German submarine U-74 (1940)

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For other ships of the same name, see German submarine U-74.
Career (Nazi Germany)
Name: U-74
Ordered: 2 June 1938
Builder: Bremer Vulkan of Bremen-Vegesack
Cost: 4,760,000 Reichsmark
Yard number: 2
Laid down: 5 November 1939
Launched: 31 August 1940
Commissioned: 31 October 1940
Fate: Sunk, 2 May 1942 by British warships[1]
General characteristics
Class & type: Type VIIB U-boat
Displacement: 753 t (741 long tons) surfaced
857 t (843 long tons) submerged[2]
Length: 66.5 m (218 ftin) (o/a)
48.8 m (160 ft 1 in) (pressure hull)[2]
Beam: 6.2 m (20 ft 4 in)
4.7 m (15 ft 5 in) (pressure hull)[2]
Draught: 4.74 m (15 ft 7 in)[2]
Propulsion: 2 × supercharged MAN, 6 cylinder, 4-stroke M 6 V 40/46 diesel engines[3] totalling 2,800–3,200 shp (2,100–2,400 kW). Max rpm: 470-490 surfaced[4]
2 × BBC GG UB 720/8 electric motors[3] with 750 shp (560 kW) for 295 rpm submerged[5]
Speed: 17.9 knots (33.2 km/h; 20.6 mph) surfaced
8 knots (15 km/h; 9.2 mph)[2]
Range: 9,700 nmi (18,000 km; 11,200 mi) at 10 knots surfaced
90 nautical miles (170 km; 100 mi) at 4 knots submerged[6]
Test depth: 230 m (750 ft). Calculated crush depth: 250–295 m (820–968 ft)
Boats & landing
craft carried:
1 inflatable rubber boat[6]
Complement: 4 officers, 40 to 56 enlisted[6]
Sensors and
processing systems:
FuMO 61 Hohentwiel U
Armament:
Service record
Part of: 7th U-boat Flotilla
(31 October 1940–31 January 1941)
7th U-boat Flotilla
(1 February 1941–30 November 1941)
29th U-boat Flotilla
(1 December 1941–2 May 1942)
Commanders: Kptlt. Eitel-Fredrich Kentrat
(31 October 1940–23 March 1942)
Oblt.z.S. Karl Frederich
(24 March–2 May 1942)
Operations: Eight:
1st patrol:
5 March–11 April 1941
2nd patrol:
8–30 May 1941
3rd patrol:
5 July–12 August 1941
4th patrol:
8–26 September 1941
5th patrol:
22 October–12 November 1941
6th patrol:
9 –24 December 1941
7th patrol:
27 December 1941–8 January 1942
8th patrol:
23 April–2 May 1942
Victories: Four ships sunk (24,694 GRT);
one warship sunk - 925 tons;
one ship damaged – 123 GRT
one auxiliary warship damaged – 11,402 GRT

German submarine U-74 was a Type VIIB U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II.

Her keel was laid down on 5 November 1939, by Bremer Vulkan of Bremen-Vegesack, Germany as yard number 2. She was launched on 31 August 1940 and commissioned on 31 October, with Kapitänleutnant (Kptlt.) Eitel-Friedrich Kentrat in command until March 1942, when he was succeeded by Oberleutnant zur See (Oblt.z.S.) Karl Friederich, who remained in charge until the U-boat's loss.[7]

Operational history[edit]

U-74 conducted eight patrols, sinking four ships totalling 25,619 tons and damaging two others, totalling 11,525 tons.[7] She was a member of three wolfpacks.

1st patrol[edit]

Having first moved from Kiel to the German controlled island of Helgoland (sometimes called 'Heligoland') and Bergen in Norway, U-74 departed for her first patrol on 5 March 1941. Her route took her through the gap between Iceland and the Faroe Islands and into the Atlantic Ocean, although one source - Uboat.net - gives her position as off the Belgian coast on 21 March. She sank the Leonidas Z. Canbamis on 3 April southwest of Iceland, followed by damage to the armed merchant cruiser HMS Worcestershire close-by on the same day. The auxiliary warship was fortunate because Kentrat, in U-74, had run out of torpedoes.[8]

U-74 docked in St. Nazaire in occupied France on 11 April.

2nd patrol[edit]

The boat's second foray was in a northwesterly direction, toward Greenland. She was attacked by two British warships on 21 May 1941; the vessels were the corvette HMS Verbena and the destroyer HMS Burnham. A mix of gunfire and depth charges (about 125 of them), were used. The damage inflicted was such that U-74 was obliged to return to France, but to Lorient, on the 30th.

U-74 '​s involvement with the Bismarck[edit]

On 24 May 1941, the German battleship Bismarck and the heavy cruiser Prinz Eugen sank the British battlecruiser HMS Hood and damaged the accompanying battleship HMS Prince of Wales, beginning a three-day hunt that would involve nearly a hundred ships.[9]

That concentration of ships was a very attractive set of targets; Kentrat was ordered to attack the British forces in this area. In the evening U-74 dived in order to listen for contact and detected another U-boat. She surfaced; a hundred meters away, another U-boat appeared—U-556, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Wohlfarth.

Earlier, Flottenchef Admiral Lütjens requested that Befehlshaber der Unterseeboote (Commander-in-Chief for Submarines, Karl Dönitz) provide a U-boat to recover Bismarck '​s war diary. BdU had given the order to Wohlfarth, but U-556 was both out of torpedoes and very low on fuel. Using a megaphone, Wohlfarth now passed the order on to Kentrat. He accepted and proceeded toward Bismarck '​s last known position.[9]

By dawn on 27 May, Bismarck was crippled and under fire from the battleships HMS Rodney and HMS King George V and the cruisers HMS Norfolk and HMS Dorsetshire. It was clear to her crew that she would not survive.

At 10:36 U-74 heard sinking sounds but Kentrat could not determine whether it was Bismarck or a British ship. He came to periscope depth and saw battleships and cruisers directly in front of him. He tried to maneuver into an attack position, but the weather was too bad and the seas too high to remain at periscope depth or to fire a torpedo. Wreckage and yellow life-jackets were visible.[9]

After the British ships left, Kentrat surfaced amid debris and dead bodies. The sounds they had heard that morning was Bismarck '​s destruction. They searched but they could find no one alive until that evening when they came across a raft carrying three sailors, Georg Herzog, Otto Höntzsch, and Herbert Manthey.[9] U-74 searched for another day but found no one else alive and was ordered to return to Lorient. On the return trip, the three survivors recovered from their shock and gave the first statements of Bismarck '​s loss.

3rd patrol[edit]

For her third sortie, U-74 sank the Kumasian on 5 August 1941 west of Ireland. She returned to St. Nazaire on the 12th.

4th patrol[edit]

Departing St. Nazaire on 8 September 1941, the boat HMCS Levis about 120 nautical miles (220 km; 140 mi) east of Cape Farewell (Greenland)[10] on 19 September 1941. This success was followed the next day when she sank the Catapult Armed Merchantman SS Empire Burton.[11]

5th patrol[edit]

On 7 November 1941 U-74 sank the MV Nottingham 550 nautical miles (1,020 km) southeast of Cape Farewell. This ship was on her maiden voyage, which was from Glasgow to New York. There were no survivors. The U-boat returned to St. Nazaire for the last time on 12 November 1941.

6th patrol[edit]

U-74 '​s next patrol was into the Mediterranean. Leaving St. Nazaire on 9 December 1941, she had slipped past the heavily defended Straits of Gibraltar by the 16th. She entered La Spezia in Italy on 24 December.

7th patrol[edit]

The German submarine's first patrol in new surroundings was between Sicily and the Italian mainland and toward the British controlled port of Alexandria, which was reached on 3 January 1942. She returned to La Spezia on the 8th.

8th patrol and loss[edit]

Having been ordered to operate against Allied aircraft carriers at the western end of the Mediterranean, U-74 was diverted to search for U-556 (which had been damaged in an air attack), when she was bombed by a Lockheed Hudson of No. 233 Squadron RAF on 1 May 1942. That evening, she also had torpedoes fired at her by the British submarine HMS Unbroken off the southeastern Spanish coast. Both attacks were unsuccessful.

U-74 was detected and sunk by depth charges and 'Hedgehog' from the British destroyers HMS Wishart and HMS Wrestler east southeast of Cartagena in Spain on 2 May 1942.

47 men died; there were no survivors.

Wolf Packs[edit]

U-74 took part in 3 wolfpacks, namely.

  • West (13 May 1941 - 22 May 1941)
  • Brandenburg (15 Sep 1941 - 20 Sep 1941)
  • Raubritter (1 Nov 1941 - 6 Nov 1941)

Previously recorded fate[edit]

U-74 was sunk by the British destroyers HMS Wishart and HMS Wrestler and a PBY Catalina of 202 Squadron east southeast of Cartagena in Spain on 2 May 1942.

Summary of Raiding Career[edit]

Date Ship Nationality Tonnage Fate[12]
11 March 1941 Frodi  Iceland 123 Damaged
3 April 1941 HMS Worcestershire  Royal Navy 11,402 Damaged
3 April 1941 Leonidas Z. Cambanis  Greece 4,274 Sunk
5 August 1941 Kumasian  United Kingdom 4,922 Sunk
19 September 1941 HMCS Lévis  Royal Canadian Navy 925 Sunk
20 September 1941 SS Empire Burton  United Kingdom 6,966 Sunk
7 November 1941 Nottingham  United Kingdom 8,532 Sunk

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ Kemp, Paul: U-Boats Destroyed, German Submarine Losses in the World Wars. 1997. pp. 81-82. Arms and Armour. ISBN 1-85409-515-3
  2. ^ a b c d e Gröner 1985, p. 71.
  3. ^ a b Gröner, p. 74.
  4. ^ Gröner, p. 71.
  5. ^ Gröner 1990, p. 71.
  6. ^ a b c Gröner 1985, p. 74.
  7. ^ a b "The Type VIIB boat U-74 - German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net". www.uboat.net. Retrieved 2010-01-08. 
  8. ^ Fairbank White, David (2006). Bitter Ocean – The dramatic story of the Battle of the Atlantic 1939–1945. Headline Publishing Group. p. 108. ISBN 9-780-7553-1089-0. 
  9. ^ a b c d "U-74 and the Bismarck tragedy". www.uboat.net. Retrieved 2010-01-08. 
  10. ^ The Times Atlas of the World (3rd ed.). 1995. p. 55. ISBN 0-7230-0809-4. 
  11. ^ "Empire Burton (Catapult armed merchant) - Ships hit by U-boats - uboat.net". www.uboat.net. Retrieved 2010-01-08. 
  12. ^ Ships hit by U-74 - U-boat Successes - German U-boats - uboat.net
Bibliography
  • Busch, Rainer; Röll, Hans-Joachim (1999). Deutsche U-Boot-Verluste von September 1939 bis Mai 1945. Der U-Boot-Krieg (in German) IV (Hamburg, Berlin, Bonn: Mittler). ISBN 3-8132-0514-2. 
  • Gröner, Erich (1985). U-Boote, Hilfskreuzer, Minenschiffe, Netzleger, Sperrbrecher. Die deutschen Kriegsschiffe 1815-1945 (in German) III (Koblenz: Bernard & Graefe). ISBN 3-7637-4802-4. 
  • Gröner, Erich (1990). German Warships, 1815-1945. Conway Maritime Press. 

External links[edit]


Coordinates: 37°32′N 0°10′E / 37.533°N 0.167°E / 37.533; 0.167