German submarine U-559
|Ordered:||16 October 1939|
|Builder:||Blohm & Voss, Hamburg|
|Laid down:||1 February 1940|
|Launched:||8 January 1941|
|Commissioned:||27 February 1941|
|Fate:||Sunk by depth charges, 30 October 1942|
|Type:||Type VIIC submarine|
|Displacement:||769 tonnes (757 long tons) surfaced
871 t (857 long tons) submerged
|Length:||67.1 m (220 ft 2 in) o/a
50.5 m (165 ft 8 in) pressure hull
|Beam:||6.2 m (20 ft 4 in) o/a
4.7 m (15 ft 5 in) pressure hull
|Draft:||4.74 m (15 ft 7 in)|
|Propulsion:||2 × supercharged Germaniawerft 6-cylinder 4-stroke F46 diesel engines, totalling 2,800–3,200 bhp (2,100–2,400 kW). Max rpm: 470-490
2 × electric motors, totalling 750 shp (560 kW) and max rpm: 296
|Speed:||17.7 knots (32.8 km/h; 20.4 mph) surfaced
7.6 knots (14.1 km/h; 8.7 mph) submerged
|Range:||15,170 km (8,190 nmi) at 10 kn (19 km/h) surfaced
150 km (81 nmi) at 4 kn (7.4 km/h) submerged
|Test depth:||230 m (750 ft)
Crush depth: 250–295 m (820–968 ft)
|Complement:||44–52 officers and ratings|
|Armament:||5 × 53.3 cm (21 in) torpedo tubes (four bow, one stern)
14 × G7e torpedoes or 26 TMA mines
1 × 8.8 cm (3.46 in) deck gun (220 rounds)
Various AA guns
|Part of:||1st U-boat Flotilla
(27 February–31 October 1941)
23rd U-boat Flotilla
(1 November 1941–14 April 1942)
29th U-boat Flotilla
(15 April–30 October 1942)
|Commanders:||Kptlt. Hans Heidtmann
(February 1941–October 1942)
|Operations:||1st patrol: 4 June–5 July 1941
2nd patrol: 26 July–22 August 1941
3rd patrol: 20 September–20 October 1941
4th patrol: 24 November–4 December 1941
5th patrol: 8–31 December 1941
6th patrol: 16–26 February 1942
7th patrol: 4–21 March 1942
8th patrol: 18 May–22 June 1942
9th patrol: 29 August–21 September 1942
10th patrol: 29 September–30 October 1942
Four commercial ships sunk (13,482 GRT)
one commercial ship damaged (5,917 GRT)
Laid down on 1 February 1940 at the Blohm & Voss shipyards in Hamburg as "Baunummer 535" ("Yard number 535"), she was launched on 8 January 1941 and commissioned on 27 February under Kapitänleutnant Hans Heidtmann.
She began her service career with the 1st U-boat Flotilla, undergoing training before being declared operational on 1 June 1941. She moved to the 29th U-boat Flotilla on 15 April 1942. She sank five ships but is perhaps best remembered for an incident during her sinking in the Mediterranean Sea in 1942, in which British sailors seized cryptographic material from U-559. This material was extremely valuable in breaking the U-boat Enigma cipher.
1st and 2nd patrols
Her second sortie met with success when she torpedoed and sank the Alva about 600 nautical miles (1,100 km; 690 mi) west of Ushant. She returned to her French base on 22 August 1941.
For her third patrol, beginning on 20 September, she was assigned to the 'Goeben' group, which were the first U-boats to enter the Mediterranean in World War II through the heavily defended Strait of Gibraltar. She reached Salamis in Greece, after having first investigated the Libyan/Egyptian border.
On her fourth patrol, she torpedoed and sank the Australian sloop HMAS Parramatta off the Libyan coast; although most survivors were picked up by other ships, three men managed to reach dry land where they were rescued by advancing British troops.
5th, 6th and 7th patrols
On her fifth patrol, which began on 8 December 1941, the boat sank SS Shuntien on the 23rd. Shuntien carried 850 – 1,100 German and Italian prisoners of war. Between 800 and 1,000 people were killed, including at least 700 PoWs.
Her sixth and seventh patrols were both from Salamis to the area of the Libyan coast. They were without success.
8th and 9th patrols
Her ninth patrol, however, was without success.
It was her own demise that made her most famous. At dawn on 30 October 1942, U-559 was spotted by a Royal Air Force Sunderland patrol aircraft from No. 47 Squadron 70 miles north of the Nile Delta. The destroyer HMS Hero was alerted by radio and steamed to intercept her, while the destroyers HMS Petard, Pakenham, Dulverton and Hurworth sailed from Port Said. U-559 detected Hero's approach and dived. The destroyer group hunted for the U-boat for 16 hours, constantly depth charging. After dark, U-559, with a cracked pressure hull, unable to maintain level trim and four of her crew dead from explosions and flooding, was forced to the surface. She was close to Petard, which immediately opened fire with her 20 mm Oerlikons.
The German crew hurriedly scrambled overboard without destroying their codebooks or Enigma machine and, crucially, having failed to open sea-water vents to properly scuttle the U-boat. Three British sailors, Lieutenant Anthony Fasson, Able Seaman Colin Grazier and NAAFI canteen assistant Tommy Brown, then boarded the abandoned submarine. There are differing reports as to how the three British men boarded the U-boat. Some accounts say that they "swam naked" (such as that of Kahn), to U-559 but Sebag-Montefiore states that they either leapt from Petard or, in Brown's case, from a whaler, which was sinking, but slowly. They retrieved the U-boat's Enigma machine and the codebooks with all current settings for the U-boat Enigma key. Two German crew members, rescued from the sea, watched this material being loaded into Petard's whaler but were dissuaded from interfering by an armed guard. Grazier and Fasson were inside the boat, attempting to get out, when the U-boat foundered; both drowned.
Grazier and Fasson were awarded the George Cross posthumously, Brown was awarded the George Medal. The Victoria Cross was considered but not awarded, for the ostensible reason that their bravery was not "in the face of the enemy". Another consideration may have been that a Victoria Cross would have drawn unwanted attention to the U-boat capture from German Intelligence. It was also discovered that Brown had lied about his age in order to enlist, and was only 16 years old, making him the youngest recipient of the George Medal. He was discharged and returned home to North Shields, only to die two years later attempting to rescue his younger sister from a house fire.
The Enigma material they retrieved was immensely valuable to the code-breakers at Bletchley Park, who had been unable to read U-boat Enigma for nine months. The captured material allowed them to read the cyphers for several weeks, and to break U-boat Enigma thereafter.
|19 August 1941||SS Aguila||United Kingdom||3,255||Sunk|
|27 November 1941||HMAS Parramatta||Royal Australian Navy||1,060||Sunk|
|23 December 1941||SS Shuntien||United Kingdom||3,059||Sunk|
|26 December 1941||SS Warszawa||Poland||2,487||Sunk|
|10 June 1942||MV Athene||Norway||4,681||Sunk|
|10 June 1942||SS Brambleleaf||United Kingdom||5,917||Damaged|
- Kemp, Paul: U-Boats Destroyed - German Submarine Losses in the World Wars, 1997, Arms & Armour, ISBN 1-85409-515-3, p. 94.
- "The Type VIIC boat U-559 - German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net". www.uboat.net. Retrieved 2009-08-26.
- "War Patrols by German U-boat U-559 - Boats - uboat.net". www.uboat.net. Retrieved 2009-08-26.
- Paterson, Lawrence - U-Boats in the Mediterranean 1941-1944, 2007, Chatham Publishing, ISBN 13: 9781861762900, p. 43.
- "Ships hit by U-55 - U-boat Successes - German U-boats". uboat.net. Retrieved 30 October 2012.
- West, Nigel (1986). GCHQ : The Secret Wireless War 1900-1986 (1987 ed.). Coronet. pp. 270–271. ISBN 0-340-41197-X.
- Kemp, Paul: U-Boats Destroyed, German submarine Losses in the World Wars, 1997. p. 94. Arms and Armour. ISBN 1-85409-515-3
- Kahn, David Seizing The Enigma: The Race to Break The German U-boat Codes, 1939-1943. 1991. p. 224. Souvenir Press ISBN 0-285-63066-0
- Sebag-Montefiore, Hugh (2001). Enigma; the battle for the Code. London: Phoenix. pp. 259–262. ISBN 0-7538-1130-8.
- Kahn, p. 226.
- West, Nigel (1986). GCHQ : The Secret Wireless War 1900-1986 (1987 ed.). Coronet. p. 272. ISBN 0-340-41197-X.
- Sharpe, Peter, U-Boat Fact File, Midland Publishing, Great Britain: 1998. ISBN 1-85780-072-9.
- Kahn, David; Seizing the Enigma: The Race to Break the German U-Boats Codes, 1939-1943, (1991)