Gettysburg Battlefield Historic District

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For the smaller area of military engagements, see Gettysburg Battlefield.
Gettysburg Battlefield Historic District
Gettysburg mon 111th NY Inf.JPG
Memorial on the Gettysburg Battlefield to the 111th New York Infantry, February 2012
Gettysburg Battlefield Historic District is located in Pennsylvania
Gettysburg Battlefield Historic District
Location Adams County, Pennsylvania
Coordinates 39°48′59″N 77°13′49″W / 39.81639°N 77.23028°W / 39.81639; -77.23028Coordinates: 39°48′59″N 77°13′49″W / 39.81639°N 77.23028°W / 39.81639; -77.23028
Area ~11,000 acres (4,500 ha)[3]
Architectural style

Colonial (1776 tavern), Neoclassical (1797 hotel),
Vernacular (1815 academy)[4]
Federal (1815 house),
Greek Revival (1837 "edifice"),
Italianate (1855 gatehouse),[5]
Gothic Revival (1862 home),
Queen Anne (1883 house)
Romanesque (1889 hall),
Castellated tower (1889 monument)
Box truss (1895 observatory[disambiguation needed])
Beaux-Arts (1906 bank)[4]
Parkitecture (1933 station),[6][7]:'33
Art deco (1938 armory)

Modernist (1962 museum)
MPS Battle of Gettysburg MPS
NRHP Reference # 75000155[1][2]
Added to NRHP March 19, 1975

The Gettysburg Battlefield Historic District is a region of contributing properties and over 1000 historic contributing structures (including Battle of Gettysburg memorials) and 315 historic buildings,[1] most of which are on the protected federal property of the smaller Gettysburg National Military Park. Historic buildings range from a 1776 Colonial tavern to a vacant 1962 Modernist museum. Contributing structures include postbellum artifacts such as the 1895 Big Round Top Observation Tower Foundation Ruin, the 1893 Electric Trolley Bed, and the only remaining Tipton Boundary Marker.[8]

History[edit]

Historical events regarding the district's registered/documented properties include the famous 1863 Battle of Gettysburg and Gettysburg Address, and the subsequent Gettysburg Battlefield memorial development, historic commemorations, and addition of visitor services during the subsequent administrative eras. Events preceding the battle include the prehistoric geomorphological events which formed the battlefield terrain that was an integral part of the battle, as well as the construction of structures subsequently associated with the battle. Notable antebellum structures that no longer exist include the 1761[9] Samuel Gettys tavern, as well as the c. 1790 McAllister Mill along Rock Creek used by the Underground Railroad. The 1776 Dobbin House Tavern was outside of the borough when it was surveyed in 1785,[10] and the 1786 Brafferton Inn (Hoke-Codori House)[10] is the "oldest deeded house in downtown Gettysburg".[11] The c. 1795 pub (Quinn's 1859 "Railroad Store",[12] 1924 Mitchell's Restaurant)[11] on the northeast of the center square subsequently burned and has been restored.[13] By 1934, the first National Park Service Parkitecture of Gettysburg granite had been completed near The Pennsylvania State Memorial.

Official groupings of historical real estate tracts began with the 1864 Gettysburg Battlefield Memorial Association and continued with the initial United States Department of War acquisitions in 1893. The 1895 "Sickles Gettysburg Park Bill" (28 Stat. 651) designated the Gettysburg National Military Park (GNMP),[14] which included areas outside of the battlefield (e.g., structures used as field hospitals) and which was transferred in 1933 to the 1916 National Park Service. The GNMP was added to the national register in 1966, and the Gettysburg Borough Council adopted a Historic District ordinance in 1972.[15]

The historic district, which covers a larger area than either the national park or the battlefield, was designated via 2 multiple property submissions of contributing structures and properties, the first being the Battle of Gettysburg MPS on March 19, 1975. The list of classified structures was expanded from 618 to 1200 entries c. 1993,[16] and the second MPS was dated January 23, 2004.[8]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Adams County - Historic Districts". NationalRegisterOfHistoricPlaces.com. Retrieved 2011-02-13. 
  2. ^ [not in citation given]"National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2008-04-15. 
  3. ^ Cultural Landcapes Inventory: Professional Procedures Guide (Report). NPS.gov. January 2009. http://www.nps.gov/oclp/CLI%20PPG_January2009_small.pdf. Retrieved 2011-02-22. "The approximately 11,000-acre Gettysburg Battlefield Historic District embraces the land area associated with the battle of Gettysburg. … In a more complex park, such as Gettysburg National Military Park, the CLI could identify the 3,965 acre park as the landscape"
  4. ^ a b "Gettysburg Borough". LivingPlaces.com. Retrieved 2011-05-08. "the Reuning House built as the Academy Building at 66 West High Street. It was built in 1813-15 for the Gettysburg Academy, but its architecture displays characteristics of the vernacular residential style … Adams County National Bank which was constructed in 1906. The structure is an excellent example of Beaux Arts Classicism" 
  5. ^ "Collector Items". EvergreenCemetery.org. Retrieved 2011-04-11. 
  6. ^ "New Comfort Station to be Built on Field" (Google News Archive). Gettysburg Times. May 5, 1933. Retrieved 2011-04-11. 
  7. ^ Gettysburg National Military Park Commission. "An Introduction to the Annual Reports of the Gettysburg National Military Park Commission to the Secretary of War". The Gettysburg Commission Reports. Gettysburg, PA: War Department. 
  8. ^ a b "List of Classified Structures". NPS.gov.  by "structure number":
    RR02: "Electric Trolley Bed". Retrieved 2011-03-02. "[rail] trail along Plum Run at Devils Den, runs N through Rose Farm & stops near The Loop." 
    MN807: "Tipton Boundary Marker". Retrieved 2011-03-02. "approximately, 7"x7"x1'. Inscribed "T" on top of marker. … rough granite with a "T" inscribed on the top. … at a corner of Tipton land purchased in March 1892 as part of the Tipton Park and photographic studio."  NPS02: "Old Slaughter Pen Path and Steps". Retrieved 2011-03-04. "used by trolley passengers … Path and steps are now used as a Park trail. … Path runs N/S from Plum Run to Sickles Avenue." 
  9. ^ "Historical Gettysburg, PA". GettysburgWebInfo.com. Retrieved 2011-04-20. "In 1761, A Scots-Irish settler, Samuel Gettys, established a tavern in the area." 
  10. ^ a b "The_Colonial_Period". Kevintrostle.com. Retrieved 2013-11-16. 
  11. ^ a b http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=78slAAAAIBAJ&sjid=1_kFAAAAIBAJ&pg=6124,1052341&dq=mitchell's-restaurant+gettysburg&hl=en
  12. ^ http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=35EmAAAAIBAJ&sjid=KQEGAAAAIBAJ&pg=3210,4184202&dq=gettysburg+railroad&hl=en
  13. ^ Lincoln Highway - Brian Butko - Google Boeken. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2013-11-16. 
  14. ^ "Gettysburg National Military Park Established By Sickles, Bill Passed In February 1895" (Google News Archive). Gettysburg Times. February 10, 1970. Retrieved 2011-01-26. 
  15. ^ "Borough of Gettysburg …historic crossroads". Borough Office. Retrieved 2011-04-11. 
  16. ^ http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=9OAlAAAAIBAJ&sjid=kv0FAAAAIBAJ&pg=6904,2519313&dq=list-of-classified-structures+gettysburg&hl=en

External links[edit]