Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh

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This article is about the municipality in Uttar Pradesh, India. For its namesake district, see Ghaziabad district, India.
Ghaziabad
ग़ाज़ियाबाद
Metropolitan City
Nickname(s): GZB
Ghaziabad is located in Uttar Pradesh
Ghaziabad
Ghaziabad
Coordinates: 28°40′N 77°25′E / 28.67°N 77.42°E / 28.67; 77.42Coordinates: 28°40′N 77°25′E / 28.67°N 77.42°E / 28.67; 77.42
Country India
State Uttar Pradesh
District Ghaziabad District
Founded by Ghazi-ud-din
Named for Ghazi-ud-din
Government
 • Body Municipal Corporation
 • Mayor Teluram Kamboj
Area
 • Total 1,933.3 km2 (746.5 sq mi)
Elevation 250 m (820 ft)
Population (2011 census provisional data)
 • Total 4,681,452
 • Density 2,400/km2 (6,300/sq mi)
Demonym Ghaziabadi
Languages
 • Official Hindi Urdu
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 201 xxx
Telephone code 91-120
Vehicle registration UP 14
Website http://ghaziabad.nic.in/

Ghaziabad (Hindustani pronunciation: [ɣaːziːaːbaːd̪]) is a city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. sometimes referred to as the "Gateway of UP" because it neighbours New Delhi and is the main route to Uttar Pradesh.[1] It is a part of the National Capital Region of Delhi.[2] It is a large and planned industrial city, well connected by roads and railways, and is the administrative headquarters of Ghaziabad District as well as being the primary commercial, industrial and educational centre of western Uttar Pradesh and a major rail junction for North India.[3][4] Recent construction works have led to the city being described by a City Mayors Foundation survey as the second-fastest growing in the world.[5][6] Situated in the Upper Gangetic Plains, the city has two major divisions separated by the Hindon River, namely: Trans-Hindon on the west and Cis-Hindon on the east side.[7] It is known for its high crime rate[8][9][10] and for being the most polluted city in Uttar Pradesh.[11] It is the second-largest industrial city in Uttar Pradesh, after Kanpur.[12]

History[edit]

The present city of Ghaziabad was founded in AD 1740 by Vazir Ghazi-ud-din, who named it Ghaziuddinnagar after himself.[13][14] Going by some sources, Vazir Ghaziuddin may have been Ghazi ud-Din Khan Feroze Jung II, the then Prime Minister of the Mughal Empire and brother of Salabat Jung.[citation needed] The initial structure built during that period consisted of a spacious 'sarai' consisting of 120 rooms of masonry with pointed arches. Only the gate, some parts of the boundary and a massive pillar about fourteen feet in height remain now.[14][15] Reginald Heber, the Anglican Bishop of Calcutta during the early 19th century, once wrote of "Gaziodeen-nuggur" as being "a small ruinous walled town",[16] which as per some sources could be an account of Ghaziabad.[citation needed] During the Mughal period, Ghaziabad and especially the banks of the Hindon in Ghaziabad, remained a picnic spot for the Mughal royal family.[17]

Excavations carried out at the mound of Kaseri, at the banks of river Hindon, some 2 km. north of Mohan Nagar have shown that civilisation existed here, as early as 2500 BC. Mythologically, some neighbouring towns and villages of the city including Garhmukteshwar, Pooth Village and Ahar region have been associated with the Mahabharata and the fort at Loni, is associated with the legend of Lavanasura of the Ramayana period. According to the Gazetteer, the fort, "Loni" is named after Lavanasura.[13] The city and its surrounding region has historically witnessed major wars and battles over the last many centuries. In AD 1313, the entire region including present day Ghaziabad became a huge battle field, when Taimur laid siege on the area during Muhammad bin Tughluq's reign.[13][18] In 1763, the Jat ruler of Bharatpur, Raja Surajmal died at the hands of the Rohillas, at Ghaziabad during the Mughal-Maratha war.[citation needed] During the Anglo- Maratha War, Sir General Lake and the Royal Maratha army fought here circa. 1803.[13] The name "Ghaziuddinnagar" was shortened to its present form, i.e. "Ghaziabad" with the opening of the Railways in 1864.[17][19][20] Establishment of the Scientific Society here, during the same period is considered as a milestone of the educational movement launched by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan.[21] The Ghaziabad Municipality came into existence in 1868.[citation needed] The Sind, Punjab and Delhi Railway, connecting Delhi and Lahore, up till Ambala through Ghaziabad was opened in the same year.[22] With the completion of the Amritsar-Saharanpur-Ghaziabad line of the Sind, Punjab and Delhi Railway in 1870, Delhi was connected to Multan through Ghaziabad, and Ghaziabad became the junction of the East Indian Railway and Sind, Punjab and Delhi Railway.[23]

Ghaziabad, along with Meerut and Bulandshahr remained one of the three Munsifis of the District, under the Meerut Civil Judgeship during most periods of the British Raj.[24]

Ghaziabad was associated with the Indian independence movement from the Indian Rebellion of 1857.[19] During that rebellion, there were fierce clashes between the British forces and Indian rebel sepoys on the banks of the Hindon, and the rebels checked the advancing British forces coming from Meerut.[25]

Industrial growth[edit]

Although connected by railway since 1865, it was not until 1940 that the first modern industry appeared in Ghaziabad. That business was Amrit Vanaspati Co. Ltd. and it was followed by eight other major concerns, including Modern Industries, Federal Chemical Works, Ghaziabad Engineering Company, Asia Chemicals and the Webbing and Belting Factory Ltd. However, it was in the post-independence period that industry really expanded, with a further 22 factories opening in the four years after 1947. This development can be attributed to the influx of people from the newly formed Pakistan and the relocation of businesses such as Guru Nakak Engineering and Punajb Oil Expellers from what was now the Pakistani province of Punjab.[26] John Oakey and Mohan Ltd., one of India's largest concerns manufacturing coated and bonded abrasives, and originally functioning under the name of 'National Abrasives' at Rawalpindi was shifted here under the proprietorship of 'Dyer Meakins' in 1947.[27] Subsequently, the Mohan Meakin breweries were also set up in the year 1949.[28] This period also saw the development of Ghaziabad as one of India's most famous centres of the Oil Engines industry.[29]

In 1967, the municipal limits were extended up to the Delhi-UP border. Starting early 1970's, a large number of steel manufacturing units also came up in the city making it one of the primary industries of the city. This period also saw the emergence of the Electronics industry, with the setting up of Bharat Electronics Limited and Central Electronics Limited[30] Over the years, planned Industrial development saw participation from major industrial houses of the country including Mohans (Mohan Nagar Industrial Estate, 1949), Tatas (Tata Oil Mills), Modis (Modinagar, 1933; International Tobacco Co. 1967), Shri Rams (Shri Ram Pistons, 1964), Jaipurias etc. and also significant participation through foreign capital in concerns such as Danfoss India Ltd. ( estd. 1968); Indo- Bulgar Food Ltd. and International Tobacco Company (estd. 1967).[31]

Formation of District[edit]

Ghaziabad was made the headquarters of the newly formed district of Ghaziabad in 1976. The Ghaziabad Judgeship was also bifurcated from the Meerut Judgeship on the same day,and the Court started functioning from the Model Town campus.[32] The Ghaziabad municipality was given the status of a Municipal Corporation in 1994.[12]

Geography[edit]

Ghaziabad is situated about 2.5 km from the Hindon river. On the north it is bound by the district of Meerut, on the south by that of Bulandshahar and Gautambudh Nagar, on the south-west by Delhi and on the east by the newly formed district of Hapur. As its boundary is adjacent to Delhi, it acts as the main entrance to Uttar Pradesh and hence is also called the Gateway of Uttar Pradesh.

Gallery[edit]

Demographics[edit]

The provisional data derived from the 2011 census shows that Ghaziabad urban agglomeration had a population of 4,681,452, of which males were 2,479,710 and females were 2,201,742. The literacy rate was 93.81 per cent.[33] Ghaziabad is a subcategory B1 district of category B i.e. having socioeconomic parameters below the national average.[34] Among the significant areas within the city are Rajendra Nagar, Shalimar Garden, Turab Nagar, Indirapuram, Raj Nagar Extension, Loni, India and Crossings Republik.[35]

Climate[edit]

As it is connected to the national capital, its temperature and rainfall are similar to Delhi. Rajasthan's dust storms and snowfall in the Himalayas, Kumaon and Garhwal hills name their impact in the weather regularly. The monsoon arrives in the district during the end of the June or the first week of July and normally it rains until October. As in other districts of northern India mainly three seasons - summer, winter and rainy - prevail here, but sometimes due to severe snowfall in the Himalayas and Kumaon Hills, adverse weather can also seen.

Climate data for Ghaziabad
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 21
(70)
23
(73)
29
(84)
36
(97)
39
(102)
38
(100)
34
(93)
33
(91)
34
(93)
33
(91)
28
(82)
23
(73)
30.9
(87.4)
Average low °C (°F) 7
(45)
10
(50)
15
(59)
21
(70)
26
(79)
28
(82)
27
(81)
26
(79)
24
(75)
19
(66)
13
(55)
8
(46)
18.7
(65.6)
Precipitation mm (inches) 20.3
(0.799)
20.3
(0.799)
15.2
(0.598)
20.3
(0.799)
25.4
(1)
71.1
(2.799)
236.2
(9.299)
236.2
(9.299)
114.3
(4.5)
17.8
(0.701)
10.2
(0.402)
10.2
(0.402)
797.5
(31.397)
Source: Ghaziabad Weather

Administration[edit]

Ghaziabad was given the status of a municipal corporation (nagar nigam) on 31 August 1994.[7] Administratively the city is divided into five areas: the City zone, the Kavi Nagar zone, the Vijay Nagar zone, the Mohan Nagar zone and the Vasundhara zone.[7] Jal Nigam is the prime authority which deals with water supply and sewerage works in Ghaziabad.[36] Ex. Army Chief Vijay Kumar Singh of Bharatiya Janata Party, is the Member of Parliament from the city. He is first elected to this post in 2014 general elections. Assembly Seats which come under Ghaziabad (Lok Sabha constituency) are Loni, India, Muradnagar, Sahibabad, Ghaziabad and Dhaulana.

Economy[edit]

Kaushambi Housing Society
Indirapuram

Real estate hub[edit]

Ghaziabad is a rapid developing city with sky scrapers and malls. The urban areas of Ghaziabad include Indirapuram, Vaishali, Kaushambi, Vasundhra, Surya nagar and the old and richer area with big houses rather than apartment including Kavi nagar and Raj nagar. The first town developed by Britishers in Ghaziabad was Ghantaghar, which is the zero mile stone of Ghaziabad. The plan to expand metro from Dilshad garden to Lal kua has been passed and possibly by 2019 it would be functional and the expansion from vaishali to Mohan nagar via vasundhra is still under talks. the main station of ghaziabad is vijay nagar railway station. A proposal has been made to widen National Highway 24 (NH-24) from six to eight lanes on the stretch between the Ghaziabad-Delhi border and Dasna. As a large number of residential and commercial projects are coming up along the highway.[37] Some major developers which have invested heavily on NH-24 are SARE, Mahagun, Antriksh, Crossings Republik, Ansal, Wave etc. Places on NH-24 and National Highway 58 are flourishing as residential options to the capital because of their proximity to Delhi.[38]

Transport[edit]

Residential apartments in Vaishali, Ghaziabad

Ghaziabad can be reached by air, road and rail. The nearest airport is the Indira Gandhi International airport which is about 45 km away. By road, Ghaziabad is well-connected on all sides to Delhi, NOIDA, Hapur, Modinagar, Bulandshahr, Meerut, Baghpat, Saharanpur, Haridwar, etc. A large number of people commute to Delhi, Noida, Greater Noida and Gurgaon every day for work.

  • Bus

There are bus terminals at Mohan Nagar, Lohia Nagar, Loni, Vasundhara and close to Meerut Road from where Uttar Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (UPSRTC) buses serve cities all over the state. The Anand Vihar bus terminal of DTC is located on city's border. There is a bus terminal for private bus operators near ALT Center, Raj Nagar which is called ALT Bus Stand.

  • Rail

Ghaziabad is a railway junction and several lines pass through the city. The main railway station is situated in the middle of the city. Apart from Ghaziabad railway station (Station Code-GZB), city also has, New Ghaziabad Railway Station (Station Code-GZN), Sahibabad Railway Station (Station Code-SBB), Mahrauli Railway Station (Station Code-MFH), Adhyatmik Nagar Halt Railway Station (Station Code-AKNR) and Guldhar Railway Station (Station Code-GUH). The city is well connected to Delhi and other neighbouring cities through Fast Moving Local Trains called EMU. Several trains connect Ghaziabad to Meerut, Aligarh, Delhi, New Delhi, Faridabad, Palwal, Mathura, Allahabad, Indore, Ujjain, Loni and others.

  • Delhi Metro

The Delhi Metro extends to Dilshad Garden station which is situated at the Apsara Border. At present it serves the areas of Shalimar Garden, Rajendra Nagar and other neighbouring colonies. This line will be further extended to Old Bus Stand, Ghaziabad by 2016-17. Another station exists at Vaishali, which serves that area as well as Vasundhara and Indirapuram, and there is also a station at Kaushambi.[39] There are plans to extend the Blue Line Metro to Indirapuram and loni complete the Blue Line Circle by 2017.[40]

Education[edit]

There are a number of private and government engineering, post-graduate, law colleges and management institutes in Ghaziabad. Some notable examples are I.T.S Management & IT Institute, Mohan Nagar, ABES Engineering College, Institute of Management Studies,Ghaziabad Institute of Management Technology, Ghaziabad, Ajay Kumar Garg Engineering College, Krishna Institute of Engineering and Technology, Raj Kumar Goel Institute of Technology and Modinagar Institute of Technology.[41]

Schools in Ghaziabad notably include Delhi Public School, DAV Public School Ghaziabad, Ingraham Institute, Bal Bharati Public School and Ryan International School.

Notable people[edit]

Popular culture[edit]

Zilla Ghaziabad, a movie released in 2013, is set in the city, and portrays the organised crime and gang wars of the 1980s and early 1990s, which dominated the social backdrop of the city during that period.[citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Ghaziabad Nagar Nigam". 
  2. ^ "National Capital Region- Constituent Areas". NCRPB. 
  3. ^ Athique and Hill, Adrian and Douglas. The Multiplex in India: A Cultural Economy of Urban Leisure (2010 ed.). New York. pp. 110–114. 
  4. ^ "District and Sessions Court Ghaziabad- History". NIC. 
  5. ^ "Business:". 17 November 2011. Archived from the original on 20 November 2011. 
  6. ^ Ghaziabad was first listed in early 2010 as # 420 by size. "The largest cities in the world and their mayors: Cities ranked 301 to 450". City Mayors. Archived from the original on 9 March 2010. , current listings: "World's fastest growing urban areas (1)". City Mayors. 
  7. ^ a b c "Ghaziabad Nagar Nigam: About Us". Archived from the original on 1 February 2013. 
  8. ^ Vikram, Kumar (16 December 2012). "North News: Gangs of Ghaziabad! When it comes to 'gun power', civilians in Ghaziabad beat cops hands down". India Today. Archived from the original on 16 December 2012. 
  9. ^ Jahagirdar, Archana (5 July 2006). "Ghaziabad has long way to go". Times Of India. Retrieved 16 April 2013. 
  10. ^ Chakraborty, Tapas (6 August 2012). "20km from Delhi, a ‘child kidnap capital’". Calcutta, India: The Telegraph. Retrieved 16 April 2013. 
  11. ^ "The Times of India: Latest News India, World & Business News, Cricket & Sports, Bollywood". The Times Of India. 
  12. ^ a b "district and session court-ghaziabad". Ghaziabad.nic.in. Retrieved 2014-06-17. 
  13. ^ a b c d "Ghaziabad Nagar Nigam". http://www.nagarnigamghaziabad.com/. http://www.nagarnigamghaziabad.com/history.html. 
  14. ^ a b "History". ghaziabad.nic.in. District Administration, Ghaziabad. 
  15. ^ "Ghaziabad Nagar Nigam". http://www.nagarnigamghaziabad.com/. http://www.nagarnigamghaziabad.com/history1.html. 
  16. ^ Heber, Rt. Rev. Reginald. Narrative of a Journey Through the Upper Provinces of India from Calcutta Bombay, 1824-1825, (With notes upon Ceylon). p. 456. 
  17. ^ a b Roy, Debashish (August 14, 2011). "Ghaziabad has a long way to go to become a part of NCR backbone". The Hindu. 
  18. ^ "About Ghaziabad". http://damyantigoel.com/. 
  19. ^ a b http://www.nagarnigamghaziabad.com/history1.html
  20. ^ "[IRFCA] Indian Railways FAQ: IR History: Early Days - 1". Irfca.org. Retrieved 2014-06-17. 
  21. ^ Azimabadi, Badr (2007). Great Personalities in Islam. Daryaganj, Delhi: Adam Publishers. p. 218. 
  22. ^ "[IRFCA] Indian Railways FAQ: IR History: Early Days - 1". Irfca.org. Retrieved 2014-06-17. 
  23. ^ "[IRFCA] Indian Railways FAQ: IR History: Early Days - 2". Irfca.org. Retrieved 2014-06-17. 
  24. ^ Statistical, descriptive and historical account of the North-western ... - North-western provinces - Google Books. Books.google.co.in. 2007-06-08. Retrieved 2014-06-17. 
  25. ^ "1857: The aftermath". Indpaedia. 2014-02-20. Retrieved 2014-06-17. 
  26. ^ Saxena, Aruna (1989). Perspectives in industrial geography : a case study of an industrial city of Uttar Pradesh. New Delhi: Concept Pub. Co. pp. 30, 92, 98. ISBN 8170222508. 
  27. ^ Saxena, Aruna (1989). Perspectives in industrial geography : a case study of an industrial city of Uttar Pradesh. New Delhi: Concept Pub. Co. p. 172. ISBN 8170222508. 
  28. ^ "Mohan Meakin Group". Mohanmeakin.com. Retrieved 2014-06-17. 
  29. ^ Saxena, Aruna (1989). Perspectives in industrial geography : a case study of an industrial city of Uttar Pradesh. New Delhi: Concept Pub. Co. p. 92. ISBN 8170222508. 
  30. ^ Saxena, Aruna (1989). Perspectives in industrial geography : a case study of an industrial city of Uttar Pradesh. New Delhi: Concept Pub. Co. pp. 97, 98. ISBN 8170222508. 
  31. ^ Saxena, Aruna (1989). Perspectives in industrial geography : a case study of an industrial city of Uttar Pradesh. New Delhi: Concept Pub. Co. pp. 124, 93, 11, 39, 69. ISBN 8170222508. 
  32. ^ "district and session court-ghaziabad". Ghaziabad.nic.in. Retrieved 2014-06-17. 
  33. ^ "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above". Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011. Retrieved 7 July 2012. 
  34. ^ "Meeting of Empowered Committee". Minutes of the Meeting Report. Government of India. Retrieved 18 March 2013. 
  35. ^ "Project for widening of 20km stretch on NH-24 scrapped". The Times of India. 29 May 2011. 
  36. ^ Uttar Pradesh Water Supply & Sewerage Act, 1975. "Uttar Pradesh Jal Nigam". 
  37. ^ "Make NH-24 eight-lane to ease mess: Akhilesh Yadav". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 2013-06-20. 
  38. ^ A K Tiwary, ET Bureau Sep 9, 2011, 08.02am IST (2011-09-09). "Ghaziabad real estate thriving along two national highways - Economic Times". Articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 2013-06-20. 
  39. ^ "Ghaziabad boards Metro for first traffic-free ride to work". Indian Express. 15 July 2011. Retrieved 16 April 2013. 
  40. ^ "Ghaziabad ePaper| Hindi ePaper Ghaziabad- Dainik Jagran". Epaper.jagran.com. 14 February 2011. Retrieved 16 April 2013. 
  41. ^ "Welcome to :: Modinagar Institute of Technology". Miteducation.org. 2012-04-14. Retrieved 2014-06-17. 

External links[edit]