. She would later depart Bergen on the 23rd and arrive in Stettin on 29 November.
Life after active duty
From December 1941 until November 1943, U-38 was used as a training boat in the 24th and 21st U-boat Flotillas. She was then used as a testing boat, until she was scuttled by her crew on 5 May 1945.
Summary of raiding history
|Date||Ship||Nationality||Tonnage||Fate and location|
|6 September 1939||Manaar||United Kingdom||7,242||Sunk at|
|11 September 1939||Inverliffey [notes 1]||United Kingdom||9,456||Sunk at|
|7 December 1939||Thomas Walton||United Kingdom||4,460||Sunk at|
|11 December 1939||Garoufalia||Greece||4,708||Sunk at|
|13 December 1939||Deptford||United Kingdom||4,101||Sunk at|
|9 March 1940||Leukos||Ireland||216||Sunk at|
|17 March 1940||Argentina||Denmark||5,375||Sunk at|
|21 March 1940||Algier||Denmark||1,654||Sunk at|
|21 March 1940||Christiansborg||Denmark||3,270||Sunk at|
|26 March 1940||Cometa||Norway||3,794||Sunk at|
|2 April 1940||Signe||Finland||1,540||Sunk at|
|14 June 1940||Mount Myrto||Greece||5,403||Sunk at|
|15 June 1940||Erik Boye||Canada||2,238||Sunk at|
|15 June 1940||Italia||Norway||9,973||Sunk at|
|20 June 1940||Tilia Gorthon||Sweden||1,776||Sunk at|
|21 June 1940||Luxembourg||Belgium||5,809||Sunk at|
|22 June 1940||Neion||Greece||5,154||Sunk at|
|7 August 1940||Mohamed Ali El-Kebir||United Kingdom||7,529||Sunk at|
|11 August 1940||Llanfair||United Kingdom||4,966||Sunk at|
|31 August 1940||Har Zion||United Kingdom||2,508||Sunk at|
|1 October 1940||Highland Patriot||United Kingdom||14,172||Sunk at|
|17 October 1940||Aenos||Greece||3,554||Sunk at|
|18 October 1940||Carsbreck||United Kingdom||3,670||Damaged at|
|19 October 1940||Bilderdijk||Netherlands||6,856||Sunk at|
|19 October 1940||Matheran||United Kingdom||7,653||Sunk at|
|27 December 1940||Waiotira||United Kingdom||12,823||Sunk at|
|31 December 1940||Valparaiso||Sweden||3,760||Sunk at|
|4 May 1941||Japan||Sweden||5,230||Sunk at|
|5 May 1940||Queen Maud||United Kingdom||4,976||Sunk at|
|23 May 1940||Berhala||Netherlands||6,622||Sunk at|
|24 May 1941||Vulcain||United Kingdom||4,362||Sunk at|
|29 May 1941||Tabaristan||United Kingdom||6,251||Sunk at|
|30 May 1941||Empire Protector||United Kingdom||6,181||Sunk at|
|31 May 1941||Rinda||Norway||6,029||Sunk at|
|8 June 1941||Kingston Hill||United Kingdom||7,628||Sunk at|
|18 August 1941||Longtaker||Panama||1,700||Sunk at|
- While the Inverliffey was a British vessel, she was flying the flag of Ireland the day that she was sunk.
- [http://[dead link]/ops/boat.cgi?boat=38 "U-38 Type IXA"]. [dead link]. Retrieved 1 April 2010.[dead link]
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- "Type IX U-Boat". German U-boat. Uboataces.com. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
- Campbell, John Naval Weapons of World War Two ISBN 0-87021-459-4 pp.248&249
- Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-38". WWII U-boat successes. Uboat.net. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
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- Blair, page 82.
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- "Dáil Éireann – Volume 77". Sinking of Ships. Parliamentary Debates. 27 September 1939. Retrieved 21 August 2009.
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- Philbin III (1994) p. 95
- Philbin III (1994) p. 96
- Philbin III (1994) p. 97
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- Boyle, Sean, Leukos blown out of the water Journal of the Maritime Institute of Ireland Spring 1987
- "Steam Trawler Leukos". Remember. Maritime Institute of Ireland. Retrieved 28 November 2011.
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- Blair, page 155
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- Helgason, Guðmundur. "Patrol info for U-38 (Sixth patrol)". U-boat patrols. Uboat.net. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
- Helgason, Guðmundur. "Patrol info for U-38 (Seventh patrol)". U-boat patrols. Uboat.net. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
- Helgason, Guðmundur. "Patrol info for U-38 (Eighth patrol)". U-boat patrols. Uboat.net. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
- Helgason, Guðmundur. "Patrol info for U-38 (Ninth patrol)". U-boat patrols. Uboat.net. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
- Helgason, Guðmundur. "Patrol info for U-38 (Tenth patrol)". U-boat patrols. Uboat.net. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
- Helgason, Guðmundur. "Patrol info for U-38 (Eleventh patrol)". U-boat patrols. Uboat.net. Retrieved 2 April 2010.
- Philbin III, Tobias R., The Lure of Neptune: German-Soviet Naval Collaboration and Ambitions, 1919 – 1941, University of South Carolina Press, 1994, ISBN 0-87249-992-8
- Blair, Clay (1996). Hitler's U-Boat War. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-84076-2.
- u-boot-archiv.de webpage for U-38 (German)