Germanic personal names in Galicia

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Germanic names, inherited from the Suevi which settled Galicia and Northern Portugal in 409 CE, and also from Visigoths, Vandals, Franks and other Germanic peoples, were the most common names among Galician people during the Early and High Middle Ages. This article deals with the Germanic personal names recorded and used in Galicia, Northern Portugal, and in adjoining regions, in territories which belonged to the Suebic kingdom of Galicia, during the Early Middle Ages, since the settlement of the Suevi in 409 CE, and up to the 12th century.

"(...) Igitur dum inter nos intemptio uertitur ad diuidendum mancipia de parentorum nostrorum Guntine et Rosule de neptos senatoris Siserici et Esmorice et de suos iermanos. Ideo que euenit in portione de filios Gunterodis, id est: Argiuitus, Gentibus, Tratiuigia, Recedrudi, Gaudiosus, Tequelo, Iulia, filios Stanildi, Sitiuidis, Gluscudilum, Framildi, Ruderigus, Sonobrida, Sabarigis, Argeleuba, Ostosia, Guntedrudia, Uitiza et Leuba, Guntildi, Iulia, Ragesindus, Sanildi cum sua filia Ermegundia, Seniorina, Uisteuerga, Sisulfus, Branderigus, Astruildi (...)"

Germanic and Latin names in a 10th-century Galician document.[1]

Germanic names[edit]

Main article: Germanic name
Germanic personal names in a Galician medieval document from 961 CE: Mirellus, Viliefredus, Sedeges, Evenandus, Adolinus, Sedoni, Victimirus, Ermoygus, and others, together with some Latin and Christian names

Germanic names were the most common personal names in Galicia during the Early and High Middle Ages, surpassing Christian and Roman names in number and popularity.[2] These names were mostly of East Germanic tradition, the ones used by the Suebi, Goths, Vandals and Burgundians, among other people. Together with these names Galicians inherited also the Germanic onomastic system, so that a man or a woman was characterized exclusively by a single name (or/and by a nickname or alias), with no surname, and only occasionally using also a patronymic. More than a thousand of such names have been preserved in local records[3] and in local toponyms.[4]

Many of these Germanic names were composite, dithematic names, were the second element or deuterotheme was usually a noun with the same gender of the bearer. Others were hypocoristics, either directly formed from a composite name, or derived from any of the themes usually found forming them.[5] Less frequently a name was per se an appellative, a noun, either an adjective or a substantive.

While these names were transmitted among the Suevi following the usual Germanic rules of inheritance,[6] which were variation (passing just one element of the name: king Rechiar was son of king Rechila, who in turn was son of king Hermeric) and alliteration (names beginning with the same sound: king Maldras was the son of a nobleman named Masila) later on full names were transmitted from grandfather to grandson (commemoration), following a trend common up till now in most of Western Europe.

Adaptations[edit]

Aside from the conversion of many Germanic endings into Romance or Latin standards, these names suffered other major phonetic adaptations,[7] like the change on the stress of the word from the fist to the penultimate syllable, the conversion of most [þ] into [t] or [d], and the conversion of [h] into [k] before a consonant, getting lost in most other instances. [W] was initially preserved, although noted as [u], or [oy], before becoming [gw], or less usually [b]. Later on these early inherited names suffered most of the changes that took apart Western Romance languages, and namely Galician, from Latin, such as consonant lenition, diverse palatalizations, and the conversion of the vocalic system. All of these phenomenons contributed to the existence of a very large number of variants for every recorded name: a single name such as Ostrofredus, was in fact recorded in Galicia as Ortofredus, Ostofredo, Ostouredus, Ostrofedone, Stobredo, and Strofredo.[8]

Names used by the Suevi[edit]

Silver coin of king Rechiar (438–55). The reverse reads IVSSV RICHIARI REGES, Latin for "by order of King Rechiar".

This is a relation of names used by the Suevi of Gallaecia during the 5th and 6th century, and which had been recorded in a few surviving chronicles, inscriptions, and in the acts of local ecclesiastical councils:

Hermericus, Heremigarius, Rechila, Rechiarius, Agriulfum, Maldras, Massila, Framta, Frumarius, Rechimundus, Remismundus, Veremundus, Chararici, Ariamirus, Ildericus, Theudomirus, Miro, Nitigisius, Uittimer, Anila, Remisol, Adoric, Eboricus, Siseguntia f, Audeca, Malaricus, Pantardus, Neufila, Hildemirus, Commundus, Ermaricus, Sunila, Becilla, Gardingus, Argiovitus, Gomedei, Rodomiro, Ermengontia f, Remisiwera f, Thuresmuda f, Suinthiliuba f.

Many of these names, used by notable kings such as Miro, Reckila and Theudemirus, were extraordinarily popular during posterior centuries, and have originated also large number of local toponyms: Mirón, to Miro;[9] Requián, Requiás, Requiás, Receá to Reckila;[10] Tuimil, Toimil, to Theudemirus.[11]

Themes[edit]

Protothemes[edit]

Here is a list of many of the first themes which were used for the formation of Germanic personal names in Galicia and NW Iberia. Many of them are related to war, victory, fame, boldness, strength and war-like qualities (bald-, funs-, hild-, gund-, nand-, rod-, seg-, send-), totemic animals (ar-, wulf-, ber-, ebur-), and weapons (brand-, bruni-, rand-, saru-), while many others refer to knowledge, love, and other peaceful qualities (fred-, leob-, mun-, ragi-, rad-, uin-). Some notable ones refers to the condition of ruler or master (fro-, ric-, vald-, Froya, Theodinus, Tructinus, Hendinus). Another group refers to the own tribe, nation or country (conia-, fulc-, teod-, leod-, man-, truct-, gavi-, gogi-, kend-); while other appear to make an explicit reference to Huns (Hun-), Suevi (Sav-), Goths (Gut-), Vandals (Vandal-), Celts (Vala-), Vendians/Slavs (Venet-), Galindians/Balths (Galind-), Franks (Frank-), Saxons (Sax-), Angles (Engl-), Danes (Dan-), and other Germanic and non Germanic peoples. Finally, while some elements are identical to others found in Celtic anthroponymy (And-, Dag-, -mar, -riks) some others appear to be adaptations of Latin words and names incorporated in the Danube regions: Florens, Fortis, Crescens...

Forms marked with an asterisk are unrecorded, and hence hypothetical. PGmc is a common abbreviation for Proto-Germanic.

  • ab-, to PGmc *abōn[12] 'man': Abbelinus.
  • abr-, to PGmc *abraz 'huge, strong': Abragasia, Abrecan, Abronilli.
  • ad-, later a-, with no clear etymology: Adefonsus, Adegundia, Adeqisio, Aderedus, Aderico, Adesindus, Adica, Adiero, Adarius, Adila, Adileobo, Adileova, Adimirus, Adolinus, Adosinda.
  • adal-, to PGmc *aþalaz 'noble': Adala, Addalinus, Adegaster, Adelasindo, Atalamondo.
  • agi-, egi-, later ei-, either to PGmc *agez 'fear' or to *agjō 'edge': Agimadus, Agio, Agiulfus, Aidio, Egeredus, Egica, Egila, Agila, Egildus, Agildus, Egilo, Ailo, Eigonza, Eileuva, Eilleus, Eimirus, Eindu, Eirigu, Eisindus, Haginus.
  • agr-, having no evident etymology: Agrivulfum, Agromirus.
  • aist-, to PGmc *aistēn 'to pay reverence': Aistando.
  • ala-, to PGmc *ala 'all, wholly': Alaguntia, Alamiro, Alaricus, Alarius, Alatrudia, Alobrida, Aloindo, Aloitus, Alvarus.
  • alb-, to PGmc *albaz 'elf': Albiaster, Alvaricus, Alvatus.
  • ald-, to PGmc *aldaz 'old': Aldemirus, Aldereto, Aldericus, Aldia, Aldinus.
  • aldr-, to Proto-Germani *aldran 'age, life': Aldras, Aldroitus.
  • ali-, to PGmc *aljaz 'other': Alia, Alio, Aliaricus, Alifreda, Aliulfus, Aliverga, Alivergo, Aliverko, Aliverta, Alivertus, Alliefredus
  • am-, eim-, em-, en-, to PGmc *haimaz 'dear': Amingus, Eimoricus, Emila, Emilo, Emiso, Enaredus, Engildus, Entrudi.
  • amal-, to PGmc *amal- 'valiant, brave': Amalilli.
  • amed-, to PGmc *amitaz 'continuous': Amedon, Amedeiro.
  • an-, to PGmc *an- 'forefather': Anagildus, Analsus, Anila, Anilo, Anualdus, Anulfo.
  • and-, ant-, to PGmc *anda 'throughout': Andeatus, Andericus, Andiarius, Andifonso, Andila, Andilevo, Andilo, Anditio, Ando, Andosindus, Andulfus, Antemirus.
  • ans-, to PGmc *ansuz 'god': Ansedeus, Ansemarus, Ansemirus, Ansemondus, Anseredo, Ansericus, Ansetrudia, Ansila, Ansileova, Ansilo, Ansiulphus, Ansiunda, Ansobrida, Ansoi, Anson, Ansuallo, Ansuario, Ansueto, Ansuildi, Ansvertus.
  • aquis-, to PGmc *akwesiz 'axe': Aquisilde
  • ar-, to PGmc *arnōn 'eagle' or to *arwaz 'swift, ready': Aragunti, Arosinda, Arosindus, Arualdus, Aruildi, Arumundo.
  • ard-, to PGmc *harduz 'hard' or to *arduz 'land': Ardabastus, Ardericus, Ardaldus, Ardesendus, Ardilo, Ardulfus, Artemiro, Erdebredo.
  • ari-, argi-, to PGmc *harjaz 'army': Arebuldo, Argeberto, Argefonsus, Argemirus, Argemondo, Argenilli, Argeredus, Argericus, Argesindus, Argeva, Argevadus, Argevitus, Argifonsa, Argifredus, Argileuva, Argilo, Argioi, Argiuolus, Argivastro, Ariulfus.
  • aria-, to PGmc arjaz 'noble': Arias, Ariastre.
  • arn-, to PGmc *arnuz 'eagle': Arnadius, Arnaldus, Arnulfo.
  • asc-, to PGmc *askaz 'ash-tree': Ascarigus, Ascarius, Asculfo.
  • ase-, to PGmc *haswaz 'grey': Asemondus, Asileva, Asinoy, Asiulfus, Asofuda, Asoi, Asoredus.
  • asp-, to PGmc *aspōn 'aspen': Asparigus.
  • ast-, to PGmc *astaz 'branch' or *austaz 'East': Astaguerra, Asterigo, Astileuva, Astredo, Astualdu, Astulfus.
  • astr-, ostr-, obstr-, stor-, to PGmc *austraz 'East': Astragis, Astragundia, Astramondus, Astratus, Astremarus, Astriverga, Astrogoto, Astruara, Astruario, Astruedu, Astruildi, Astrulfus, Obstrisinda, Ostamalus, Ostosia, Ostrofreda, Ostrofredo, Ostromirus, Astromirus, Estromirus, Storesindo.
  • at-, later ad- to PGmc *haþuz 'war': Ataulfus, Atarius, Atericus, Aton.
  • atan-, tan-, to PGmc *aþnaz 'year': Atanagildus, Atanaricus, Atanus, Tanina, Tanino, Atanitus, Tano, Tanoi, Tenildi.
  • att-, to PGmc *attōn 'father': Atauldus, Attan, Attila, Attina.
  • aud-, od-, to PGmc *audaz 'wealth': Audeca, Audesinda, Audila, Audinus, Audibertus, Audofredo, Audugus, Ausendus, Oda, Odemundus, Odamirus, Odericus, Odisclus, Odorica, Odoynus, Oduarius, Otualdo.
  • aur-, or-, to PGmc *auraz 'sand, sea': Auresindus, Aurilli, Orosinda.
  • aus-, os-, to PGmc *aus- 'shinning': Osoarius, Osobredus, Osmundo, Osoredo, Osorico, Ausarigus, Osoy, Ossila, Ozandus.
  • bad-, later ba-, to PGmc *badwō 'battle': Badamundus, Bademirus, Badila, Badosindus.
  • bait-, to PGmc *baitaz 'ship, boat': Baitus.
  • bald-, balt-, to PGmc *balþaz 'bold': Baldemarius, Baldemirus, Balderedo, Balderico, Baldesindo, Baldila, Baldoi, Baldoigius, Baltarius, Baltino, Balto.
  • bar-, to PGmc *baraz 'man': Barilli, Barsilli, Baron, Baroncellus, Baronza, Barvaldus.
  • bat-, to PGmc *bataz 'good': Bati, Batinus, Baton.
  • baud-, to PGmc *baudiz 'ruler': Baudemirus, Baudesindus.
  • baz-, to PGmc *bazaz 'naked': Bazarius
  • beg-, bag-, bec-, bac-, to PGmc *bēgaz 'contest, quarrel': Baga, Bega, Becilla, Bagesindus, Becosindo, Bagina, Bagino, Baquina, Baquino, Begica, Pegito.
  • ber-, to PGmc *berōn 'bear': Bera, Bergundi, Berila, Berildi, Berosildi, Berilo, Berina, Berinus, Beroi, Berosindus, Berulfus.
  • berg-, verg-, to PGmc *bergaz 'shelter': Bergas, Bergila, Vergilli, Vergina, Virgia.
  • bern-, to PGmc *bernuz 'bear': Bernaldus.
  • bert-, vert-, to PGmc *berhtaz 'bright': Berta, Bertamirus, Bertarius, Bertinus, Berto, Bertosinda, Bertuara, Betrulfus, Bretenandus, Vertila.
  • bett-, bitt-, with no clear etymology: Betellus, Betericus, Bitilo, Bitto.
  • bid-, to PGmc *bidō 'request, prayer': Biddi, Bidualdus.
  • bil-, bel-, to PGmc *bilaz 'good' or *bīþlan 'axe': Bela, Belavrida, Belesarius, Belestrio, Belfonsus, Bellengo, Bellerto, Bello, Belloy, Belmirus, Billa.
  • bland-, with no clear etymology: Blandila.
  • bliv-, to PGmc *blēwaz 'blue': Bliviaricus.
  • bon-, to PGmc *bōniz 'prayer, petition': Bonesindus, Bonilde, Bonimiro, Boninus, Boniza, Bonoi.
  • bot-, but-, to PGmc *bōtō 'good, profit': Botan, Butila.
  • brand-, to PGmc *brandaz 'fire, sword': Brandericus, Brandila, Brandinus, Brandiulfus, Brandon.
  • brun-, to PGmc *brunjōn 'breastplate': Brunildi.
  • burgal-, to *Bulgar- '? Bulgarian': Burgala.
  • ca-, to PGmc *ga- 'with': Camundus.
  • canut-, to PGmc *knūtaz 'bold': Canuto.
  • car-, kar-, to PGmc *karō 'care': Karmirus.
  • carl-, to PGmc *karlaz 'man': Carlo.
  • cart-, kart-, to PGmc *krattaz 'cart, wagon': Cartinus, Cartemirus.
  • cen-, to PGmc *kwenōn 'woman': Cenabrida, Cenusenda.
  • cend-, kend-, zend-, quint-, to PGmc *kenþan 'child': Cendamiro, Cendas, Cendon, Kenderedus, Kendulfus, Kindiverga, Quintila, Quintilo, Zendasindo.
  • cens-, zens-, maybe to PGmc *zinz 'tribute', or to *kwēniz 'woman': Censerigus, Censoi, Zenzitus.
  • conia-, to PGmc *kunjan 'tribe, nation': Coniaricus.
  • cresc-, maybe to Latin crescens 'thrive': Crescemirus.
  • criz-, to PGmc *krēsō 'dainty, food': Crizila.
  • dad-, ded-, to PGmc *dēdiz 'deed': Dada, Dadila, Dadilo, Dadinus, Dado, Dede.
  • dag-, dac-, to PGmc *dagaz 'day': Dacamiro, Dacoi, Dagadrudia, Dacaredus, Dago, Daildus.
  • dan-, da-, to PGmc *daniz 'Dane': Damiro, Damondus, Danila.
  • dest-, test-, maybe to Latin dexter 'right, skilful': Destoy, Destericus, Desteilli.
  • doc-, duc-, to PGmc *dōgiz 'day': Docemiro, Ducila.
  • dod-, with no clear etymology: Dodo, Doda.
  • dom-, to PGmc *dōmaz 'judgement, ruling': Domerigo.
  • dulc-, dolc-, to PGmc *dulgan 'enmity', *dulgaz 'law, debt': Dulcemirus, Dolcemondus.
  • ebr-, ebur-, evor-, to *eburaz 'boar': Ebragundia, Ebreguldus, Ebregulfus, Ebrildi, Eburicus, Evorinus.
  • elp-, to PGmc *helpō 'help': Elperico.
  • elpand-, to Germanic *elpandus 'elephant': Elpandus.
  • engl-, to PGmc *angilaz 'Angles': Engladius.
  • engo-, to PGmc *Ingwaz 'a god': Engomirus, Engoredus, Engorigus.
  • ens-, maybe to Latin ensis 'sword': Ensalde, Iensericus.
  • er-, her-, to PGmc *heruz 'sword': Erifonsus, Eroigius, Eruulfus, Herus.
  • erm-, herm-, to PGmc *ermenaz 'great': Ermaldus, Ermedrudia, Ermefara, Ermefreda, Ermefredo, Ermegildus, Ermegis, Ermego, Ermegoto, Ermegotus, Ermegundia, Ermelindus, Ermemirus, Ermericus, Ermerote, Ermesinda, Ermiarius, Ermila, Ermildi, Ermileuva, Ermitus, Ermoleo, Ermosindus, Ermoygius, Ermulfo, Heremigarium, Hermecisclus, Hermellus.
  • evo-, to PGmc *ehwaz 'horse': Euvenandus, Eva, Evorido, Evosindo, Ivolicus, Ibilli.
  • faf-, to PGmc *faff-, maybe related to Indo-European *papp- 'dad': Faffila, Faffia.
  • fag-, to PGmc *fagenaz 'glad, joyful': Fagila, Fagildus, Fagilo, Faginus.
  • fald-, to PGmc *faldiz 'fold, cloak': Falderedo, Falgildus, Fardulfus.
  • fand-, to PGmc *fanþjōn 'infantryman': Fandila, Fandina, Fandinus, Fannus.
  • faq-, fak-, to PGmc *fah- 'glad, joyful': Facalo, Facco, Fakino, Faquilo.
  • far-, to PGmc *faran 'journey, ship': Faregia, Farella, Farino, Farita, Farnus, Framiro, Fraredus, Frarigo, Fregulfus, Ferildi.
  • fat-, to PGmc *fatan 'cloth; vessel': Fatu, Fateredus.
  • fel-, fil-, to PGmc *felu 'much, very': Felellus, Felgirus, Felmiro, Filisteus, Filivertus, Filon.
  • flor-, to PGmc *flōraz 'floor' or to Latin florens 'blooming, prosperous': Floresindus
  • fof-, with no clear etymology: Fofo, Fofinus, Fofellus.
  • fons-, funs-, to PGmc *funsaz 'eager, ready': Fonso, Fonsa, Fonsinus, Fonsellus.
  • fradi-, to PGmc *fraþīn 'efficacy': Fradegundia, Fradila, Fradiulfus.
  • fram-, to PGmc *framaz 'forward; valiant': Framila, Framilli, Framtan, Framuldo.
  • frank-, franc-, to PGmc *frankōn 'javelin; Frank: Francellus, Francemirus, Franco, Francoi, Francolino, Frankila, Frankilo.
  • fred-, frid-, to PGmc *friþuz 'peace' or to *frīdaz 'fair, beautiful': Freda, Fredamundus, Fredario, Fredegundia, Fredemiro, Fredenanda, Fredenandus, Fredericus, Fredesinda, Fredilli, Fredisclus, Fredoaldus, Fredoindus, Fredosindus, Freduarius, Fredulfus, Fredus, Fridiverto.
  • froa-, frau-, frog-, froy-, fron-, to PGmc *frawjōn 'lord, master': Froarengus, Fralenko, Frogeva, Frogildi, Frogina, Frogiulfo, Froiellus, Froila, Froilo, Froiloba, Froisenda, Froisendus, Fronildi, Fronosili, Fronuldo, Froya, Froyo, Froyslo, Fruaricus, Frugildus, Fruginus, Frauino, Frumirus, Frunilo.
  • frum-, from-, to PGmc *frumōn 'foremost, first' and *frumistaz 'first': Fromista, Fremosilli, Fromaldus, Fromaricus, Fromildus, Fromosinda, Fromosindus, Fruma, Frumarius, Frumellus, Frumildi.
  • fulc-, to PGmc *fulkan 'crow, army': Fulcaredus.
  • gad-, gat-, to PGmc *gadōn 'comrade': Gademiro, Gadenanda, Gaton.
  • gael-, gel-, to PGmc *gailaz 'merry': Gaella, Gelmiro, Geloira.
  • gaf-, gef-, geb-, to PGmc *gebō 'gift': Gaffo, Gebuldus, Gefera.
  • gaid-, to PGmc *gaidō 'spearhead, arrowhead': Gaidus.
  • gaif-, to PGmc *waibjanan 'to surround': Gaifar.
  • galind-, kalend-, to PGmc *galind- 'Galindian (a Baltic people)': Galindus / Kalendus.
  • gan-, maybe to Germanic gan 'enchantment':[13] Ganati, Ganilli, Ganiti, Ganoi.
  • gand-, to PGmc *gandaz 'wand, staff': Gandila, Gandinus, Gandulfo, Gandus.
  • gard-, to PGmc *gardaz 'house, enclosure': Gardingus, Gardulfus.
  • gas-, ges-, gis-, ger-, gir-, to PGmc *gaizaz 'spear': Gasuildi, Gera, Gesa, Gero, Geserigus, Gesmira, Germira, Gesmiro, Gesulfus, Ierulfus, Giraldus, Gismundus, Germundus, Gisovredus, Gisvado.
  • gast-, to PGmc *gastiz 'guest': Gastre.
  • gaud-, caud-, with no clear etymology, maybe *gaut- 'Goth', or to Latin gaudeo 'rejoice': Caudemirus, Gauderigus, Gaudesindo, Gaudilani, Gaudilli, Gaudinas.
  • gav-, gau-, gogi-, cogi-, gagi-, cagi-, kegi-, to PGmc *gaujan 'district': Cagildo, Cagita, Cagitus, Gagica, Gaufredus, Gaulfus, Gavila, Gavina, Gavinus, Gega, Gegitus, Gigelus, Gogia, Gogilli, Gogina, Gogitus, Gogius, Goymundus, Guimundus, Guginus, Gugivertus, Guimirus, Guiricus, Guisenda, Goysenda, Guisindus, Kagilda, Keila.
  • geld-, gild-, kelt-, to PGmc *geldan 'tribute, recompensa': Geldemirus, Gildaricus, Gildo, Keltoi.
  • gen-, ian-, ion-, to PGmc *gennan 'beginning': Genildi, Ionilde, Genlo, Genobreda, Gemundus, Ianardo, Ionarico.
  • gend-, of unclear meaning: Gendo, Gendina.
  • get-, git-, 'glory': Geda, Getericus, Getilli, Getina, Getoy, Gidiberto, Gitarius, Gitesindus, Gitio.
  • gisl-, viscl-, cisl-, to PGmc *gīslaz 'hostage': Cisla, Viclavara, Viscaverga, Visclafredo, Visclamirus, Visclamundus, Visclario.
  • givel-, to PGmc *geb(e)lōn 'skull, gable': Givellan.
  • glad-, to PGmc *gladaz 'bright, glad': Gladila.
  • god-, gud-, later go-, gu-, to PGmc *gōdaz 'good': Godefredus, Godegildus, Godella, Godellus, Godemiro, Godenanda, Godesinda, Godoigia, Godomundus, Gudenandus, Guderedus, Guderigo, Gudesindus, Gudesteus, Gudigeba, Gudila, Gudileuva, Gudilo, Gudilulfo,Gudiverga.
  • gol-, to PGmc *gōljanan 'to greet', gōlaz 'pride': Golinus, Gollo.
  • gom-, gum-, to PGmc *gumōn 'man': Gomadus, Gomaldo, Gomaredus, Gomarigus, Gomesindo, Gomita, Gomulfus, Gomundus, Guma, Gumarius, Gumellus, Gumila, Gumito.
  • gram-, to PGmc *gramaz 'furious': Gramila.
  • gran-, to PGmc *grannaz 'slim, slender' or to *granō 'moustache': Granilo.
  • grim-, to PGmc *grīmōn 'mask, helmet': Grima, Grimaldus.
  • gris-, to PGmc *grīsanan 'to dread', or to *grīsaz 'grey': Grisulfus, Gresomarus.
  • guald-, to PGmc *waldaz 'powerful, mighty': Gualdarius, Gualdeo.
  • guandal-, to PGmc *wandilaz 'Vandal': Guandalisco, Guandalar.
  • guld-, to PGmc *wulþuz 'splendour': Goldegildo, Goldredo, Guldarius, Gulderigus.
  • guldr-, goltr-, to PGmc *wulþraz 'wonderful, precious': Goldregodo, Gulderes, Gualdramirus.
  • gulf-, golf-, to PGmc *wulfaz 'wolf': Golfarico, Gulfarius, Gulfemirus.
  • gund-, gunt-, gunz-, cunt-, gond-, to PGmc *gunthz 'fight': Gonceria, Gondella, Gondenanda, Gonso, Gonta, Gontemondus, Gontere, Gonderes, Gontoi, Gontualdo, Gonza, Guncitus, Gundarius, Gundebredo, Gundebrida, Gundelinus, Gundemarus, Gunderamnus, Gunderedo, Gunderigus, Gunderona, Gundertia, Gundesindus, Gundifortis, Gundigeva, Gundila, Gundilo, Gundisalva, Gundisalvus, Gundiscalcus, Gundivadus, Gundivaldo, Gundivera, Gundiverga, Gundon, Gundulfo, Guntato, Guntedrudia, Guntellus, Guntemirus, Gunterotis, Gunti, Guntiesclo, Guntigio, Guntilli, Gundesilli, Guntina, Guntinus, Guntuigia.
  • gut-, later god-, to PGmc *gutōn 'Goth': Gotesendus, Goto, Gota, Goton, Gudegisus, Gutellus, Gutemirus, Gutemondo, Gutilli, Gutilo, Gutina, Gutinus, Guto, Guta, Gutumarus.
  • hend-, ind-, hand-, probably related to Burgundian hendinus 'king': Endulfus, Hamdino, Indisclus.
  • hild-, ild-, eld-, ald-, to PGmc *heldjō 'battle': Alderedus, Alduarius, Eldan, Eldebona, Eldegeses, Eldegotus, Eldegundia, Eldemirus, Eldemundus, Eldesinda, Eldesindus, Eldigia, Eldinus, Eldivercus, Eldivertus, Eldo, Eldoigius, Elleca, Ildebredus, Ildefonsus, Ilderigus, Ildiverga, Ildoi, Ildoncia, Ildras, Ilduara, Ildulfus.
  • ik-, eq-, ig- maybe to PGmc *eka 'I': Igo, Ika, Ikila.
  • it-, id-, with no clear etymology: Idiverto, Itila, Itilo, Itimondo, Itaultus.
  • iuv-, iub-, with no clear etymology: Iovellinus, Iubarius, Iubinus, Iuuisclus, Iuvatus, Iuvericus, Iuvila, Iuvitus.
  • ket-, qued-, quid-, to PGmc *kweþanan 'to say': Kedisilo, Ketemera, Ketenando, Keti, Ketoi, Quedesendo, Quedulfus, Quidemirus, Quidericus, Quitarius, Quitoi.
  • lal-, lel-, lil-, with no clear etymology: Lalla, Lalli, Lallina, Lallinus, Lallus, Lelino, Leliola, Lilliola, Lelli, Lilla, Lilli, Lillo, Lilla.
  • leo-, to PGmc *hlewaz 'glory, renown': Leomirus.
  • leode-, leude-, to PGmc *leudiz 'man, people': Ledla, Leodarius, Leodefredus, Leodegasti, Leodegisius, Leodegundia, Leodemiro, Leodemundo, Leoderigus, Leodesindo, Leodeuigus, Leodo, Leodulfus.
  • leov-, leub-, to PGmc *leubaz 'beloved': Leovaldo, Leovegildus, Leovegoto, Leoveredus, Leoverigus, Leoverona, Leoverto, Leovesenda, Leovesindus, Leovilli, Leovus, Leuba, Leubegutus, Liuvilo, Lovoi, Lubellus, Lubila, Lubinus.
  • lot-, to PGmc *hludaz 'famous': Lotarius.
  • mact-, later meit-, to PGmc *mahtiz 'power, might': Meitinus, Matericus, Mectubrida, Meitilli, Meitulfus.
  • mag-, to PGmc *magenan 'might, power': Magan, Magila, Magitus, Maniaricus, Maniarius, Magnitus, Maniulfus, Megildus.
  • mal-, with unclear etymology, maybe related to PGmc *malanan 'to grind': Malaricus, Malaredus.
  • malasc-, maybe to PGmc *malskaz 'proud': Malasco.
  • maldr-, maybe to PGmc *maldriz 'flour': Maldras.
  • man-, later ma-, to PGmc *manan 'fellow': Manildi, Manusildi, Manileuva, Manilla, Maninus, Manosenda, Manosindus, Manualdus, Manulfus, Menegundia.
  • mand-, mant-, to PGmc *manþaz 'kind': Mandila, Mandinus, Mandulfo, Mantellus.
  • mann-, later man-, to PGmc *mannz 'man': Manitus, Manna, Mannello, Manni, Manno, Manoim, Mansuara.
  • marc-, to PGmc *markō 'region, border' or to *marhaz 'horse': Marco, Marcosendus, Marcitus.
  • mart-, maybe to PGmc *marþuz 'marten': Martila.
  • matl-, matr-, to PGmc *maþlan 'assembly': Matrosindus, Matrinus, Matroi.
  • maur-, later mour-, maybe to PGmc *mauraz 'ant' or to Latin maurus 'Moor': Mauran, Maurentan, Maurican, Mauron.
  • medum-, later meom-, to PGmc *medumaz 'middling, moderate': Meduma.
  • mer-, mir-, mar-, to PGmc *mērjaz 'famous': Margilli, Merila, Meroildi, Mervigius, Mira, Mirella, Mirellus, Miro, Mirosinda, Mirualdo.
  • mod-, mud-, to PGmc *mōdaz 'anger, wrath': Modericus, Moderido, Modildus, Modilli, Mudario, Mudila.
  • mun-, mon-, to PGmc *muniz 'thought': Monefonsus, Monobredo, Munisclus.
  • mund-, mond-, to PGmc *mundō 'protection': Monderico, Mondoi, Mundellus, Mundila, Mundildus, Mundinus, Mundus.
  • nand-, nant-, to PGmc *nanþaz 'bold, courageous': Nandamundus, Nandaricus, Nandinus, Nandoi, Nandulfo, Nandus, Nantemiro, Nantildo.
  • naust-, with not clear etymology: Naustus, Naustila.
  • neu-, nu-, to PGmc *neujaz 'new': Nuilla, Nuillo, Neufila.
  • nit-, to PGmc *nīþaz 'hatred' or *niþjaz 'kinsman': Nitigisius.
  • not-, to PGmc *nauthiz 'need': Notarius.
  • of-, to PGmc *ubjōn 'abundance': Offa, Ofila, Offilo.
  • old-, to PGmc *hulþaz 'kind, clement': Olda, Oldaricus.
  • opp-, maybe to PGmc *ōbjanan 'to celebrate solemnly', related to Latin opus 'work': Oppa, Oppila.
  • osd-, to PGmc *huzdan 'treasure': Osdulfus.
  • pant-, to PGmc *pandan 'pledge' or *banti 'district': Pantardus, Panto, Pantinus.
  • pap-, pep-, with no clear etymology: Papellus, Papitus, Pappinus, Pappo, Pepi, Pipericus, Pipinus.
  • penn-, pen-, with not known etymology: Penetrudia, Penus, Pennino.
  • rad-, rat-, to PGmc *rēdaz 'advice': Rademirus, Rademundus, Radesindus, Radulfus, Ratario, Retericus.
  • ragi-, ragn-, later rei-, to PGmc *raginab 'advice, decision': Ragesenda, Ragesindus, Ragian, Ragifredo, Ragimiru, Ragito, Ragolfus, Raiola, Raiolo, Reginaldus, Reimondus, Reirigus.
  • rak-, to PGmc *rakan 'reason, talk' or *wrakaz 'pursuer': Rakericus.
  • ram-, to PGmc *rammaz 'strong; ram': Ramila, Ramon, Ramulo.
  • rana-, rani-, later ra-, probably to PGmc *rannjanan 'to run': Ranarius, Ranemira, Ranemirus, Ranemundus, Ranilo, Ranisclus, Raniverga, Raniverta, Ranivertus, Ranosenda, Ranosindus, Ranualdus, Ranulfus
  • rand-, rant-, to PGmc *randaz 'shield': Randemirus, Randili, Randinus, Rando, Randuarius, Randulfus, Rendericus.
  • raup-, to PGmc *raupjanan 'to plunder, to spoil': Rauparius.
  • rec-, req-, ric-, to PGmc *rīkjaz 'mighty, noble': Recaredus, Reccafredus, Recebrida, Recedrudia, Recelli, Recemera, Recemirus, Recemundus, Recesenda, Recesindus, Recesuinda, Recesuindus, Rechiarius, Recilli, Requilli, Recinus, Recualdus, Regaulfus, Reicionda, Rekeritus, Requefonsus, Rezevera, Ricardo, Riquila, Riquilo, Riquilodo, Riquoi.
  • ref-, to PGmc *hrabnaz 'crow': Refulfo.
  • rem-, to PGmc *remez 'rest, calmness': Remegildus, Remesario, Remesilli, Remesindus, Remestro, Remismundus, Remisol, Rimionda.
  • rest-, to PGmc *ristiz 'rising up': Restericus.
  • rod-, rud-, to PGmc *hrōþaz 'fame': Rodemirus, Rodevertus, Rodosildi, Rodougus, Roelindus, Rouvredo, Rudericus, Rudesindus, Rudila, Rudilo.
  • rom-, rum-, to PGmc *hrōmaz 'fame': Romarigus, Romila, Rumario.
  • sala-, later sa-, to PGmc *salaz 'hall, dwelling': Salamirus, Salamarus, Salla.
  • sand-, sant-, to PGmc *sanþaz 'truth, justice': Sandinus, Sando, Santimirus.
  • sar-, to PGmc *sarwan 'arm, armament': Saroi, Saruilli.
  • sax-, later seix-, to PGmc *sahsan 'knife' and *sahxōn 'Saxon': Saxo, Seixomir.
  • scap-, to PGmc *skapan 'vessel': Scapa.
  • scarc-, to PGmc *skalkaz 'servant; sword': Scarcila.
  • scer-, to PGmc *skīriz 'pure': Scerinus.
  • sed-, to PGmc *seduz 'custom': Sedino.
  • sedeg-, to PGmc *sedīgaz 'well-bred, well-behaved': Sedeges.
  • seg-, sag-, sig-, later se-, si-, to PGmc *segez 'victory': Sagatus, Sagildo, Sagulfus, Segemundus, Segesindo, Segestro, Segga, Segika, Segimarus, Segioi, Segomirus, Seguinus, Sigeberto, Sigefrida, Sigeredus, Sigericus, Sigesgundia, Sigesinda, Sigila, Sigu, Segio.
  • sel-, to PGmc *sēliz 'good, kind': Selmirus, Seloi.
  • selv-, to PGmc *selbaz 'Self': Selvas, Selvatus.
  • sen-, sin-, to PGmc *senaz 'ever, old': Senatrudia, Seniberta, Senildi, Senuita, Senuldo, Sinerta, Sinifredus.
  • send-, sent-, to PGmc *senþaz 'companion' or *swenþaz 'strong': Senda, Sendamirus, Sendello, Sendericus, Senderiga, Sendina, Sendinus, Sendoi, Sendon, Sendredus, Senduitu, Sendulfus, Senta, Sentarius, Sindamundus, Sindi, Sindigis, Sindila, Sindileuba, Sindilo, Sindiverga, Sindo, Sinduara.
  • ser-, to PGmc *swēraz 'valued, honoured': Seririgo, Serulfus, Servaldus.
  • sigunt-, to PGmc *sebunþōn 'seventh': Sigunterigo.
  • sis-, ses-, maybe related to Old High German sisu 'funerary song, ritual': Sescutus, Sesericus, Sesina, Sesmiro, Sesmundo, Sesoi, Sesuito, Sisa, Sisebutus, Sisegundia, Sisellus, Sisildus, Sisileova, Sisilli, Sisilu, Sisinus, Sisiverta, Sisiverto, Sisivigia, Sisnandus, Sisualdo, Sisuita, Sisuldus, Sisulfus, Zisila.
  • sit-, to PGmc *setan 'seat': Sitagellus, Siti, Sitividis.
  • smer-, to PGmc *smerwōn 'fat': Smerlo.
  • sontr-, suntr-, to PGmc *sunþrjaz 'southern': Sontrilli, Suntria.
  • span-, to PGmc *spananan 'to lead': Spanaricu, Spanarius, Spanilo, Spanosendo, Spanubrida.
  • spand-, maybe to *spannanan 'to join': Spandaricus.
  • spar-, to PGmc *sparwaz 'sparrow': Espallo, Sparuildi.
  • speraut-, to PGmc *spreutanan 'to sprout': Sperautan.
  • spint-, to PGmc *spenþa 'fat': Spintilo, Spintino.
  • spod-, later espo-, with not clear etymology: Spodemiro, Spoderigo.
  • stan-, to PGmc *stainaz 'stone': Stanildi.
  • stod-, with not clear etymology: Stodildi.
  • strouc-, to PGmc *streukanan 'to stroke': Strouco.
  • suab-, sab-, sav-, sev-, to PGmc *swēbaz 'Suebian': Sabaredus, Sabegoto, Sabila, Sabita, Sabitus, Savaracus, Savaricus, Savegodus, Savildi, Savoy, Sevegildo, Suabas, Suavar.
  • sue-, to PGmc *swe- 'own': Sueredus, Suimirus.
  • sund-, sunt-, to PGmc *sunþiz 'South': Sundemirus, Suntarius.
  • suni-, seni-, sani-, soni- to PGmc *sunjō 'truth': Sanigia, Seniaredus, Seniulfus, Sonegildus, Songimera, Soniaricus, Sonifreda, Sonita, Suniagisclus, Suniarius, Suniemirus, Sunila, Sunildi, Sunilo, Sunitus.
  • sunn-, to PGmc *sunnan 'Sun': Sonna.
  • tanc-, to PGmc *þankaz 'favor, grace': Tancila, Tancinus, Tancus, Tanquilli.
  • tanth-, to PGmc *tanþz 'tooth': Tandus.
  • tat-, zaz-, to PGmc *tat-, with no clear etymology: Tata, Tatina, Zazitus, Zazo.
  • teg-, to PGmc *þegnaz 'thane, freeman': Tegila, Tegino, Tegio, Tegitus.
  • teq-, with no clear etymology: Tequilo, Texilli.
  • teud-, teod-, tod-, ted-, later teo-, to PGmc *þeudō 'nation' and *þeudanaz 'king': Teadario, Tederona, Tedoy, Teobaldus, Teoda, Teodefredo, Teodegildo, Teodegondia, Teodemirus, Teodemundus, Teodenandus, Teoderados, Teoderago, Teoderedus, Teodericus, Teodesinda, Teodesindus, Teodeverga, Teodiberta, Teodila, Teodildi, Teodilo, Teodinus, Teodisclus, Teodiu, Teodoriga, Teodulfus, Teton, Teudecutus, Teudisila, Theodivertus, Tiotevadus, Todegia, Todegogia, Toduldo, Tota, Tudiscaisum.
  • tit-, tet-, to PGmc *taitōn 'little boy': Tetina, Titila.
  • tors-, turis-, to PGmc *þursaz 'giant': Torsario, Turisulfus.
  • trad-, to PGmc þrēdaz 'quick': Tradus, Tradinus.
  • tras-, to PGmc *þrasō 'move, fight': Tracinus, Trasaricus, Trasarius, Trasavara, Trasendus, Trasido, Trasilli, Trasiuadus, Trasmira, Trasmiro, Trasmondo, Trasoi, Trassemutus, Trasuarius, Trasuinda, Trasulfus.
  • trast-, to PGmc *þrafstiz 'confort' or *traustaz 'strong': Trastalo, Trastelus, Trastemiro, Trastidia, Trastina, Trastulfus, Trastivigia.
  • trevu-, to PGmc *trewwaz 'faithful': Trevuleus.
  • truct-, later troit-, to *druhtiz 'people, army', and druhtīnaz 'lord, master': Tructinus, Tructa, Tructemiro, Tructemondo, Tructericus, Tructesinda, Tructesindus, Tructilli, Tructus, Truitellus, Truitero.
  • trud-, to PGmc *drūdaz 'friend, beloved': Truda, Trudigildus, Trudildi, Trudilo, Trudina, Trudinus, Trudulfus
  • tund-, tunt-, to PGmc *tunþuz 'tooth': Tumtuldo, Tundulfus, Tuntila.
  • un-, on-, to PGmc *hūnaz 'cub' and 'Hun': Uniscus, Unisco, Onaredus, Onegilda, Onegildo, Onemirus, Onesindus, Onildi, Unilli, Onoricus, Onosinda, Unemundus, Unileus, Unilla.
  • vad-, guad-, later gua-, ga-, to PGmc *wadaz 'ford': Guadla, Uaduuara, Vadamundus, Vademirus.
  • vala-, guala-, quala-, to PGmc *walaz 'the slain, battlefield', or *walhaz 'Celt': Gualamarius, Gualamira, Gualamirus, Qualatrudia, Qualavara, Valarius.
  • vamb-, to PGmc *wambō 'belly': Vamba.
  • vand-, guand-, to PGmc *wanduz 'wand, rod': Guanadildi, Guandila, Guandilo, Guantaldus, Vandino, Vuanda.
  • ven-, guin-, to PGmc *weniz 'friend': Guina, Guinilli, Uenildi, Guinus.
  • venet-, guend-, vened-, genit-, to PGmc *wenedaz 'Vendian, Slav': Genitigia, Guendo, Venedario, Venetricus.
  • ver-, to PGmc *wērō 'pledge; true': Vera, Vermundus, Veremudus.
  • via-, maybe to PGmc *wīhan 'temple': Viaricus, Viamundus.
  • vidr-, vedr-, quitr-, to PGmc *wiþra 'against': Quitre, Vederoi, Vedragese, Vedrailli, Vidragildus, Vidraldus, Vidramirus.
  • vidub-, to PGmc *widuwaz 'widowed': Vidubas.
  • vig-, veg-, to PGmc *wīgaz 'fighter': Uegitus, Vigila, Vigilli, Vigilo, Vigiltu, Vigoy.
  • vil-, guil-, quil-, to PGmc *weljōn 'will': Guiliberto, Quella, Uiliaredus, Uilloi, Gilloi, Vilesinda, Viliamirus, Vilian, Viliaricu, Viliarius, Viliatus, Viliefredus, Vilifonsus, Viligus, Vilitro, Viliulfus, Vilivado, Villavaria, Villelmus, Villisendo, Villo.
  • vim-, with unclear etymology: Guimarigus, Uimaredus, Viman, Vimara.
  • vinc-, to PGmc *wenkjanan 'to move sidewards, to avoid': Venze, Vincila.
  • vis-, ius-, to PGmc *wesuz 'good': Iusuandus, Uisulfus, Usegildus, Visaldus, Visaridus, Visellu.
  • visand-, to PGmc *wisundaz 'bison': Visandus.
  • vist-, iust-, to PGmc *westan 'West': Iusterigo, Iustiarius, Iustila, Vistemundo, Vistesinda, Iustesenda, Vistiberga, Vistisclo, Vistivara, Wistiz.
  • vistr-, iustr-, to PGmc *westraz 'westwards': Iustri, Uistrello, Uistrileuba, Vestregoti, Visterla, Visterlo, Vistragildus, Vistramundi, Vistraricus, Vistrarius, Vistravara, Vistravarius, Vistregia, Vistremiro, Vistresindus, Vistrevius, Vistrildi, Vistresilli, Vistroi.
  • vit-, later vid-, to PGmc *witan 'knowledge': Uita, Vidila, Vitinus, Vitisclus.
  • vitt-, vict, later vit-, to PGmc *witjan 'comprehension': Uiti, Uittina, Victemirus, Victericus, Vitarius, Vitas, Vitila, Vitildus, Vitiza, Vittimero.
  • viv, oyv-, to PGmc *wīban 'wife, woman': Oyeuio, Vivildus.
  • viz-, quiz-, with unclear etymology: Quizino, Viza, Vizamundus, Vizila, Vizoi.

Feminine deuterothemes[edit]

Elements commonly found as second element of feminine names include:

  • -berta, -verta, to PGmc *berhtō 'bright': Aliverta, Raniverta, Sisiverta, Teodiverta.
  • -berga, -verga, to PGmc *bergō 'shelter': Aliverga, Astriverga, Gundiverga, Ildiverga, Kindiverga, Raniverga, Sindiverga, Teodeverga, Viscaverga, Vistiberga.
  • -drudia/-trudia, later -druia, to PGmc *drūd-jō 'friend, beloved: Alatrudia, Aniedrudia, Ansetrudia, Cenabrida, Dagadrudia, Entrudi, Ermedrudia, Guntedrudia, Penetrudia, Qualatrudia, Recedrudia, Senatrudia.
  • -fara, to PGmc *farō 'journey': Ermefara.
  • -freda/-breda/-brida/-vrida, to PGmc *friþ-ō 'peace': Alifreda, Alobrida, Ansobrida, Belavrida, Genobreda, Gundebrida, Mectubrida, Recebrida, Sigefrida, Sonifreda, Spanubrida.
  • -fonsa, to PGmc *funs-ō 'eager, ready': Argifonsa.
  • -go, from PGmc *gauj-ō 'region, district': Ermego.
  • -geba/-geva, later -eva, to PGmc *gebō 'gift': Argeva, Frogeva, Gudigeba, Gundigeva.
  • -gelda, to PGmc *geld-ō 'reward': Kagilda, Onegilda.
  • -isila, to -gīsl-ō 'hostage, sprout': Teudisila.
  • -goto/-godo to PGmc *gaut-ō 'Goth woman': Astrogoto, Ermegoto, Goldregodo, Leovegoto, Sabegoto, Vestregoti.
  • -cuntia/-cundia/-guntia/-gundia/-gunza/-onda, to PGmc *gunþ-jō 'fight': Adegundia, Alaguntia, Ansiunda, Aragunti, Astragundia, Bergundi, Ebragundia, Eigonza, Eldegundia, Ermegundia, Fradegundia, Helaguntia, Ildoncia, Leodegundia, Menegundia, Reicionda, Rimionda, Sigesgundia, Siseguntia, Teodogoncia, Treitegundia.
  • -ildi, -illi, to PGmc *heldiz 'battle': Abronilli, Amalilli, Ansuildi, Argenilli, Aruildi, Astruildi, Aurilli, Barsilli, Barilli, Berildi, Berosildi, Bonilde, Brunildi, Desteilli, Donadildi, Ebrildi, Ebrailli, Ermildi, Framilli, Fremosilli, Frogildi, Fronildi, Fronosili, Frumildi, Ganilli, Gasuildi, Gaudilli, Genildi, Ionilde, Getilli, Gogilli, Guanadildi, Guananildi, Guinilli, Uenildi, Guntilli, Gundesilli, Gutilli, Ibilli, Leovilli, Manildi, Manusildi, Margilli, Meitilli, Meroildi, Modilli, Onildi, Unilli, Randili, Recilli, Requilli, Remesilli, Rodosildi, Saruilli, Sarilli, Savildi, Senildi, Sisilli, Sontrilli, Sparuildi, Stanildi, Stodildi, Sunildi, Tanquilli, Tenildi, Teodildi, Texilli, Trasilli, Trasuildi, Tructilli, Trudildi, Vedrailli, Vergilli, Vigilli, Vistrildi, Vistresilli.
  • -leuba, -leova, to PGmc *leub-ō 'beloved': Adileova, Ansileova, Argileuva, Asileva, Astileuva, Eileuva, Ermileuva, Froiloba, Gudileuva, Manileuva, Sindileuba, Sisileova, Uistrileuba.
  • -mira, -mera, to PGmc *mēr-ō 'famous, excellent': Gesmira, Germira, Giudimira, Gualamira, Ketemera, Ranemira, Recemera, Songimera, Trasmira.
  • -nanda, later -anda, to PGmc *nanþ-ō 'bold, courageous': Fredenanda, Gadenanda, Godenanda, Gondenanda.
  • -rica, later -riga, to PGmc *rīk-ō 'ruler': Odorica, Senderiga, Teodoriga.
  • -rotis, to PGmc *rōt-iz 'glad, cheerful': Gunterotis.
  • -rona, to PGmc *rūnō 'mystery, secret': Gunderona, Leoverona, Tederona.
  • -senda, -sinda, to PGmc *senþ-ō 'companion' or to *swenþ-ō 'strong': Adosinda, Arosinda, Audesinda, Bertosinda, Cenusenda, Eldesinda, Ermesinda, Eudisinda, Fredesinda, Froisenda, Fromosinda, Godesinda, Guisenda, Goysenda, Leovesenda, Manosenda, Mirosinda, Obstrisinda, Onosinda, Orosinda, Peruisenda, Ragesenda, Ranosenda, Recesenda, Sigesinda, Teodesinda, Tructesinda, Vilesinda, Vistesinda, Iustesenda.
  • -suenda, -suinda, to PGmc *swenþ-ō 'strong': Recesuinda, Trasuinda.
  • -vara, to PGmc *warō 'care, attention; possession': Astruara, Bertuara, Ilduara, Mansuara, Qualavara, Rezevera, Sinduara, Trasavara, Uaduuara, Visclavara, Villavaria, Vistivara, Vistravara.
  • -vera to PGmc *wērō 'pledge, plight': Gelvira, Gundivera.
  • -vigia, - igia, to PGmc *wīg-jō 'fighter': Genitigia, Godoigia, Guntuigia, Sanigia, Sisivigia, Trastivigia, Vistregia.
  • '-vita, -vidis,' probably related to PGmc *witjan 'knowledge, comprehension': :Senuita, Sisuita, Sitividis.

As for the suffixes used for deriving hypocoristic feminine names, they include:

  • -alo: Facalo, Trastalo.
  • -ilo, later -io: Acilo, Andilo, Anilo, Ansilo, Ardilo, Argilo, Berilo, Bitilo, Cisilo, Dadilo, Egilo, Ailo, Emilo, Esmerlo, Espallo, Fagilo, Faquilo, Frankilo, Froilo, Frunilo, Genilo, Genlo, Geodilo, Gracilo, Granilo, Guandilo, Gudilo, Gundilo, Gutilo, Itilo, Liuvilo, Nisilo, Nuillo, Nunnilo, Quintilo, Ranilo, Riquilo, Rudilo, Sindilo, Sisilu, Spanilo, Spintilo, Sunilo, Tafila, Teodilo, Tequilo, Trudilo, Vigilo, Visterlo.
  • -ina: Bagina, Baquina, Berina, Fandina, Frogina, Gavina, Gendina, Getina, Gogina, Guntina, Gutina, Lallina, Nunnina, Sendina, Sesina, Tanina, Tidina, Tetina, Trastina, Trudina, Vergina, Zanina.
  • -ita, later -ida: Acita, Cagita, Farita, Gomita, Nunnita, Sabita, Sonita.
  • -ella: Farella, Gondella, Mirella, Nunella.

Masculine deuterothemes[edit]

Elements commonly found as second element of masculine names include:

  • -badus, -vadus, to PGmc *badwō 'fight': Argevadus, Gisvado, Gundivadus, Tiotevadus, Trasiuadus, Vilivado.
  • -baldus, -valdus, to PGmc *balþaz 'bold': Gundivaldo, Teobaldus.
  • -bertus, -vertus, to PGmc *berhtaz 'bright': Alivertus, Ansvertus, Argeberto, Audibertus, Eldivertus, Filivertus, Fridiverto, Geodevertus, Gidiberto, Gugivertus, Guiliberto, Idiverto, Leoverto, Ranivertus, Rodevertus, Sigeberto, Sisiverto, Theodivertus.
  • -butus, to PGmc *bōtō 'profit, usefulness': Sisebutus.
  • -fredus, -fridus, -bredus, -vredus, later -vreu, to PGmc *friþuz 'peace': Alliefredus, Argifredus, Audofredo, Erdebredo, Ermefredo, Geodefredo, Gisovredus, Godefredus, Gundebredo, Ildebredus, Leodefredus, Monobredo, Osobredus, Ostrofredo, Ragifredo, Reccafredus, Rouvredo, Sinifredus, Teodefredo, Viliefredus, Visclafredo.
  • -funsus, -fonsus, -bonsus, to Proto *funsaz 'eager, ready': Adefonsus, Andifonso, Argefonsus, Belfonsus, Erifonsus, Ildefonsus, Monefonsus, Requefonsus, Vilifonsus.
  • -fortis, probably to Latin fortis 'strong': Gundifortis.
  • -gis, -ges, -geses, -garius, to PGmc *gaizaz 'spear': Adeqisio, Astragis, Eldegeses, Ermegis, Felgirus, Gudegisus, Heremigarium, Leodegisius, Nitigisius, Sindigis, Tudiscaisum, Vedragese.
  • -gaster, -bastus to PGmc *gastiz 'guest': Adegaster, Albiaster, Algaster, Ardabastus, Argivastro, Donagastro, Leodegasti.
  • -gotus, -godus, to PGmc *gautaz 'Goth': Eldegotus, Ermegotus, Leubegutus, Savegodus, Sescutus, Teudecutus, Visigotus.
  • -gogia, to PGmc *gaujan 'district': Todegogia.
  • -gildus, -ildus, to PGmc *geld-az 'reward': Anagildus, Aquisildus, Atanagildus, Cagildo, Daildus, Donegildus, Egildus, Agildus, Engildus, Ermegildus, Fagildus, Falgildus, Fredilli, Fromildus, Frugildus, Gaudilti, Geodegildus, Goldegildo, Leovegildus, Megildus, Modildus, Mundildus, Nantildo, Onegildo, Pabregildus, Pederagildu, Remegildus, Sagildo, Sevegildo, Sisildus, Sitagellus, Sonegildus, Tarildus, Teodegildo, Tudeildus, Trenelldus, Trudigildus, Uanagildi, Usegildus, Vidragildus, Vigiltu, Vistragildus, Vitildus, Vivildus.
  • -gisclus, -isclus, to -gīslaz 'hostage, sprout': Fredisclus, Guntiesclo, Hermecisclus, Indisclus, Iuuisclus, Kedisilo, Munisclus, Odisclus, Ranisclus, Suniagisclus, Teodisclus, Vistisclo, Vitisclus.
  • -ardus, to PGmc *harduz 'hard': Ianardo, Pantardus, Ricardo.
  • -arius, later -eiro, to PGmc *harjaz 'army, host': Adarius, Agarius, Alarius, Amedeiro, Andiarius, Ascarius, Atarius, Aunarius, Baltarius, Bazarius, Belesarius, Bertarius, Cufarius, Donazarius, Ermiarius, Fredario, Frumarius, Gaifarius, Gitarius, Gualdarius, Guldarius, Gulfarius, Gumarius, Gundarius, Iubarius, Iustiarius, Leodarius, Lotarius, Magnarius, Mudario, Notarius, Olcarius, Quitarius, Ranarius, Ratario, Rauparius, Rechiarius, Remesario, Rumario, Sentarius, Spanarius, Suavarius, Suniarius, Suntarius, Teadario, Torsario, Trasarius, Truitero, Uandalarius, Valarius, Venedario, Viliarius, Visclario, Vistrarius, Vitarius.
  • -atus, later -ado, to PGmc *haþuz 'war': Alvatus, Andeatus, Astratus, Eugienadus, Ganati, Gomadus, Guanatus, Guntato, Iuvatus, Sagatus, Selvatus, Viliatus.
  • -elmus, to PGmc *helmaz 'helm': Villelmus.
  • -leus, to PGmc *hlewaz 'renown': Eilleus, Trevuleus, Unileus.
  • -ramnus, to PGmc *hrabnaz 'crow': Gunderamnus.
  • -ringus, -lenco, to PGmc *hrengaz 'ring': Froaringus, Fralenko.
  • -licus, to PGmc *laikaz 'dance, game, battle': Ivolicus.
  • -lindus, to PGmc *lenþaz 'gentle, mild': Ermelindus, Roelindus, Teodelindus.
  • -leobo, -levo, to PGmc *leubaz 'dear': Adileobo, Andilevo.
  • -marius, -marus, later -meiro, to PGmc mērjaz 'great, famous': Ansemarus, Astremarus, Baldemarius, Gresumarus, Gualamarius, Gundemarus, Gutumarus, Leudemarus, Salamarus, Segimarus, Zamarius.
  • -madus, to PGmc *maþ- 'good': Agimadus.
  • -mirus, -mero, to PGmc *mērjaz 'famous, excellent': Acimiro, Adimirus, Agromirus, Alamiro, Aldemirus, Ansemirus, Antemirus, Ariamiro, Argemirus, Artemiro, Aumiro, Bademirus, Baldemirus, Baudemirus, Belmirus, Bertamirus, Bonimiro, Cartemiro, Caudemirus, Cendamiro, Crescemirus, Crodemirus, Dacamiro, Damiro, Docemiro, Dulcemirus, Eimirus, Eldemirus, Engomirus, Ermemirus, Felmiro, Framiro, Francemirus, Franomiro, Fredemiro, Frumirus, Gademiro, Geldemirus, Gelmiro, Geodemirus, Gesmiro, Godemiro, Gualamirus, Guimirus, Guldremirus, Gulfemirus, Guntemirus, Gutemirus, Karmirus, Leodemiro, Leomirus, Nantemiro, Odamirus, Onemirus, Ostromirus, Astromirus, Estromirus, Quidemirus, Rademirus, Ragimiru, Randemirus, Ranemirus, Recemirus, Rodemirus, Salamirus, Santimirus, Saxomirus, Segomirus, Selmirus, Sendamirus, Sesmiro, Spodemirus, Suimirus, Sulfemirus, Sundemirus, Suniemirus, Teodemirus, Trasmiro, Trastemiro, Tructemiro, Vademirus, Victemirus, Vidramirus, Viliamirus, Visclamirus, Vistremiro, Vittimero.
  • -modus, to PGmc *mōdaz 'courage, anger, wrath': Trassemutus, Vermudus.
  • -mundus, later -mondo, to *mundaz 'protection, guardianship': Ansemondus, Argemondo, Arumundo, Asemondus, Astramondus, Atalamondo, Badamundus, Camundus, Damondus, Dolcemondus, Eldemundus, Fredamundus, Gemundus, Geodemondo, Gismundus, Germundus, Godomundus, Gomundus, Gontemondus, Goymundus, Guimundus, Gutemondo, Hermundus, Itimondo, Keremondus, Leodemundo, Nandamundus, Odemundus, Olemundus, Rademundus, Ranemundus, Recemundus, Reimondus, Remismundus, Rosamundus, Segemundus, Sesmundo, Sindamundus, Teodemundus, Trasmondo, Tructemondo, Unemundus, Vadamundus, Viamundus, Visclamundus, Vistemundo, Vistramundi, Vizamundus, Zamondo.
  • -nandus, later -ando, to PGmc *nanþ-az 'bold, courageous': Bretenandus, Ermenandus, Euvenandus, Fredenandus, Gudenandus, Ketenando, Reinantus, Riquinandus, Sisnandus, Teodenandus, Vittinandus.
  • -redus, -radus, -ridus, later -reu, to PGmc *rēdaz 'advice': Aderedus, Alderedus, Anseredo, Argeredus, Asoredus, Astredo, Balderedo, Dagaredus, Egeredus, Enaredus, Engoredus, Evorido, Falderedo, Fateredus, Fraredus, Fulcaredus, Goldredo, Gomaredus, Guderedus, Gunderedo, Kenderedus, Leoveredus, Malaredus, Moderido, Onaredus, Osoredo, Provaredo, Recaredus, Sabaredus, Sendredus, Seniaredus, Sigeredus, Sueredus, Teoderedus, Uiliaredus, Uimaredus, Visaridus.
  • -ricus, later -rigo, to PGmc *rīkz 'ruler, lord': Accaricus, Aderico, Alaricus, Aldericus, Aliaricus, Alvaricus, Andericus, Ansericus, Ardericus, Argericus, Ascarigus, Asparigus, Asterigo, Atanaricus, Atericus, Balderico, Betericus, Bliviaricus, Brandericus, Censerigus, Iensericus, Coniaricus, Desterigus, Domerigo, Eburicus, Eimericus, Eirigu, Elperico, Engorigus, Ermericus, Fredericus, Fromaricus, Fruaricus, Gauderigus, Geserigus, Getericus, Gildaricus, Golfarico, Gomarigus, Guderigo, Guimarigus, Guiricus, Gulderigus, Gunderigus, Ilderigus, Ionarico, Iusterigo, Iuvericus, Leoderigus, Leoverigus, Magnaricus, Malaricus, Matericus, Modericus, Monderico, Nandaricus, Odericus, Onoricus, Osorico, Ausarigus, Pipericus, Quidericus, Rakericus, Reirigus, Rendericus, Restericus, Retericus, Romarigus, Rudericus, Savaricus, Sendericus, Seririgo, Sesericus, Sigericus, Sigunterigo, Soniaricus, Spanaricu, Spandaricus, Spoderigo, Teodericus, Trasaricus, Tructericus, Turpericus, Venetricus, Vendericus, Genitrigus, Viaricus, Victericus, Viliaricu, Vistraricus.
  • -racus, later -rago, to PGmc *rakaz 'straight': Savaracus, Teoderago.
  • -rote, to PGmc *rōtaz 'glad': Ermerote.
  • -sendus, -sindus, to PGmc *senþaz 'companion' or to *swenþaz 'strong': Adelasindo, Adesindus, Andosindus, Ardesendus, Argesindus, Arosindus, Auresindus, Ausendus, Badosindus, Bagesindus, Becosindo, Baldesindo, Baudesindus, Berosindus, Bonesindus, Eisindus, Eldesindus, Ermosindus, Evosindo, Floresindus, Fortesindus, Fredosindus, Froisendus, Fromosindus, Gaudesindo, Geodesindus, Gitesindus, Gomesindo, Gotesendus, Gudesindus, Guisindus, Gundesindus, Leodesindo, Leovesindus, Manosindus, Marcosendus, Onesindus, Quedesendo, Kedesendo, Radesindus, Ragesindus, Ranosindus, Recesindus, Remesindus, Rudesindus, Segesindo, Spanosendo, Storesindo, Teodesindus, Trasendus, Tructesindus, Villisendo, Vistresindus, Zendasindo.
  • -scalcus, to PGmc *skalkaz 'servant': Gundiscalcus.
  • -suendo, -suindo, to PGmc *swenþaz 'strong': Reccesuindus.
  • -teus, -deus, -dius, to PGmc *þewaz 'servant': Ansedeus, Arnadius, Engladius, Filisteus, Gudesteus.
  • -ualdus, -aldus, -gualdus, -allo, to PGmc *waldaz 'ruler, mighty': Ansuallo, Anualdus, Ardaldus, Arnaldus, Arualdus, Astualdu, Avaldus, Barvaldus, Bernaldus, Bidualdus, Ensaldus, Ermaldus, Fredoaldus, Fromaldus, Giraldus, Gomaldo, Gontualdo, Grimaldus, Guantaldus, Leovaldo, Manualdus, Mirualdo, Otualdo, Ranualdus, Recualdus, Reginaldus, Servaldus, Sisualdo, Trasoldi, Vidraldus, Visaldus.
  • -uarius, -oarius, to PGmc *warjaz 'inhabitant, defender': Alduarius, Ansuario, Astruario, Freduarius, Oduarius, Osoarius, Randuarius, Trasuarius, Vistravarius.
  • -oindus, to PGmc *wendaz 'wind': Aloindo, Eindu, Fredoindus.
  • -oynus, to PGmc *weniz 'friend': Odoynus
  • -uerco, related to PGmc *werkan 'work': Aliverko, Eldivercus.
  • -uigio, -uigus, to PGmc *wīgaz 'fighter': Audugus, Baldoigius, Eldoigius, Ermoygius, Eroigius, Erigio, Guntigio, Leodeuigus, Mervigius, Rodougus, Viligus, Vistrevius.
  • -oytus, -vitus, probably related to PGmc *witōn 'wise': Aldroitus, Aloitus, Argevitus, Senduitu, Sesuito.
  • -ulfus, -gulfus, to PGmc *wulfaz 'wolf': Adaulfus, Ataulfus, Agiulfus, Agrivulfum, Aliulfus, Andulfus, Ansiulphus, Anulfo, Ardulfus, Ariulfus, Arnulfo, Asarulfo, Asculfo, Asiulfus, Astrulfus, Astulfus, Aulfus, Berulfus, Betrulfus, Brandiulfus, Ebregulfus, Endulfus, Ermulfo, Eruulfus, Fardulfus, Fradiulfus, Fredulfus, Fregulfus, Frogiulfo, Gandulfo, Gardulfus, Gaulfus, Geodulfus, Gesulfus, Ierulfus, Gigulfo, Gomulfus, Gresulfo, Gudilulfo, Gundulfo, Ildulfus, Kendulfus, Leodulfus, Mandulfo, Maniulfus, Manulfus, Meitulfus, Nandulfo, Osdulfus, Quedulfus, Radulfus, Ragolfus, Randulfus, Ranulfus, Refulfo, Regaulfus, Sagulfus, Sendulfus, Seniulfus, Serulfus, Sisulfus, Teodulfus, Trastulfus, Trasulfus, Trudulfus, Tundulfus, Turisulfus, Uisulfus, Venariufi, Viliulfus.
  • -uldus, -guldus, to PGmc *wulþuz 'splendor': Arebuldo, Atauldus, Ebreguldus, Framuldo, Frineguldus, Fronuldo, Gebuldus, Itaultus, Senuldo, Sisuldus, Toduldo, Tumtuldo.

As for the suffixes used to derivate hippocoristic masculine names:

  • -eca / -ica, later -ega: Abrecan, Adica, Audeca, Begica, Egica, Elleca, Gagica, Segika.
  • -ila, later -ia: Adila, Andila, Anila, Ansila, Attila, Audila, Azilane, Badila, Baldila, Becilla, Bergila, Berila, Blandila, Brandila, Butila, Cixila, Crizila, Cutella, Dadila, Danila, Ducila, Egila, Agila, Emila, Ermila, Fafila, Fafia, Fagila, Fandila, Favila, Fradila, Framila, Frankila, Froila, Gandila, Gaudilani, Gavila, Gladila, Gramila, Guadla, Guandila, Gudila, Gulfila, Gumila, Gundila, Ikila, Itila, Iudila, Iustila, Iuvila, Keila, Kinquila, Ledla, Lubila, Magila, Manilla, Mantila, Martila, Massila, Mellilla, Merila, Mudila, Mugila, Mumila, Mundila, Naustila, Nuilla, Neufila, Nunnila, Ofila, Oila, Opila, Ossila, Quintila, Ramila, Riquila, Romila, Rudila, Sabila, Scarcila, Sigila, Sindila, Sunila, Tancila, Tegila, Teodila, Titila, Tuntila, Unilla, Vertila, Vidila, Vigila, Vincila, Visterla, Vitila, Vizila, Zisila.
  • -inus, later -ino: Addalinus, Aldinus, Bagino, Baltino, Baquino, Batinus, Berinus, Bertinus, Blandinus, Boninus, Brandinus, Cartinus, Crescino, Dadinus, Dalinus, Eldinus, Evorinus, Fandinus, Farino, Favino, Fofino, Fonsinus, Fruginus, Frauino, Gandinus, Gaudinas, Gavinus, Gentino, Gendinus, Golinus, Guginus, Gulfinus, Gultinus, Guntinus, Gutinus, Haginus, Hamdino, Iubinus, Karinus, Lallinus, Lelino, Lubinus, Mandinus, Maninus, Matlinus, Muginus, Mundinus, Nandinus, Naninus, Nunninus, Odinus, Audinus, Pantinus, Pappinus, Pennino, Pipinus, Quizino, Randinus, Recinus, Sandinus, Scerinus, Sedino, Sendinus, Sisinus, Spintino, Suffini, Tancinus, Tanino, Tatina, Tetina, Tegino, Teodinus, Tracinus, Tradinus, Tructinus, Trudinus, Uittina, Uittinus, Vandino, Goandinus, Vitinus, Zanino.
  • -linus, -llinus: Abbelino, Adolinus, Francolino, Gundelinus, Iovellinus.
  • -itus, later -ido: Cagitus, Carito, Crescitu, Donnitus, Froritum, Ganiti, Gegitus, Gogitus, Gumito, Guncitus, Iuvitus, Magitus, Magnitus, Manitus, Marcitus, Maxitus, Nannitus, Nonnitu, Papitus, Pegito, Pinnitus, Ragito, Sabitus, Sunitus, Sonnito, Tanitus, Atanitus, Tegitus, Trasido, Uegitus, Zanitus, Zazitus, Zenzitus.
  • -ellus, later -elo: Betellus, Felellus, Francellus, Froiellus, Frumellus, Gigelus, Gumellus, Guntellus, Gutellus, Hermellus, Lubellus, Mannello, Mantellus, Mirellus, Mundellus, Nonellus, Papellus, Recelli, Sendello, Sisellus, Trastelus, Truitellus, Uistrello, Visellu, Zanellus.

Superlative and comparative suffixes were also used for the formation of personal names: -iza: Boniza, Wittiza. -istaz: Ariastre, Belestrio, Fromesta, Remestro, Segestro.

Other suffixes imply origin of a person, or some other kind of relation:

  • -ingaz: Amingus, Bellengus, Gardingus.
  • -iskaz: Vandaliscus 'Vandal (man)', Huniscus 'Hun (man)'
  • -iskō: Hunisco 'Hun (woman)'

Toponyms[edit]

Many of these names have also originated local place names (towns, parishes, villages, hamlets and fields), usually in the form of a Latin or Germanic genitive of the name of the proprietor, sometimes preceded by the type of property, a Galician word of Latin, Germanic or pre-Latin origin: vila (meaning 'villa, palace, state'), vilar ('hamlet') castro ('castle'), casa ('house'), porta ('pass, ford'), agro ('field'), sa (to Germanic sala 'hall, house'), busto ('dairy'), cabana ('cabin'), lama ('pastures'), fonte ('well, spring'), pena ('fort'), pumar ('orchard'), val ('valley'), among others. As an example, some 5% of the names of the 315 municipalities of Galicia have this kind of origin:

Several thousands of such toponyms are known in Galicia, Northern Portugal, Western Asturias, and other territories which belonged to the Suebi kingdom.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In Colección Diplomática de Galicia Histórica. Santiago (1901), p. 225-226.
  2. ^ Boullón Agrelo (1999) p. 81-83.
  3. ^ Cf. Boullón Agrelo (1999) p. 98-101.
  4. ^ A few thousands Galician and Portuguese toponyms derive from the genitive form of a Germanic anthroponym. Cf. Sachs (1932).
  5. ^ Cf. Searle (1897). p. xii-xiv.
  6. ^ Cf. George T. Flom (1917) Alliteration and Variation in Old Germanic Name-Giving, in Modern Language Notes Vol. 32, No. 1 (Jan., 1917), pp. 7-17
  7. ^ Cf. Sachs (1932) p. 14-23.
  8. ^ Cf. Boullón Agrelo (1999) p. 342; and Rivas Quintas (1991) p. 242.
  9. ^ Piel (1937) p. 48.
  10. ^ Piel (1939) p. 79.
  11. ^ Sachs (1932) p. 95-96.
  12. ^ For this and other Proto-Germanic reconstructions: V. Orel (2003) A Handbook of Germanic Etymology; and G. Köbler (2007) Germanisches Wörterbuch.
  13. ^ Boullón Agrelo (1999) s.v. Ganildi.
  14. ^ Piel (1933) p. 225.
  15. ^ Sachs (1932) p. 40-41.
  16. ^ Sachs (1932) p. 81.
  17. ^ Sachs (1932) p. 58.
  18. ^ Sachs (1932) p. 60-61.
  19. ^ Sachs (1932) p. 59-61.
  20. ^ Sachs (1932) p. 101.
  21. ^ Sachs (1932) p. 73.
  22. ^ Sachs (1932) p. 78.
  23. ^ Sachs (1932) p. 80-81.
  24. ^ But Cf. Sachs (1932) p. 86, who interprets it as derived from Sandila.
  25. ^ Cf. Sachs (1932) p. 86.

Literature[edit]

Proto-Germanic reconstruction[edit]

  • Orel, Vladimir (2003). Handbook of Germanic Etymology. Leiden: Brill, 2003. ISBN 978-90-04-12875-0.
  • Köbler, Gerhard. (2007). Germanisches Wörterbuch. On-line [1].

Germanic personal names[edit]

Galician Medieval onomastics[edit]

  • Rivas Quintas, Elixio (1991) Onomástica persoal do noroeste hispano. Alvarellos: Lugo, 1991. ISBN 84-85311-93-0.
  • Boullón Agrelo, Ana I. (1999). Antroponimia medieval galega (ss. VIII-XII). Tübingen: Niemeyer, 1999. ISBN 978-3-484-55512-9.

Germanic toponymy in Galicia[edit]

  • Sachs, Georg (1932) Die germanischen Ortsnamen in Spanien und Portugal. Jena: Leipzig, 1932.
  • Piel, J. (1933-1940) Os nomes germânicos na toponímia portuguesa. In Boletim Português de Filologia vol. II-VII: Lisboa.