Gettysburg National Military Park

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Gettysburg National Military Park
Gettysburg National Park (1893)
Gettysburg Park
IUCN category V (protected landscape/seascape)
Gettysburg entrance.JPG
The 2008 sign for the PA 134 (west) Visitor Center entrance is a National Park Service rustic structure built to appear as if the base wall and column are of Gettysburg Granite, a locally-quarried material in structures during the Battle of Gettysburg.
Map showing the location of Gettysburg National Military ParkGettysburg National Park (1893)Gettysburg Park
Map showing the location of Gettysburg National Military ParkGettysburg National Park (1893)Gettysburg Park
Location in Pennsylvania
Location Adams County, Pennsylvania (Chesapeake NPS cluster)[1]
Nearest city Gettysburg, Pennsylvania
Coordinates 39°48′31″N 77°14′12″W / 39.80861°N 77.23667°W / 39.80861; -77.23667Coordinates: 39°48′31″N 77°14′12″W / 39.80861°N 77.23667°W / 39.80861; -77.23667
Area 2009: 3,965 acres (1,605 ha)[2]
1963: 2,871 acres
1932: 2,530 acres
1916: ~2,302 acres[3]
1900: 1,221 acres
1888: 540 acres
Established 1966: added to NRHP (#66000642)[4]
1895: national park designation
1893: federal protection
1864: GBMA protection
1863: initial protection
Visitors 1,031,554[citation needed] (in 2010)
Governing body 1933: National Park Service
1896: War Department
1864: Gettysburg Battlefield
            Memorial Association
Website Gettysburg National Military Park

The Gettysburg National Military Park (GNMP) is an administrative unit of the National Park Service's northeast region[2] and a subunit of federal properties of Adams County, Pennsylvania, with the same name, including the Gettysburg National Cemetery.[5] The GNMP properties include most of the Gettysburg Battlefield, many of the battle's support areas during the battle (e.g., reserve, supply, & hospital locations), and several other non-battle areas associated with the battle's "aftermath and commemoration".[6] The administrative unit also manages the adjacent Eisenhower National Historic Site subunit and displays a portion of their 43,000 American Civil War artifacts in the Gettysburg Museum and Visitor Center.[7]

The park has more wooded land than in 1863, and the National Park Service has an ongoing program to restore portions of the battlefield to their historical non-wooded conditions, as well as to replant historic orchards and woodlots that are now missing. In addition, the NPS is restoring native plants to meadows and edges of roads, to encourage habitat as well as provide for historic landscape. There are also considerably more roads and facilities for the benefit of tourists visiting the battlefield park.

In 1915, the "National Park Commission" tested the battlefield guides and, due to the limited knowledge (particularly of the most experienced, e.g., only 1 in 8 could name the 7 avenues), established a school for licensing tour guides to charge fees.[8]

Federal land acquisition[edit]

The 1864 Gettysburg Battlefield Memorial Association and later veteran's associations acquired land for memorials and preservation (e.g., the 72nd Pennsylvania Infantry Monument tract with the statuary memorial depicted on the 2011 America the Beautiful Quarter dollar). Federal acquisition of land that would become the 1895 national park began on June 7, 1893, with 9 monument tracts of 625 sq ft (58.1 m2) each and a larger 10th lot of 1.2 acres (4,900 m2) from the Association, as well as 0.275 acres (1,110 m2) from Samuel M Bushman.[3] In addition to land purchases, federal eminent domain takings include the Gettysburg Electric Railway right-of-ways in 1917 (cf. 1896 United States v. Gettysburg Electric Ry. Co.). Donated land included 160 acres from the 1959 Gettysburg Battlefield Preservation Association and 264 acres (107 ha) from the W. Alton Jones Foundation.[9]:42 The Gettysburg Foundation "is a private, nonprofit educational organization working in partnership with the National Park Service to enhance the preservation and understanding of the heritage and lasting significance of Gettysburg"[10] (e.g., the Foundation leased a facility in 1999 for NPS use to rehabilitate cannon-carriages.)[11] In February 2009, The David Wills House where Lincoln completed his Gettysburg Address was added to the national park by Public Law 106-290 of October 10, 2000 and is operated by Main Street Gettysburg.[12] In 2010, an effort to expand the amount of the federally-owned GNMP land failed in Congress.[13]

Memorials and remembrance[edit]

The Park has been highly symbolic venue for memorials and remembrance. On November 19, 1963 a parade was held in Gettysburg commemorating the centennial of President Lincoln's Gettysburg Address, given less than five months after the Battle of Gettysburg. The motorcade parade followed the same route that President Lincoln and Gov. Andrew G. Curtin took 100 years before. Former President Dwight D. Eisenhower—who lived nearby—was there accompanied by Gov. William W. Scranton. The attendance at the 1963 commemoration was lower than the 20,000 to 30,000 persons who attended the original address by President Lincoln in 1863. Thousands of photographers attended the 1963 event while U.S. Airforce jets passed overhead. Also attending the event were the 28th Division of the Pennsylvania National Guard headed by Maj. Gen. Henry F. Fluck, the U.S. Marine Band, and the 3rd Infantry of the U.S. Army. The parade ended at the rear entrance into the Gettysburg National Cemetery.[14]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Gettysburg National Military Park Marker". List of Classified Structures (MN538 (LCS ID 009601)). Retrieved 2011-02-19. 
  2. ^ a b Cultural Landcapes Inventory: Professional Procedures Guide (Report). NPS.gov. January 2009. http://www.nps.gov/oclp/CLI%20PPG_January2009_small.pdf. Retrieved 2011-02-22. "The approximately 11,000-acre Gettysburg Battlefield Historic District embraces the land area associated with the battle of Gettysburg. ... In a more complex park, such as Gettysburg National Military Park, the CLI could identify the 3,965 acre park as the landscape"
  3. ^ a b "Gettysburg National Park". United States military reservations, National cemeteries, and military parks. 1916. Retrieved 2011-03-11. 
  4. ^ "Adams County - Historic Districts". NationalRegisterOfHistoricPlaces.com. Retrieved 2011-02-13. 
  5. ^ E011715 (undated document--June 29, 2009 embedded in file). "The New Visitor Experience at Gettysburg National Military Park, Facts at a Glance" (PDF). NPS.gov. Retrieved 2011-03-11. 
  6. ^ National Register Nomination, January 23, 2004 [March 19, 1975], retrieved 2011-02-19 
  7. ^ http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=jiNaAAAAIBAJ&sjid=4EsNAAAAIBAJ&pg=1331,4924500&dq=civil-war-preservation-trust+gettysburg&hl=en
  8. ^ "To Have School For The Guides". September 20, 1915. Retrieved 2011-02-18. 
  9. ^ Davis, William C. (1995--Fifth Printing) [1983]. Gettysburg: The Story Behind the Scenery. pp. 17, 42. ISBN 0-916122-89-1. LCCN 83-80606 Check |lccn= value (help). 
  10. ^ "Gettysburg Foundation". FriendsOfGettysburg.org. Retrieved 2011-02-08. "In 2006, [the Gettysburg National Battlefield Museum Foundation] merged with the [1989] Friends of the National Parks at Gettysburg, forming the Gettysburg Foundation." 
  11. ^ "Monument Preservation". Preserve Gettysburg. GettysburgFoundation.org. Retrieved 2011-02-08. 
  12. ^ Senate Report 111-330 - BOUNDARY REVISION OF THE GETTYSBURG NATIONAL MILITARY PARK. Gpo.gov. Retrieved on 2013-07-23.
  13. ^ Kanagy, Beth (March 2, 2001). "Preservation and progress a delicate balancing act along 'endangered' Pike". Retrieved 2011-02-19. "Historic easements are very stringent, … they only occur inside the Park boundary. … In essence a conservation easement preserves a residential property … but limit changes to the exterior of properties." 
    NOTE: As opposed to the actual ownership boundary of federal land administered by the Gettysburg National Military Park (GNMP), the quoted "Park boundary" refers to the land acquisition limits imposed by Congress on the Secretary of the Interior. Initially 3,874 acres in 1895, the limits were expanded in 1990[specify] but a 2010 bill by Representative Platt failed in the US Senate regarding expanding them to allow acquisition of the Gettysburg Railroad Station and the 45-acre (18 ha) Wayne and Susan Hill tract south of Big Round Top.[1]
  14. ^ The Gettysburg Times (Wednesday, November 20, 1963), Procession To Cemetery Was Similar To '63 Event, pp. 1, 10

External links[edit]