German submarine U-459
|Career (Nazi Germany)|
|Ordered:||14 May 1940|
|Builder:||Deutsche Werke, Kiel|
|Laid down:||22 November 1940|
|Launched:||13 September 1941|
|Commissioned:||15 November 1941|
|Fate:||Sunk, 24 July 1943|
|General characteristics |
|Class and type:||German Type XIV submarine|
|Displacement:||1,688 t (1,661 long tons) surfaced
1,932 t (1,901 long tons) submerged
|Length:||67.1 m (220 ft 2 in) o/a
48.51 m (159 ft 2 in) pressure hull
|Beam:||9.35 m (30 ft 8 in) o/a
4.9 m (16 ft 1 in) pressure hull
|Height:||11.7 m (38 ft 5 in)|
|Draft:||6.51 m (21 ft 4 in)|
|Propulsion:||2 × Germaniawerft F46 supercharged 6-cylinder diesel engines, 3,200 hp (2,400 kW)
2 × SSW Gu343/388-8 double-acting electric motors 750 hp (560 kW)
|Speed:||14.9 knots (27.6 km/h; 17.1 mph) surfaced
6.2 knots (11.5 km/h; 7.1 mph) submerged
|Range:||12,350 nmi (22,870 km; 14,210 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph) surfaced
55 nautical miles (102 km; 63 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph) submerged
|Test depth:||240 m (790 ft)|
|Part of:||4th U-boat Flotilla
(15 November 1941–31 March 1942)
10th U-boat Flotilla
(1 April–31 October 1942)
12th U-boat Flotilla
(1 November 1942–24 July 1943)
|Commanders:||K.Kapt. Georg von Wilamowitz-Möllendorf
(15 November 1941–24 July 1943)
|Operations:||1st patrol: 29 March–15 May 1942
2nd patrol: 6 June–19 July 1942
3rd patrol: 18 August–4 November 1942
4th patrol: 20 December 1942–7 March 1943
5th patrol: 20 April–3 June 1943
6th patrol: 22–24 July 1943
Her keel was laid down on 22 November 1940 by Deutsche Werke in Kiel as yard number 290. The submarine was launched on 13 September 1941 and commissioned on 15 November, with Kapitänleutnant Georg von Wilamowitz-Möllendorff in command; he remained in charge until the boat was lost, receiving promotion to Korvettenkapitän in the process.
U-459 conducted six patrols, but as a supply boat, she avoided combat. The submarine initially served in the 4th U-boat Flotilla, for training, before moving on to the 10th (in April 1942) and the 12th flotillas (in November of the same year), for operations.
1st and 2nd patrols
Having moved from Kiel to Helgoland U-459 set-off for occupied France, arriving in St. Nazaire on 15 May 1942, afer traversing the north-central Atlantic. Her captain, von Wilamowitz-Möllendorf, was at 48, one of the oldest skippers at the time.
Her second patrol began on 6 June 1942. It was at about this time that von Wilamowitz-Möllendorf was promoted to Korvettenkapitän.
3rd and 4th patrols
Her third foray saw the boat sail into the south Atlantic, as far as Namibia. She departed St. Nazaire on 18 August 1942 and returned on 4 November.
Her fourth patrol was her longest, from 20 December 1942 to 7 March 1943, a total of 78 days. She started in St. Nazaire and finished in Bordeaux. This voyage included sailing toward Cameroon, the boat's nearest position to that country was reached on 18 January 1943.
5th and 6th patrols and loss
Her fifth patrol began when she left Bordeaux on 20 April 1943. On 30 May, she shot down a British Whitley aircraft. She was also attacked, on the same day, by an RAF Liberator with a total of ten depth charges. The boat was not damaged, the aircraft was.
She returned to her French base on 30 May.
Having left Bordeaux on 22 July 1943, U-459 was attacked by two British Wellington aircraft of No. 172 Squadron RAF near Cape Ortegal, Spain on 24 July. The boat shot one of the Wellingtons down, but 19 submarine crewmen were killed and she was so badly damaged by this attack that she had to be scuttled. 41 of her crew survived to be taken prisoner.
U-459 took part in one wolfpack, namely.
- Eisbär (25 August 1942 - 1 September 1942)
- Busch, Rainer; Röll, Hans-Joachim (1999). Deutsche U-Boot-Verluste von September 1939 bis Mai 1945. Der U-Boot-Krieg (in German) IV (Hamburg, Berlin, Bonn: Mittler). ISBN 3-8132-0514-2.
- Gröner, Erich (1985). U-Boote, Hilfskreuzer, Minenschiffe, Netzleger, Sperrbrecher. Die deutschen Kriegsschiffe 1815–1945 (in German) III (Koblenz: Bernard & Graefe). ISBN 3-7637-4802-4.
- Kemp, Paul (1999). U-Boats Destroyed - German Submarine Losses in the World Wars. London: Arms & Armour. ISBN 1-85409-515-3.
- Helgason, Guðmundur. "The Type XIV boat U-459". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 2009-12-02.