Gettysburg National Cemetery

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Coordinates: 39°49′2″N 77°13′55″W / 39.81722°N 77.23194°W / 39.81722; -77.23194
Gettysburg National Cemetery
National Cemetery at Gettysburg[1][2]
Soldiers National Cemetery at Gettysburg
[3][4]
Gettysburg NMP district
Gettysburg national cemetery img 4164.jpg
The Soldiers National Monument is at the center of "two semi-circular sections"[5] with 18 Union states' areas, a US Regulars area[6] and 3 areas for graves of the unknown.
Country United States
State Pennsylvania
County Adams
Historic district Gettysburg Historic (75000155)
NPS unit Gettysburg NMP
Landform Cemetery Hill
Borders on
Parts 18 original sections
6 postbellum sections
Annex of 0 acres (0 ha)[specify]
Coordinates 39°49′2″N 77°13′55″W / 39.81722°N 77.23194°W / 39.81722; -77.23194 [3]
Area[specify]
1863 tracts
1963 addition
1970s additions
0 acres (0 ha)
17 acres (6.9 ha)[9]
5 acres (2.0 ha)
[specify]
Consecration
Incorporated[10]
NRHP submission[11]
1863 November 19
1864 March 25
1975 March 19 (structures)
Government 1863: Board
1872: War Dept (Quartermasters)[8]
1933: National Park Service
NPS district code
GNIS code
Find A Grave CRid
GETC
2498537[3]
1584934 (10 famous interments) [12]
Architect William Saunders (botanist)
1904 depiction[13] of a circular monument[specify] at the future Lincoln Address Memorial site and of the trolley around both cemeteries.)
Graves of soldiers from wars after the Civil War at the cemetery's corner along the Taneytown Road south of the Lincoln Address Memorial. (top left)

The Gettysburg National Cemetery within the Gettysburg National Military Park is an American Civil War cemetery created for Union casualties of the Battle of Gettysburg.[14] In addition to reinterments from the Gettysburg Battlefield, the 1863 state-owned "national cemetery" has subsequent sections for Spanish-American War, World War I, and other wars' soldiers and their spouses and children. The cemetery's historic district contributing structures include the stone walls (structure number CM01), iron fences and gates (CM02, CM03), burial and section markers (CM04, CM05, CM06), the brick sidewalk (CM07), and various battlefield monuments, memorials, and exhibits.[11]

Reinterments[edit]

Union remains were transferred from the Gettysburg Battlefield burial plots (e.g., on Cemetery Hill)[15] as well as local church cemeteries, field hospital burial sites (e.g., Camp Letterman & the Rock Creek-White Run Union Hospital Complex), the "U. S. A. General Hospital, York, Pa."[16] and the Valley of Death where unburied soldiers decomposed in place.[17] Samuel Weaver, as "Superintendent of the exhuming of the bodies", personally observed the contractor's workers opening graves, placing remains in coffins, and burying them in the cemetery,[16]:158 and at least 1 reinterment was from the neighboring Evergreen Cemetery (Adams County, Pennsylvania).

Chronology
Date Event
Symbols: †-interments  ۩-structures  §-superintendents
1863-07-01 Union artillery in the summit's cornfield[18] at the subsequent cemetery site counterfired on Confederates west of Gettysburg at the seminary and railway cut.[19] On July 2, Confederate sharpshooters in Gettysburg were "picking off" Federals on the hill.[20]
1863-07-04 8,900 dead soldiers were on the battlefield,[21] and townspeople and farmers buried some of them at battlefield sites (e.g., along fences and stone walls).[22]
1863-07-07 The local Provost Marshal solicited "Men, Horses, and Wagons…to bury the dead" in various Gettysburg Battlefield plots.[1]
1863-07-10 The last "Rebel dead" were interred on the battlefield (horse carcasses remained to be buried).[2]
[when?] Battlefield land preservation began by August 5[23] with attorney David McConaughy's purchases including "the heights of Cemetery Hill"[24] which he planned for a soldiers' cemetery where lots could be purchased for reinterring soldiers.
1863-07-20 "Peter Thorn", [sic] who was deployed from Gettysburg in a combat unit, began weekly newspaper ads for "removals into Ever Green Cemetery".[3]
1863-07-24 David Wills, a Gettysburg attorney, recommended a state-funded cemetery at the south slope of East Cemetery Hill "on the Baltimore turnpike, opposite the Cemetery"[25]:4—the open, sloped tract of 8 acres (3.2 ha)[26] was sold by Peter Thorn in 1899.[27]
1863-07-28 State funds regarding "Pennsylvanians killed [were for] furnishing transportation for the body and one attendant" to home cemeteries [28] (600-700 coffins were used.)[29]
1863-08-14 Wills, after being designated Pennsylvania Governor Andrew Curtin's agent, purchased McConaughy's summit tract and a day or so later[who?] a 2nd tract "between Evergreen and the five-acre tract of Miller's apple orchard"[25]:6 totalling 17 acres (6.9 ha) for $2,475.87[30] ($47,420 in 2014 dollars).
1863-08-21 Wills had contacted William Saunders about designing the cemetery.[31]
1863 The reinterment contract was issued and required wooden boards nailed to the head of the coffins to protrude from the ground for displaying identities.[32]
1863-10-17 † In a former cornfield of the battle,[33] the 1st reinterments (Cpl Story & Pvt James) were from the 1804 "United Presbyterian Burying Ground".[16]:140 The "Associate Reformed Graveyard"[34] closed in 1899[35] (at least five others are identified as reinterred from that graveyard.)[34]
1863-11-16 ۩ A flagpole was erected "near the stand prepared for the world-renowned Orator, Hon. Edward Everett".[36] The 12 ft × 20 ft (3.7 m × 6.1 m)[37] "platform" was "on the spot where the monument is to be built[5]…"fronting away from the cemetery [toward the subsequent] vast audience" (in Evergreen Cemetery).[38]
1863-11 Joseph Becker sketched the flagpole, the "grand stand" ("speaker will face this way"), and East Cemetery Hill graves.[15]
1863-11-19 ¶ President Abraham Lincoln delivered the Gettysburg Address after the Everett oration at the Consecration of the National Cemetery at Gettysburg.
1863-11-24 † 1188 remains, including 582 unknown, "had already been interred in the Cemetery".[22]
1863-12-07 Wills advertised for farmers to report graves on their property.[39]
1863-12-17 The Board of Commissioners of the Soldiers' National Cemetery at Gettysburg was organized at Harrisburg and incorporated on March 25, 1864.[4][5][4]
1864-02-03 Michigan appropriated the first payment from a state for the cemetery. By the federal turnover in 1872, 18 states had contributed $129,523.24.[25]:26
[when?] The "city of Boston" exhumed 158 soldiers' remains for reinterment in Massachusetts.[16]:161
1864-03-19 † Samuel Weaver reported 3,512 total Union bodies "taken up and removed to the Soldiers' National Cemetery" October 27-March 18.[16]:161
1864-03-21 † Wills identified the cemetery had 3,564 total burials, including those buried directly in the cemetery (not exhumed)[16]:175 (e.g., Major George Tate's leg amputated at a hospital was buried in the cemetery which he annually visit from Massachusetts.)[40]
1864-12 † 37 more bodies had been located and reinterred, the stone walls had been completed (the lodge nearly so), and the "main avenue" was "ready for macadamizing".[25]
1865 Wills had iron fencing erected between the Soldiers' and Evergreen cemeteries[41] contrary to the condistion when Pennsylvania purchased McConaughy's tract.[23]
1865-03-06 ۩ The cemetery's 3 stone walls and the brick "gate house" (lodge) were complete, and the gate was ready to be erected.[16]
1865-05 § Daniel K. Snyder was appointed the cemetery superintendent, and was replaced in November by Sgt John McAllister.[25]:21
1865 ۩ The wooden marker boards for each grave were replaced with gravestones [6] (the CCC reset gravestones into concrete in 1934).[42]
[specify] † A Union soldier buried July 5, 1863, at South Mountain's Monterey toll house was reinterred at the cemetery (his wife visited both sites for the 1913 reunion).[7]
1865-07-04 ۩ The "Exercises Incidental to the Laying of the Corner Stone" for the Soldiers' National Monument were conducted[43] after designs had been requested in 1864.[44]:35
1867-06-19 To plan the transfer to the federal government, the "Board of Managers" appointed a committee[45] (Blake, Carr, Ferry, Hebard, McCurdy, Selleck, and Wills).[46]
1867-06-20 The Committee of Arrangement of the Board of Commissioners of the National Cemetery met Governor Geary, who with General Grant visited the cemetery.[46]
1867 ۩ The marble urn in the National Cemetery was dedicated to the 1st Minnesota Infantry.[8]
1869-07-01 ۩ The Soldiers' National Monument was dedicated[4] after the crowning statue of the Genius of Liberty had arrived in October 1868.[9] On August 26, the "Plenty" statue was added to the monument,[4] and the "Peace" statue was added between[specify] August 30, 1869,[47] and September 21, 1887.[9]
c. 1870 ۩ The 2nd floor of the stone "gatehouse" (Greek Revival architecture) was expanded with a Mansard roof.[10]
1870-07-14 "A Resolution Authorizing the Secretary of War to take charge of the Gettysburg and Antietam National Cemeteries" passed.[48]
1871-07-22 The commissioners met ""to close up the business of the Board preparatory to its transfer to the National Government".[11]
1872-05-01 Pennsylvania ceded the cemetery to the Department of War[44] (the board of commissioners expired.)[49]
1872-08 § Charles Stambaugh became the superintendent until July 1873.[25]:26
1872-08-31 ۩ The Reynolds statue cast from bronze cannon tubes[25]:25 (Robert Wood & Co. foundry, J. Q. A. Ward design) was erected on a dark Quincy granite pedestal.[43]:17
1878-10 ۩ 50 new iron settees were placed in the cemetery.[12]
1879-05 ۩ The 1st rostrum of 20 ft × 40 ft (6.1 m × 12.2 m) was being completed by P. J. and J. J. Tawney,[50] with 12 brick columns and a 5-foot-high (1.5 m) high floor.[51] In addition to Decoration and Dedication days' observances, the building was used during military camps (e.g.,1882 Camp Burnside)[52] and 1890 Camp Abe Patterson).[53]
1881-06 † 20 skeletons plowed up on the Gelback Farm along the Emmitsburg Road were reinterred.[13]
1882 ۩ 17 tablets were erected to display stanzas of Bivouac of the Dead (only 8 remain).[11]
1882-05-10 † During Grand Central Avenue (now Hancock Avenue) construction, remains of a US soldier found on the Leister Farm were interred in the Cemetery.[54]
1884-11-08 † First and only African-American veteran of the Civil War, Henry Gooden of the 127th Regiment United States Colored Troops, is buried among U.S. Regulars in the Civil War section.[55][56]
1887-10-01 § Battlefield guide[57] and assistant superintendent William Holtzworth replaced Supt. Nicholas G. Wilson who resigned to become the GBMA superintendent.[54]
1889 † Remains found during avenue construction were reinterred in the cemetery,[14] and the cemetery gate to the Taneytown Road was planned.[15]
1889-09 Joseph H. Smith constructed the "grand stand…for use on Thursday, Pennsylvania Day … on the large lawn in front of the rostrum".[16]
1890 ۩ Two "Act of Congress Tablets" were placed in the cemetery to commemorate[11] the February 22, 1867 "act to establish and perfect National Cemeteries"[17] (the congressional reburial program had been resolved on April 13, 1866).[58]
1891-02 ۩ The cemetery's Taneytown Road (west) entrance was built at the summit curve of the Gettysburg Electric Railway.[13]
1891 § Calvin Hamilton resigned as[59] local school board president [18] and became the cemetery superintendent after 2 years as assistant to W. D. Holtzworth.[19]
1892 ۩ William H. Tipton photographed the cemetery's summer house near the west gate.
1893-07-02 ۩ After an October 1890 objection by Wills had been resolved, the Ionic[49] New York State Monument[11] was unveiled [20] with the "statue of “Victory” in the presence of at least 12,000 persons".[60] The ceremony concluded with an artillery salute by Battery C. [21]
1899 † Remains found at the United Presbyterian Cemetery during construction of the shirt factory were reinterred in the cemetery.[35]
1899-09-23 † Remains of 18 soldiers found on Culp's Hill were reinterred in the cemetery.[22]
1900 † Remains found by fence builders on a farm were reinterred in the cemetery.[61]
1903 ۩ A larger Gettysburg Rostrum was built [23] 36.8 ft × 22 ft (11.2 m × 6.7 m) with a sod platform[11] to replace the original 1879 rostrum.
1904-05-30 ¶ President Theodore Roosevelt delivered the Decoration Day address [24] after detraining near the McPherson Ridge railway cut.[25]
1905 The lodge at the Baltimore Pike entrance was dismantled[62] (teacher Ruth Hamilton at the High Street School had lived at the lodge).[26]
1906 ۩ $6000 was appropriated for a new lodge for the superintendent[63] (Wm. H. Johns was the contractor.)[27]
1908 Memorial flags were 1st used on the graves.[28]
1912-01-24 ۩ The Lincoln Address Memorial was erected on the cemetery grounds "near site of original summer house".[11]
[specify] "A 205' macadam roadway [was] graded and piked around the Lincoln Memorial in 1909 [sic]."[31]
1914-04 § Major M. M. Jefferys succeeded Calvin Hamilton as superintendent [29][30] and the Jefferys family moved into the lodge,[31]
1915-05 The "Three-Mile Picture Show" named for the length of film recorded wreath-laying at the Lincoln Address Memorial by local "colored residents".[64][65]
1915-05-06 † Remains of a soldier discovered at Menchey's Spring on the base of East Cemetery Hill were reinterred in the cemetery.[65][66]
1915-05 § Acting superintendent Harry E. Koch replaced [32] Major Jefferys who resigned during illness while at "Johns Hopkins hospital".[65]
1915-09 § Superintendent Austin. J. Chapman (1915 to 1918)[33] prohibited hackmans' jitneys from carrying more than 15 persons into the cemetery.[34]
1928 ¶ President Calvin Coolidge delivered the Memorial Day address in the rostrum.[35]
1928-09 ۩ The brick comfort station at the cemetery opened[67] and closed in 1931 [36] (the 1st Gettysburg Parkitecture comfort station was built in 1933.)[68]
1930 ¶ President Herbert Hoover delivered the Memorial Day address at the rostrum that had been temporarily extended by Army Quartermasters.[37]
1930-08-31 § James W. Bodley retired after serving as superintendent since 1918.[38]
1933-06-10 Executive Order 6166 combined management of the cemetery and military park with the Department of the Interior[25]:viii (9 others cemeteries transferred on July 28).[58]
1933 ۩ Lafayette Square fencing was moved to the cemetery [39] after 1888 legislation had moved it[50] to East Cemetery Hill in 1889 (installed by Calvin Gilbert).[54]
1936 † A U.S. Colored Infantry soldier that died after the Civil War was reinterred from Yellow Hill Cemetery (Biglerville) into the cemetery.[40]
1938 The National Park Service planted 200 rhododendron plants in the cemetery.[41]
1942 § Captain Earl Taute was the cemetery superintendent.[41]
1947/8 † 850 World War II dead were reinterred "from European and South Pacific theaters".[69]
1949 Federal appropriations of $10,000 was planned for adding 5 acres (2.0 ha) to the cemetery.[42]
1955 ۩ The American Legion Tablet was placed in the cemetery to honor the "efforts of American fighting forces in preservation of freedom of all men."[11]
1955 The Oscar-nominated The Battle of Gettysburg documentary filmed the cemetery.
1963 ¶ President Dwight D. Eisenhower was a dignitary in the Remembrance Day activities at the cemetery.
1963-11-19 Bethlehem Steel deeded 5 acres (2.0 ha) "to enlarge the present cemetery"[70][43] during a luncheon for the Lincoln Fellowship's 25th anniversary.[44]
1967-04-15 A design for the annex between the north wall of the cemetery and Steinwehr Avenue had plans for 1666 graves.[45]
1968-02 † The first burial was completed at the annex (a 22-car parking lot had been contracted on January 23, 1968).[46]
[when?] † The last interment was made in the original cemetery area [47] (closed October 27, 1972, except for spouse interments).
1972 The last formal speaker for a Decoration Day ceremony at the cemetery was in the rostrum.[48]
1976–08 The National Park Service acquired the 4th of 6 houses along Steinwehr Avenue east of the Taneytown Road for the cemetery annex.[71]
1980 ۩ The cemetery's 1864 stone walls were reconstructed.[49]
1993-08-21 ۩ The Friend to Friend Masonic Memorial in the annex was dedicated by the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania.
1997-07-01 † Remains of a soldier discovered in 1996 [50] during Seminary Ridge excavation were interred in the cemetery.[51]
External media
Images
Saunders diagram
Illustration of consecration
1st lodge as modified & 2nd flagpole
1882 cemetery image on interpretive display
Tipton images
1913 reunion flags on gravestones
Video
1955 helicopter footage (minute 9)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lincoln, Abraham (date tbd). "expenses in attending the consecration of the National Cemetery at Gettysburg" (Report). Washington, D. C. (White House). Note: Cited by Klement 1993, p. 267.
  2. ^ Everett, Edward C (1864). Address…At the Consecration…Account of the Origin of the Undertaking and of the Arrangement of the Cemetery Grounds, and…a Plan of the Cemetery (TrueScans format). Little, Brown & Company. Retrieved 2012-03-11. 
  3. ^ a b c "Soldiers National Cemetery at Gettysburg (2498537)". Geographic Names Information System, U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 2012-03-02. 
  4. ^ a b c d "Gettysburg: Preparations for the Dedication of the Soldiers' Monument". New York Times. June 26, 1869--published June 28. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 
  5. ^ a b Reid, Whitelaw. "title tbd". Cincinnati Daily Gazette. "The stand was erected on the spot where the monument is to be built, in front of which are two semi-circular sections."  (cited by Tilberg 1970) Klement pp. 186-7, reference 23 cites Tilberg's "summary of study of location of Gettysburg Address platform"--perhaps referring to Tilberg's newspaper article:
  6. ^ "Soldiers' National Cemetery at Gettysburg". CivilWarWiki.net. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 
  7. ^ "History & Culture". National Park Service. Retrieved 20 November 2010. 
  8. ^ "The Amende Honorable" (Google News Archive). The Star and Sentinel. August 30, 1916. Retrieved 2012-03-02. 
  9. ^ a b "Soldier's [sic] National Cemetery" (Google News Archive). The Wayne County Democrat. September 21, 1887. Retrieved 2012-02-25. "…slain in the first day's battle and had lain for days [behind enemy lines] in the sun and rain until recognition was impossible." 
  10. ^ An Act to Incorporate the Soldiers' National Cemetery, March 25, 1864  (cited by Revised Report, pp. 154-7
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h "GETT List of Classified Structures" (NPS.gov HSCL[specify] website). www.hscl.cr.nps.gov. National Park Service. 
  12. ^ "All famous names: Gettysburg National Cemetery". FindAGrave.com. Retrieved 2012-02-24. 
  13. ^ a b Julius Bien & Co. Lith. (1904). …Battle Field of Gettysburg (Map). Cartography by Gettysburg Park Commission (Nicholson, John P; Cope, Emmor; Hammond, Schuyler A). New York.
  14. ^ National Park Service. "National Cemetery Walking Tour". Retrieved 12 June 2012. 
  15. ^ a b Becker, Joseph (November 1863), sketch of Cemetery Hill 
  16. ^ a b c d e f g
    cited Revised Report chapters

    "Report of David Wills". pp. 4–tbd. 
    "List of Names". pp. 21–142. 
    "Report of Samuel Weaver". pp. 161–4. 
    "The National Cemetery". pp. 175–80. 

    (Google Books--transcription available at Archive.org) Revised Report…Soldiers' National Cemetery, at Gettysburg (Report). Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Singerly & Myers, State Printers. 1867-revised. "October 27 … On the battle field of the first day,…bodies [were] nothing remaining but the dry skeleton.":163     Original Report: (WorthPoint.com auction listing) Report of the Select Committee Relative to the Soldiers' National Cemetery (Report). [same location & publisher]. March 31, 1864. http://www.worthpoint.com/worthopedia/1864-gettysburg-cemetery-fold-lincoln-50394842. Retrieved 2012-03-09.
  17. ^ Wert, J. Howard (1886). A Complete Hand-Book of the Monuments and Indications and Guide to the Positions on the Gettysburg Battle-Field (Google Books). B.M. Sturgeon & Co. p. 93. Retrieved 2012-03-02. "The heavy rains that followed the battle washed down and lodged in these [Valley of Death] places other corpses from positions higher up the flat. These bodies were never recovered, but gradually decomposed, whilst the bones were washed away or covered with rubbish." 
  18. ^ Adams, II, Charles J. (June 29, 2000). "National cemetery a somber stop" (Google News Archive). Reading Eagle. Retrieved 2012-03-22. "the Soldiers' National Monument now towers over the well-manicured lawn of what was once a cornfield and apple orchard." 
  19. ^ Dreese, Michael A. (2002). The Hospital on Seminary Ridge at the Battle of Gettysburg (Google Books). McFarland. p. 130. Retrieved 2012-02-25. 
  20. ^ "Battle of Gettysburg" (Google News Archive). The Compiler. July 20, 1863. Retrieved 2012-02-26. "The Federal soldiers in the [Evergreen] Cemetery laid many of the tombsones on the ground to prevent injury… Thursday [July 2] Confederates…had their sharpshooters…picking off Federal soldiers on the hills [sic] to the north of the cemetery." 
  21. ^ "Care of wounded after Battle of Gettysburg". The Gettysburg Times. July 14, 1986. p. 8. Retrieved 2012-03-12. 
  22. ^ a b "Consecration of the Soldiers' National Cemetery at Gettysburg" (Google News Archive). The Adams Sentinel. November 24, 1863. Retrieved 2012-03-10. "…rows of graves ranged along the line of the stone or wooden fences" 
  23. ^ a b McConaughy, David (August 5, 1863), [letter to Governor Andrew Curtin] (negative photocopy), Gettysburg Museum and Visitor Center vertical files: David Wills correspondence  (cited by GDG.org: The Development of the National Cemetery)
  24. ^ "More Exempts from the Draft". The Baltimore Sun. September 16, 1863. Retrieved 2011-01-23. "the heights of Cemetery Hill and the granite spur of Round Top … purchased by Mr. D. McConaughy." 
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h Unrau, Harlan D (July 1991) ("B&W Scan" of copy D-44). administrative history, Gettysburg National Military Park (Report). Denver, CO: National Park Service. OCLC 24228617. http://www.cr.nps.gov/history/online_books/gett/adhi.pdf. Retrieved 2012-03-10. "McConaughy, who held key topographic features of the battlefield in trust for the GBMA, was reimbursed for his prior purchases from commonwealth appropriations in 1867-68" (cf. HAER No. 485 p. 43 claims McConaughy was paid in 1868 when the GBMA received $6,000 from the state.) (This report is also available at Google Books.)[hyperlink needed]
  26. ^ Cross, Rev. Andrew B. (July 25, 1863), letter for newspaper publication (letter republished in report), retrieved 2012-03-09, "Shall the bones of those who turned the battle from the gate in that fearful struggle of three days at Gettysburg be left for men to plough up in their fields and to wagon over on the roads around that town?"  (letter included in report, p. 60)
  27. ^ "For Sale or Rent" (Google News Archive). The Star and Sentinel. January 2, 1900. Retrieved 2012-03-06. "For Sale or Rent.--My Property on Baltimore pike, below Evergreen Cemetery, right hand side; 10 acres, improved with 2-story House, Stable, Hog Pen, &c. Lot of Fruit, never-failing well of Water at Kitchen door. Peter Thorn, Residence on Middle St., next door Dr. Diehl's office. 12-12-4f." 
  28. ^ http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=Jk4mAAAAIBAJ&sjid=G_8FAAAAIBAJ&pg=6957%2C7579401
  29. ^ http://www.gdg.org/Research/BattlefieldHistories/kghgrand.html
  30. ^ Murphy, Jim (1992). The Long Road to Gettysburg. New York: Clarion Books. pp. 98–9. ISBN 0-395-55965-0. 
  31. ^ a b "Gettysburg National Military Park Tour Roads". Historic American Engineering Record (HAER No. PA-485). date tbd. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/pnp/habshaer/pa/pa3600/pa3648/data/pa3648data.pdf. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
  32. ^ Wills request for proposals from contractors to reinter the dead[full citation needed]
  33. ^ "Gettysburg: Tiny Pennsylvania Town Teaches a Powerful Lesson in History". Deseret News (NewsLibrary.com pay-per-view page) (Salt Lake City). June 25, 2000. "A cornfield was turned into a cemetery for 3654 known Union soldiers." 
  34. ^ a b "Google search: "Associate Reformed Graveyard site:findagrave.com"". 
  35. ^ a b Amrhein, Elizabeth (Fall 2009). Hidden in Plain Sight…Ice House Complex (Report). http://www.gettysburg.edu/library/gettdigital/hidden/Amrhein_paper.pdf. "In 1899, [sic] soldier remains were unearthed in preparation for construction of the new shirt factory.14 These remains were moved to the National Cemetery"
  36. ^ "→A beautiful Pole…" (Google News Archive). The Adams Sentinel. November 17, 1863. Retrieved 2012-03-12. 
  37. ^ Selleck, W. Y. ("purported to have been written by"), holograph text, "The stand on which President Lincoln stood…was 12 ft. wide and 20 ft. long, and facing to the North West. It was located 40 feet North East of the outer circle of Soldiers' Graves as shown by pencil mark"  (cited by Tilberg 1970)
  38. ^ Carr, Clark E. (Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2010). Lincoln at Gettysburg: An Address. Chicago: A. C. McClurg. Retrieved 2012-03-01. "I was able to have placed the Illinois section… On one side of our Illinois section is a large one, containing the graves of the unknown, and on the other that of the State of Virginia. It was upon the ground in the centre reserved for the monument that the platform from which the addresses were delivered was placed. This platform fronted away from the cemetery proper, giving room for the vast audience of people in front of and facing it." 
  39. ^ "The Dead on the Battle-field" (Google News Archive). The Compiler. December 7, 1863. Retrieved 2012-02-25. 
  40. ^ c. 1916 local Gettysburg newspaper item reporting Major Tate's annual visit (e.g., Gettysburg Times)[full citation needed]
  41. ^ a b [document author not identified] (date not identified). "The Development of the National Cemetery". GDG.org - Gettysburg Discussion Group website. Retrieved 2012-03-12.  citing for quotation:
    • "David McConaughy to Governor Andrew Curtin, August 5, 1863 (negative photocopy, David Wills correspondence, GNMP vertical files): "We agree to sell to the state or states nine acres between the Cemetery and the Taneytown road, at $200.00 per acre--the states to enclose this land on that Road, and on North and South, but not on side adjoining the Cemetery--the grounds to be used for burial of the soldier dead of all the states."
  42. ^ "Plan $50,000 Battlefield Project Here" (Google News Archive). Gettysburg Times. July 16, 1934. Retrieved 2012-03-02. "work on the re-setting of 5,200 feet of head stones in the National cemetery will ge under way within a week … many of which are either leaning or have fallen over altogether, will be reset in concrete. … The work will be done by enrollees of the two civilian conservation corps camps on the battlefield" 
  43. ^ a b Bartlett, John Russell, ed. (1874). "Oration of Governor O. P. Morton". The Soldiers' National Cemetery at Gettysburg…the Monument…dedication (Google Books). Providence, Rhode Island. "for distribution to the Board of Commissioners of the Cemetery." 
  44. ^ a b Sellars, Richard West (Winter 2005). "Pilgrim Places: Civil War Battlefields, Historic Preservation, and America’s FirstNational Military Parks, 1863-1900". CRM. http://www.nps.gov/history/crdi/publications/CRM_Vol2_01_Articles.pdf. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
  45. ^ "Monuments and Entertainments" (Google News pay-per-view)). Detroit Free Press. June 21, 1867. Retrieved 2012-02-25. 
  46. ^ a b "Visit of Gen. Grant and Gov. Geary & Meeting of the Board of Managers of the Soldiers' National Cemetery" (Google News Archive). The Star and Sentinel. June 26, 1867. Retrieved 2012-03-12. 
  47. ^ "Gettysburg" (Google News Archive). The Pittsburgh Gazette. August 30, 1869. Retrieved 2012-02-25. "The battle monument is not yet finished" 
  48. ^ 16 Stat. 390[full citation needed]
  49. ^ a b "New-York at Gettysburg: The Monument Question Settled at Last". The New York Times. March 1, 1891. Retrieved 2012-03-02. "Wills indited to the Secretary of War…occupation of any portion of the cemetery by…any particular State for memorial structures." 
  50. ^ a b [webpage author not identified] (date not identified). "Maintenance by the War Department". GDG.org - Gettysburg Discussion Group website. pp. 12–23. Retrieved 2012-03-12. 
  51. ^ http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=g1EmAAAAIBAJ&sjid=BwAGAAAAIBAJ&pg=1509,5857048&dq=samuel-bushman+gettysburg&hl=en
  52. ^ http://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=9qGwjJavaBUC&dat=18820726&printsec=frontpage&hl=en
  53. ^ http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=F60912FC3B5F10738DDDA80894D1405B8085F0D3
  54. ^ a b c "Minute Book, Gettysburg Battlefield Memorial Association, 1872-1895" (GDG.org webpage). Gettysburg Battlefield Memorial Association. 1982 transcription. Retrieved 2012-03-02. "July 23rd 1880. Board met at the Head-Quarters of the Grand Army of the Republic on East Cemetery Hill. … July 12, 1889 … sealed proposals for…the erection of a gate way at Hancock Avenue." 
  55. ^ Findagrave. "Pvt Henry Gooden ( - 1876)". Retrieved 27 July 2012. 
  56. ^ CivilWarTalk. "A Burial in Gettysburg National Cemetery". Retrieved 27 July 2012. 
  57. ^ "Town and Country" (Google News Archive). Gettysburg Compiler. October 4, 1887. Retrieved 2011-07-07. "Major Wm. D. Holtzworth, the well-known Battlefield Guide, has been appointed by the War Department." col. 2
  58. ^ a b title tbd (Report). p. 595. http://www.nps.gov/legal/laws/PV/Sec6final.pdf. Retrieved 2012-03-12. "By the end of the Civil War, 14 national cemeteries had been established pursuant to this act; however, none of these original 14 remains in the jurisdiction of the National Park."
  59. ^ The Sun. August 31, 1889. "Calvin Hamilton has resigned the principalship of the public schools of this place to accept the office of assistant superintendent of the national cemetery here." 
  60. ^ "Honors for the Hero Dead". New York Times. July 3, 1893. Retrieved 2011-06-23. "at the spot where Gen. Greene's brigade, 1,300 strong, repelled Johnston's Confederate division, which numbered at least 10,000." 
  61. ^ Nasby, Dolly (2005). Gettysburg (Google Books). Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 0-7385-3651-2. Retrieved 2012-03-12. "Fence builders in 1900 came upon the remains of soldiers who had been buried on this farm." 
  62. ^ "A Battlefield Visitor: Sees an Unsightly Object in Goiing Over Field" (Google News Archive). Gettysburg Compiler. July 26. Retrieved 2012-03-10. "entrance way disfigured for years with a partly dismantled lodge." 
  63. ^ "Money for Battlefield" (Google News Archive). New Oxford Item. July 22, 1906. Retrieved 2012-02-25. "…appropriation for the construction of roads in Cumberland township, which, owing to the fact that the Lutheran seminary, Pennsylvania college and County Almshouse, as well as the great amount of government property situated therein, gives this township very little or no revenue in the matter of taxation, as all the above institutions are exempt from taxation." 
  64. ^ "Lincoln Memorial to be Scene of Film Feature" (Google News Archive). The Star and Sentinel. May 22, 1915. Retrieved 2011-04-12. "for photographing the Lincoln mounment [sic] in the upper end of the National cemetery and as the picture is being taken a number of colored residents of town will pass before it and each will lay a wreath of flowers on the monument of the emancipator of their race." 
  65. ^ a b c "Include Gettysburg in Big "Movie"…, Will Bury Skeleton Dug Up…, & Major Jefferys to Resign Soon…" (Google News Archive). The Star and Sentinel. May 7, 1915. Retrieved 2012-03-10. 
  66. ^ "Found Soldier's Bones: Will be Given Burial in the National Cemetery" (Google News Archive). Adams County News. May 8, 1915. Retrieved 2012-03-12. "repairing a pipe wall at the foot of East Cemetery Hill, unearthed the remains of a Union soldier, Thursday. Embedded in one of the bones of the forearm was a bullet." 
  67. ^ "Comfort Station For Military Park" (Google News Archive). Gettysburg Times (Times and News Publishing Company). September 24, 1928. Retrieved 2012-03-21. "The first modern public comfort station in the national military park reservation was opened Saturday in the national cemetery."  (reprinted in 1943)
  68. ^ "New Comfort Station to be Built on Field" (Google News Archive). Gettysburg Times. May 5, 1933. Retrieved 2011-04-11. 
  69. ^ Pyle, Michaela S. (April 22, 1965). "Expansion Problem May Curtail Gettysburg Burials" (Google News Archive). The Washington Observer. Retrieved 2012-03-22. "Of the 24 sections in the cemetery , 18 are filled with Union Civil War dead." 
  70. ^ "Steel Firm to Give Land for Cemetery" (Google News Archive). The Gettysburg Times. November 16, 1963. Retrieved 2012-03-12. 
  71. ^ "Start Razing Battlefield Motel Units" (Google News Archive). Gettysburg Times. August 28, 1976. Retrieved 2012-02-25.