Ghauri (missile)

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Ghauri-I / Hatf-V
Type Medium-Range Ballistic Missile (MRBM)
Place of origin  Pakistan
Service history
In service 12 January 2003
Used by  Pakistan
Production history
Designer Khan Research Laboratories (KRL)
Manufacturer Khan Research Laboratories (KRL)
Specifications
Weight 15,850 kg
Length 15.90 m
Diameter 1.35 m

Engine Single stage liquid fuel rocket motor
Propellant Liquid fuel
Operational
range
1,200 km
Flight altitude 350 km reached in first test flight
Guidance
system
Inertial guidance system (INS)
Launch
platform
Transporter erector launcher (TEL)

The Ghauri–I (Urdu: غوری-ا‎; official designation: Hatf–5 Ghauri) is a medium-range ballistic missile developed by Khan Research Laboratories of Pakistan. The missile uses a single stage liquid fuel rocket motor to carry a payload of 700 kg to a range of 1,500 km.[1][2] Two variants of the Ghauri were produced under the secretive missile research programme started in 1987[3] and the development of a third was cancelled. The Ghauri-II uses increased motor assembly length and improved propellants for an increased range of 2,300 km (1,400 mi).[4]

The missile is named after Shahabuddin Muhammad Ghauri, while the "Hatf" designation originates from the name of the sword or lance of Muhammad.[5]

History[edit]

Codename[edit]

Main article: Muhammad of Ghor

Upon its development, the missile's name is traced in the remembrance of the 12th century Afghan King Shahabuddin Ghauri, by a senior scientist who worked on the program with a keen interests in medieval history.[6] Afghan King Ghauri successfully campaigned for the the northwestern region of India between 1176 and 1182, but was defeated in his first battle for northern India by Indian King Prithviraj Chauhan.[6]

However, the JS HQ officially has the codename for the missile as "Hatf–5 (Ghauri–I); the Hatf codename originated from the name of the sword or lance of Muhammad.[5]

Design and development[edit]

According to the American intelligence estimates in 1999, the Ghauri–I is influenced and its design development is based on the Rodong-1 missile of North Korea.[7] According to the American Federation of Atomic Scientists, the Ghauri–I is believed to inherit a warhead spin-up mechanism from the Rodong 1 and it is stated that this feature could improve accuracy up to 190m CEP— although this is still debatable.[8] The mechanism involved using steering vanes to spin the missile after 100 seconds of flight time.[8] After 110 seconds, the rocket motor stops and the warhead separates from the rocket motor.[8] The warhead then enters a more stable re-entry trajectory due to the spinning motion.[8] Warhead accuracy would be further enhanced if the Ghauri's inertial navigation system is capable of being updated by GPS satellite signals.[8]

On Pakistan's own unofficial admission, the technology transfer took place in 1990s in return of the instructions on the enrichment methods of uranium[9] Not much has been publicized as controversy surrounds on the fact when it was claimed that North Korean nuclear efforts were well advance from before the instructions on the enrichment methods of uranium were provided.[10]

According to the Pakistani military reports, the original design of the missile was flawed and the missile burned up on re-entry during its first test flight in 1998.[11] Its aging electronic systems, engine system, and propellent had to be replace and design of the warhead to be re-design.[11] The KRL, assistance from the NESCOM, DESTO, and NDC, engaged in heavy reengineering and reverse engineered much of the missile system.[11]

The liquid fuel systems are incapable of storing fuel for any long period of time.[11] The Ghauri– I requires refuelling for several hours before launch and this makes it vulnerable to a first strike.[11] It is believed that this is why Pakistan has not pursued liquid fuel system other than the Ghauri–I and Ghauri-II.[11] It also makes it less likely that the Ghaur-I would be armed with a nuclear warheads.[12] Although it has been stated that it is capable of being loaded with "all types" of warheads.[13]

Pakistan's latest solid-fueled Shaheen–IA is believed to be an alternate missile system for the Ghauri–I.[11] However, it has been stated that the Ghauri–I has advantages in lower cost than solid-fueled systems.[11] This is advantageous when testing launch and control systems. It has been speculated that the Ghauri–I design may serve as a starting point for a Pakistan's space launch vehicle.[12]

Operational history and tests[edit]

The Ghauri ballistic missile (centre) on display at the IDEAS 2008 defence exhibition, Karachi, mounted in its launch mechanism on the transporter erector launcher (TEL).

The Ghauri–I was first test fired at 7:25hrs on 6 April 1998 from the Tilla Test Range near Malute, Jhelum Cantt which is about 76mi (122.31km) south of the Islamabad.[14] It was fired from a transporter erector launcher and traveled 1,100 km (680 mi) in a flight lasting 9 minutes and 58 seconds.[15] It climbed to a height of 350km before taking the direction to its planned impact area in the desert of Balochistan where it hit the designated target at 7:33hrs.[15] At the time, Pakistani military's information source, the ISPR stated that the missile hit its designated target in the desert of Balochistan.[15] It has since been revealed that this first test was not a success because the missile burned up during the re-entry phase of its flight.[12]

After reengineering and subsequent reverse engineering of the system, Ghauri–I was successfully test fired for second time as then-Prime Minister Zafarullah Jamali witnessed the test.[16][17][18] On 21 December 2010, the Ghauri–I was again successfully test fired for a third time.[19][20] On 12 November 2012, the the Ghauri–I was successfully test fired for a fourth occasion by the Strategic Missile Group of the Army Strategic Force Command.[21] The test-flight was monitored by the new Strategic Command and Control Support System (SCCSS) and is believed to have been geared towards testing the SCCSS rather than the missile itself.[11]

See also[edit]

Related developments
Related lists

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pakistan Pushes To Improve Missile Strike Capability
  2. ^ http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/library/news/pakistan/1998/980406-ghauri.htm
  3. ^ Lodi, Lieutenant General Safdar F.S. (May 1998). "Pakistan's Missile Technology". Head of Integrated Missile Research and Development Programme (IMRDP). Defence Journal of Pakistan. 
  4. ^ Celebrations in Pakistan as Ghauri V is test-fired
  5. ^ a b Pakistan's Missile Technology
  6. ^ a b UNI agency (6 April 1998). "Pak test-fires surface-to-surface missile". Rediff News agency, 1998. Rediff News agency. Retrieved 25 December 2014. 
  7. ^ Report to Congress, January - June 1999. Unclassified Report to Congress on the Acquisition of Technology Relating to Weapons of Mass Destruction and Advanced Conventional Munitions. Central Intelligence Agency.
  8. ^ a b c d e et.al. and others. "Ghauri-I". Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 24 December 2014. 
  9. ^ Hussain, Zahid (2007). "Rogue in the Ranks". Frontline Pakistan (google books). New York City, NY State, United States: Columbia University Press, 2007. pp. 163–1966 [221]. ISBN 978-0-231-14225-0.
  10. ^ "ABC News: ABC Exclusive: Pakistani Bomb Scientist Breaks Silence". ABC News. May 30, 2008. Retrieved March 1, 2012. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i Ansari, Usman (28 November 2012). "Pakistan Test-Fires Medium-Range Ballistic Missile". DefenceNews, 2012. DefenceNews. Retrieved 24 December 2014. 
  12. ^ a b c http://www.defensenews.com/article/20121128/DEFREG03/311280005/Pakistan-Test-Fires-Medium-Range-Ballistic-Missile
  13. ^ http://www.geo.tv/12-21-2010/76139.htm
  14. ^ http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/world/pakistan/hatf-5.htm
  15. ^ a b c Lodhi, PA, Lt. Gen. S.F.S. (6 May 1998). "Pakistan's Missile Technoloy". DefenceJournal. Retrieved 24 December 2014. 
  16. ^ Naqvi, Syed Mohsin (30 May 2004). "Pakistan nuke-capable missile test". CNN, Pakistan, 2004. CNN, Pakistan. Retrieved 24 December 2014. 
  17. ^ Reddy, B. Muralidhar (29 May 2004). "Pakistan's edge will be maintained: Jamali". The Hindu, 2004. The Hindu. Retrieved 24 December 2014. 
  18. ^ Staff reporter (29 May 2004). "Pakistan test-fires Hatf V missile". Dawn newspaper, 2004. Dawn newspaper, 2004. Retrieved 24 December 2014. 
  19. ^ Geo News Desk (21 December 2010). "Pak successfully test fires Ghauri Hataf-V". GEO News, 2010. GEO News. Retrieved 24 December 2014. 
  20. ^ Pak successfully test fires Ghauri Hataf-V
  21. ^ CCTV official (12 November 2012). "Pakistan has tested successfully Ghauri Hatf-V ballistic missile nuclear-capable". China Central Television. Pakistan. China Central Television. Retrieved 24 December 2014. 

External links[edit]