German submarine U-594

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Career (Nazi Germany)
Name: U-594
Ordered: 16 January 1940
Builder: Blohm & Voss, Hamburg
Yard number: 570
Laid down: 17 December 1940
Launched: 3 September 1941
Commissioned: 30 October 1941
Fate: Sunk 4 June 1943 in the North Atlantic in position 35°55′N 09°25′W / 35.917°N 9.417°W / 35.917; -9.417, by depth charges from RAF Hudson.
General characteristics [1]
Class and type: Type VIIC submarine
Displacement: 769 tonnes (757 long tons) surfaced
871 t (857 long tons) submerged
Length: 67.1 m (220 ft 2 in) o/a
50.5 m (165 ft 8 in) pressure hull
Beam: 6.2 m (20 ft 4 in) o/a
4.7 m (15 ft 5 in) pressure hull
Height: 9.6 m (31 ft 6 in)
Draft: 4.74 m (15 ft 7 in)
Propulsion: 2 × supercharged Germaniawerft 6-cylinder 4-stroke F46 diesel engines, totalling 2,800–3,200 bhp (2,100–2,400 kW). Max rpm: 470-490
2 × BBC GG UB 720/8 electric motors, totalling 750 shp (560 kW) and max rpm: 296
Speed: 17.7 knots (32.8 km/h; 20.4 mph) surfaced
7.6 knots (14.1 km/h; 8.7 mph) submerged
Range: 8,500 nmi (15,700 km; 9,800 mi) at 10 kn (19 km/h; 12 mph) surfaced
80 nmi (150 km; 92 mi) at 4 kn (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph) submerged
Test depth: 230 m (750 ft)
Crush depth: 250–295 m (820–968 ft)
Complement: 44–52 officers & ratings
Armament:
Service record[2]
Part of: 8th U-boat Flotilla
(2 January 1942 - 30 November 1942) - Training
1st U-boat Flotilla
(1 December 1942 - 1 March 1944)
Commanders: Kptlt. Dietrich Hoffmann
(2 January - 12 September 1942)
Operations: 1st patrol:
14 March 1942 - 30 March 1942
2nd patrol:
11 April - 25 June 1942
3rd patrol:
4 August - 28 September 1942
4th patrol:
30 December 1942 - 18 February 1943
5th patrol:
23 March - 14 April 1943
6th patrol:
23 May - 4 June 1943
Victories: 2 merchant ships sunk (14,390 GRT)

German submarine U-594 was a Type VIIC U-boat built for Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine for service during World War II. She was laid down on 17 December 1940 by Blohm & Voss, Hamburg as yard number 570, launched on 3 September 1941 and commissioned on 30 October 1941 under Kapitänleutnant Dietrich Hoffmann.

Service History[edit]

The boat's career began with training at 8th U-boat Flotilla on 30 October 1941, followed by active service on 1 December 1942 as part of the 1st Flotilla for the remainder of her service.

In 6 patrols she sank 2 merchant ships, for a total of 14,390 gross register tons (GRT).

Wolf packs[edit]

U-594 took part in six wolfpacks, namely

  • Blücher (14–28 August 1942)
  • Stier (29 August – 2 September 1942)
  • Vorwärts (2–17 September 1942)
  • Jaguar (10–31 January 1943)
  • Pfeil (1–9 February 1943)
  • Löwenherz (1–10 April 1943)

Convoy ON 127[edit]

The convoy ON 127, westbound from the UK to New York, assembled in the North Channel during 5 September 1942. The convoy comprised 32 ships, many of them oil tankers in ballast. The ocean escort, C4, was largely Canadian.

Soon after sunset the convoy set off in eight columns of four. 600 miles out into the Atlantic Wolf Pack Vorwärts waited in ambush. Of the 13 U-boats, very few of their commanders had combat experience or success to their name; Friedrich Mumm in U-594 was a complete novice.

Initial contact came on the evening of 9 September 1942, and by this time Vorwärts had been reinforced with additional boats from Stier. The weather was fine with good visibility but the convoy escorts had been forewarned by the Admiralty about the presence of the enemy.

On 12 September, both U-407 and U-594 launched torpedoes unsuccessfully that night. U-594 eventually sank the straggling 6,131 GRT American-owned Panamanian-flagged steamer Stone Street with a single torpedo which struck the engine room on the port side.

When U-594 surfaced she accidentally capsized the Stone Street’s lifeboat, but the men were taken aboard, questioned and provided with supplies of whiskey and food, then released; except for the master who was retained as a POW.

Fate[edit]

U-594 was sunk on 4 June 1943 in the North Atlantic in position 35°55′N 09°25′W / 35.917°N 9.417°W / 35.917; -9.417, by depth charges from a RAF Hudson bomber. All hands were lost.

Summary of Raiding Career[edit]

Date Name Nationality Tonnage
(GRT)
Fate[3]
13 September 1942 Stone Street  Panama 6,131 Sunk
26 January 1943 Kollbjørg  Norway 8,259 Sunk

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gröner 1985, pp. 72-74.
  2. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "The Type VIIC boat U-594". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 9 August 2014. 
  3. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-594". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 9 August 2014. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Busch, Rainer; Röll, Hans-Joachim (1999). Deutsche U-Boot-Verluste von September 1939 bis Mai 1945. Der U-Boot-Krieg (in German) IV (Hamburg, Berlin, Bonn: Mittler). ISBN 3-8132-0514-2. 
  • Gröner, Erich (1985). U-Boote, Hilfskreuzer, Minenschiffe, Netzleger, Sperrbrecher. Die deutschen Kriegsschiffe 1815-1945 (in German) III (Koblenz: Bernard & Graefe). ISBN 3-7637-4802-4. 
  • Edwards, Bernard (1996). Dönitz and the Wolf Packs - The U-boats at War. pp. 105, 110. ISBN 0-304-35203-9. 
  • Sharpe, Peter (1998). U-Boat Fact File. Great Britain: Midland Publishing. ISBN 1-85780-072-9. 

External links[edit]