German submarine U-331

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Career
Name: U-331
Ordered: 23 September 1939
Builder: Nordseewerke, Emden
Yard number: 203
Laid down: 26 January 1940
Launched: 20 December 1940
Commissioned: 31 March 1941
Fate: Sunk, 17 November 1942
General characteristics
Type: Type VIIC submarine
Displacement: 769 tonnes (757 long tons) surfaced
871 t (857 long tons) submerged
Length: 67.1 m (220 ft 2 in) o/a
50.5 m (165 ft 8 in) pressure hull
Beam: 6.2 m (20 ft 4 in) o/a
4.7 m (15 ft 5 in) pressure hull
Draft: 4.74 m (15 ft 7 in)
Propulsion: 2 × supercharged Germaniawerft 6-cylinder 4-stroke F46 diesel engines, totalling 2,800–3,200 bhp (2,100–2,400 kW). Max rpm: 470-490
2 × electric motors, totalling 750 shp (560 kW) and max rpm: 296.
Speed: 17.7 knots (32.8 km/h; 20.4 mph) surfaced
7.6 knots (14.1 km/h; 8.7 mph) submerged
Range: 15,170 km (8,190 nmi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph) surfaced
150 km (81 nmi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph) submerged
Test depth: 230 m (750 ft)
Crush depth: 250–295 m (820–968 ft)
Complement: 44–52 officers and ratings
Armament: 4 × 53.3 cm (21 in) bow torpedo tubes
14 × G7e torpedoes or 26 TMA mines
1 × 8.8 cm (3.46 in) deck gun (220 rounds)
Various AA guns
Service record[1][2]
Part of: 1st U-boat Flotilla
(31 March–14 October 1941)
23rd U-boat Flotilla
(15 October 1941–14 April 1942)
29th U-boat Flotilla
(15 April–17 November 1942)
Commanders: Kptlt. Hans-Diedrich von Tiesenhausen
(31 March 1941–17 November 1942)
Operations: 1st patrol: 2 July–19 August 1941
2nd patrol: 24 September–11 October 1941
3rd patrol: 12 November–3 December 1941
4th patrol: 14 January–28 February 1942
5th patrol: 4–19 April 1942
6th patrol: 9–21 May 1942
7th patrol: 25 May–15 June 1942
8th patrol: 5–10 August 1942
9th patrol: 12 August–19 September 1942
10th patrol: 7–17 November 1942
Victories: 1 auxiliary warship sunk (9,135 GRT)
1 warship sunk (31,100 GRT)
1 warship damaged (372 GRT)

German submarine U-331 was a Type VIIC U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II.

The submarine was laid down on 26 January 1940 at the Nordseewerke yard at Emden, launched on 20 December 1940, and commissioned on 31 March 1941 under the command of Oberleutnant zur See Freiherr Hans-Diedrich von Tiesenhausen. She would ultimately be tracked by the RAF and crippled before being destroyed by the Royal Navy Fleet Air Arm in late 1942 with the loss of most of her crew.

Service history[edit]

1st patrol[edit]

U-331's first patrol took her from Kiel in Germany on 2 July 1941, out into the mid-Atlantic, before arriving at Lorient in France on 19 August.[3]

2nd patrol[edit]

She sailed from Lorient on 24 September and headed into the Mediterranean Sea. There on 10 October she engaged three British tank landing craft off Sidi Barrani, Egypt. After missing with a torpedo, she engaged with her deck gun, slightly damaging HMS TLC-18 (A 18), before breaking off the attack after being hit by 40 mm shells, which wounded two men (one fatally) and damaged the conning tower. She arrived at Salamis, Greece, the next day, 11 October.[4]

3rd patrol[edit]

HMS Barham's main magazines explode, 25 November 1941

Sailing from Salamis on 12 November 1941, U-331 returned to the Egyptian coast. On 17 November she landed seven men of the Lehrregiment Brandenburg[5] east of Ras Gibeisa, on a mission to blow up a railway line near the coast, which failed.[6] On 25 November 1941, north of Sidi Barrani, U-331 fired three torpedoes into the British Queen Elizabeth-class battleship HMS Barham. As the ship rolled over, her magazines exploded and she quickly sank[7] with the loss of 861 men, while 395 were rescued.[8] U-331 returned to Salamis on 3 December, where her commander, Freiherr Hans-Diedrich von Tiesenhausen, was subsequently promoted to Kapitänleutnant and awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross.[9]

4th and 5th patrol[edit]

U-331 left Salamis on 14 January 1942 for another patrol off the Egyptian coast, this time with no success, she then sailed for La Spezia, Italy, arriving on 28 February.[10]

Her next patrol was the reverse of the previous one, she left La Spezia on 4 April, patrolled the enemy coast, then returned to Salamis on 19 April.[11]

6th to 9th patrol[edit]

Her next four patrols were similarly uneventful, operating from Messina, Sicily, and then La Spezia again, from May to September 1942, patrolling the North African coast without success.

10th patrol[edit]

U-331 departed La Spezia on her final voyage on 7 November 1942 to attack the massed ships of "Operation Torch".[12] Two days later, on 9 November, U-331 sighted the American 8,600 ton troopship USS Leedstown (AP-73) off Algiers. The Leedstown had landed troops on the night of 7/8 November, and the next day had been hit by an aerial torpedo from a Ju 88 torpedo bomber of III./KG 26 destroying her steering gear and flooding the after section. U-331 fired a spread of four torpedoes at the ship hitting her with two. Leedstown settled by the bow with a heavy starboard list, and was abandoned, finally sinking two hours later.[13]

On 13 November U-331 was attacked by an escort ship and was slightly damaged when she dived too deep and hit the sea bed.[12]

Sinking[edit]

U-331 was sunk on 17 November, north of Algiers in position 37°05′N 2°27′E / 37.083°N 2.450°E / 37.083; 2.450Coordinates: 37°05′N 2°27′E / 37.083°N 2.450°E / 37.083; 2.450.[1] She had been badly damaged after being attacked by a Lockheed Hudson bomber of No. 500 Squadron RAF, with the forward hatch jammed open, preventing the submarine from diving, and she signalled surrender to the Hudson.[14] The destroyer HMS Wilton was ordered to seize the submarine, but an airstrike by three Fairey Albacore torpedo-bombers from 820 Naval Air Squadron escorted by two Grumman Martlet fighters of 893 Naval Air Squadron was launched from the British aircraft carrier HMS Formidable against the damaged submarine.[14] Unaware of any surrender signals, the Martlet strafed U-331 which was then sunk by a torpedo dropped from one of the Albacores.[15] Of her crew 32 were killed and 17 survived, including her commander.[16]

Raiding history[edit]

Date Name Nationality Tonnage
(GRT)
Fate
10 October 1941 HMS TLC-18  Royal Navy 372 Damaged
25 November 1941 HMS Barham  Royal Navy 31,100 Sunk
9 November 1942 USS Leedstown  United States Navy 9,135 Sunk

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ a b "The Type VIIC boat U-331 - German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net". www.uboat.net. Retrieved 2010-01-11. 
  2. ^ "War Patrols by German U-boat U-331 - Boats - uboat.net". www.uboat.net. Retrieved 2010-01-11. 
  3. ^ "Patrol of U-boat U-331 from 2 Jul 1941 to 19 Aug 1941 - U-boat patrols - uboat.net". www.uboat.net. Retrieved 2010-01-11. 
  4. ^ "Patrol of U-boat U-331 from 24 Sep 1941 to 11 Oct 1941 - U-boat patrols - uboat.net". www.uboat.net. Retrieved 2010-01-11. 
  5. ^ "Report on the interrogation of survivors from U-331". www.uboatarchive.net. Retrieved 2010-01-12. 
  6. ^ "Patrol of U-boat U-331 from 12 Nov 1941 to 3 Dec 1941 - U-boat patrols - uboat.net". www.uboat.net. Retrieved 2010-01-11. 
  7. ^ "HMS Barham (04) (Battleship) - Ships hit by U-boats - uboat.net". www.uboat.net. Retrieved 2010-01-11. 
  8. ^ Jason Stevenson. "The Barham Conspiracy". www.webatomics.com. Retrieved 2010-01-11. 
  9. ^ "Kapitänleutnant Freiherr Hans-Diedrich von Tiesenhausen - German U-boat Commanders of WWII - uboat.net". www.uboat.net. Retrieved 2010-01-11. 
  10. ^ "Patrol of U-boat U-331 from 14 Jan 1942 to 28 Feb 1942 - U-boat patrols - uboat.net". www.uboat.net. Retrieved 2010-01-11. 
  11. ^ "Patrol of U-boat U-331 from 4 Apr 1942 to 19 Apr 1942 - U-boat patrols - uboat.net". www.uboat.net. Retrieved 2010-01-11. 
  12. ^ a b "Patrol of U-boat U-331 from 7 Nov 1942 to 17 Nov 1942 - U-boat patrols - uboat.net". www.uboat.net. Retrieved 2010-01-11. 
  13. ^ "USS Leedstown (AP 73) (Troop transport) - Ships hit by U-boats - uboat.net". www.uboat.net. Retrieved 2010-01-11. 
  14. ^ a b Hodgson 1994, p. 12.
  15. ^ Hodgson 1994, pp. 13–14.
  16. ^ Hodgson 1994, p. 13.
Bibliography

External links[edit]

See also[edit]