29 October 1964
Limburg an der Lahn, Hesse
|Occupation||author, chemist, historian, holocaust denier|
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (November 2013)|
Rudolf was born in Limburg an der Lahn, Hesse. After finishing secondary education in 1983 in Remscheid, Rudolf studied chemistry in Bonn, completing his studies in 1989. As a student, he joined A.V. Tuisconia Königsberg zu Bonn and K.D.St.V. Nordgau Prag zu Stuttgart. Both are Catholic fraternities belonging to the Cartellverband der katholischen deutschen Studentenverbindungen. He was a temporary supporter of the CSU/CDU, but parted ways and became a temporary member of Die Republikaner (REP) due to their more patriotic policy.
After his military service, he was temporarily employed at the Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research in Stuttgart, beginning in October 1990, where he prepared a PhD thesis. Starting in 1991 he wrote a paper, entitled "Report on the formation and verifiability of cyanide compounds in the Auschwitz gas chambers" on behalf of the Düsseldorf attorney Hajo Herrmann, a former Luftwaffe pilot holding the rank of Oberst. In 1993, when his report caused some media attention, his employer ordered Rudolf not to enter the Max Planck Institute without permission. When Rudolf did enter the institute uninvited, his employment contract was terminated without notice. In 1994 this termination was converted into a termination by mutual agreement. In 1996 the University of Stuttgart demanded that Rudolf retract his application for his final PhD examination, otherwise the University would deny it, rendering his PhD thesis worthless. The legal basis for this is a German law permitting universities to deny or withdraw academic degrees where the candidate in question has used his academic credentials or knowledge to commit a crime. Rudolf subsequently withdrew his application.
Between 1991 and 1994, Herrmann as well as other defense lawyers used Rudolf's report for the defense of several defendants, among them Otto Ernst Remer, a former Wehrmacht officer charged with incitement of hatred, a criminal offense in German law. Although Rudolf was aware from the outset that his work would become publicly associated with an extremely controversial individual, he insisted that even an individual as despised by the general public as Remer has a right to a legal defense. Rudolf stated that his findings at Auschwitz and Birkenau "completely shattered his world view," which motivated him to continue despite increasing societal and legal resistance against his work.
Among other things, the report states that, after having collected and analyzed samples from the walls of various buildings in the Auschwitz concentration camp, only insignificant and non-reproducible traces of cyanide compounds can be found in the samples taken from the gas chambers. Richard Green and Jamie McCarthy from The Holocaust History Project have criticized the report, saying that like Fred Leuchter in the Leuchter report, Rudolf did not discriminate against the formation of iron-based cyanide compounds, which are not a reliable indicator of the presence of cyanide, and that thus his experiment was seriously flawed.
Both in 1994 and in 1995 Rudolf was evicted from his rented apartments after media articles had reported about police searches in his homes. In 1995 a TV report revealing the identity of his current employer led to the immediate termination of his employment contract. That same year Rudolf was expelled from the Catholic fraternities on grounds of having violated his fraternity's principles by his Holocaust denial publications.
Legal consequences: Escape, Deportation and Imprisonment
In 1995, Rudolf was sentenced to 14 months in prison by the district court of Stuttgart because of the "Rudolf Report", as Holocaust denial is a crime in Germany. Rudolf avoided prison by fleeing to Spain, England and finally to the United States. There, he applied for political asylum, but his request was denied in 2006.
Meanwhile, criminal investigations continued in Germany. In August 2004, the district court of Mannheim distrained a bank account in an attempt to confiscate 55% of Rudolf's business turnover from the years 2001-2004 (some €214,000; but at that time the account contained only some €5,000). Rudolf and his associates had earned this money by selling publications which are banned in Germany, although Rudolf's business was located in the UK and the US, where this activity was and is legal.
On September 11, 2004, Rudolf married a US citizen and subsequently had a child. His first marriage was to a German national with whom he had two children. His requests for asylum or at least withholding from removal were turned down in November 2004 of that year on the basis that his application had no merits and was indeed "frivolous." Rudolf appealed against this ruling, and as a result of this the US Federal Court in Atlanta denied in early 2006 that his application was frivolous, yet it upheld that it had no merit. While Rudolf's asylum case was still pending, he was arrested on October 19, 2005, seconds after his marriage had been certified as genuine and valid. The Immigration Services stated that Rudolf did not have a right to file an application to remain with his family. On November 14, 2005, Rudolf was deported to Germany where he was wanted for inciting racial hatred. On arrival there he was arrested by police authorities and transferred first to a prison in Rottenburg, then to one in Stuttgart in Baden-Württemberg. On March 15, 2007, the Mannheim District Court sentenced Rudolf to two years and six months in prison for inciting hatred, disparaging the dead, and libel. Rudolf as well as the prosecution accepted the verdict. Rudolf's "Lectures on the Holocaust" were confiscated and ordered to be destroyed, that is to say, burned in waste incinerators under police supervision. The prosecution's initial request to confiscate €214,000 was reduced to €21,000, the total turnover from sales of the former book. He was released from German prison, July 5, 2009 and now lives in the US with his wife and daughter.
After Rudolf was dismissed from the Max Planck Institute, he started to publish several books on the Holocaust. He founded Castle Hill Publishers in Hastings, England with Theses & Dissertations Press as its American outlet. In 2000 Rudolf launched his English language "Holocaust Handbooks Series", a series of Holocaust denial titles which, as of 2013, encompassed 25 titles. Furthermore, Rudolf is closely associated with the Belgian Holocaust denial organization Vrij Historisch Onderzoek (VHO). Until his arrest in late 2005, he published the now defunct "Vierteljahreshefte für freie Geschichtsforschung" (Quarterly journal for free historical research), described by the German Office for the Protection of the Constitution as "a right-wing extremist organ."
Dissecting the Holocaust
Dissecting the Holocaust was edited and coauthored by Rudolf under the nom de plume Ernst Gauss. The German language publication with the title Grundlagen zur Zeitgeschichte resulted in further indictments being filed against Rudolf. Among the contributors to the work are other Holocaust deniers such as Robert Faurisson, Jürgen Graf, Carlo Mattogno, Udo Walendy and Friedrich Paul Berg. Included as an appendix is a defense of the work used at the trial by historian Joachim Hoffmann.
Investigation into new reports about 9/11
In July 2003, according to his own published articles, Rudolf conducted limited experiments in the use of cell phones from an airliner while in flight. He reports mixed results and has left the question open. His stated reason for conducting these experiments is to verify or deny a widely circulated claim that it is impossible to make cell phone calls from an airliner at cruising height.
- "A German court sentenced Holocaust denier Germar Rudolf to two and a half years in prison for inciting racial hatred in publications and Web sites which "systematically" called into question the Nazi genocide." "German Holocaust Denier Imprisoned for Inciting Racial Hatred", Deutsche Welle, February 16, 2007.
- Green, Richard J. "Chemistry is Not the Science: Rudolf, Rhetoric, and Reduction". Retrieved 2008-05-26.
- "2006 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Germany," US Department of State (March 6, 2007).
- N24 (March 15, 2007). "Haft für Holocaust-Leugner". N24. Archived from the original on 2007-05-05. Retrieved 2007-03-20.
- Annual Report of the Office for the Protection of the Constitution 2002, Right-Wing Extremist Activities, VII. Revisionism, “German revisionist uses foreign press for agitation,” Page 84.
- Appendix 2 - Grundlagen zur Zeitgeschichte in Dissecting the Holocaust, 2nd ed., Theses & Dissertations Press (Chicago, IL), 2003, pp. 563-566
- Germar Rudolf, "Cell Phone Experiments in Airliners", The Revisionist, vol. 1, no. 3, 2003, pp. 271f. Retrieved 2013-12-29.
- Germar Rudolf's Homepage
- The Rudolf Report
- Detailed response to Rudolf's report by Richard Green from The Holocaust History Project (1999)
- The 2004 annual report by the German Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution (PDF, German)[dead link]