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For other uses, see Ghazipur (disambiguation).
"Gauspur" redirects here. It is not to be confused with Gaspur.
The Tomb of Lord Cornwallis, Governor-General of British India
Ghazipur is located in Uttar Pradesh
Location in Uttar Pradesh, India
Coordinates: 25°35′N 83°34′E / 25.58°N 83.57°E / 25.58; 83.57Coordinates: 25°35′N 83°34′E / 25.58°N 83.57°E / 25.58; 83.57
Country  India
State Uttar Pradesh
District Ghazipur
 • Type Municipal Council
 • Body Ghazipur Municipal Council
 • Chairman Vinod Kumar Agrawal
 • Total 20 km2 (8 sq mi)
Population (2011)
 • Total 121,136
 • Rank 391
 • Density 6,056/km2 (15,680/sq mi)
 • Sex ratio 902 /
Demonym Ghazipuri
 • Official Hindi
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 233001
Telephone code 91-548
Vehicle registration UP 61
Famous for Ghats, Opium Factory and Flower Business

Ghazipur (Hindi: ग़ाज़ीपुर, Urdu: غازیپور‎, previously spelled Ghazeepore, Gauspur, and Ghazipour), is a city and municipal corporation in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. Ghazipur city is the administrative headquarters of the Ghazipur district, one of the four districts that form the Varanasi division of Uttar Pradesh. The city of Ghazipur also constitutes one of the five distinct tehsils, or subdivisions, of the Ghazipur district. Hindu tradition associates Ghazipur with a Raja Gaadhi, father of Vishwamitra Maharshi, the great rishi regarded as a Hindu saint, but although the area was an administrative center since the Gupta Empire, Ghazipur probably derives its name from the sayyid Masud, given the title Ghazi, who defeated the local Raja and established a town around 1330 CE. Located by the Ganges, Ghazipur was a strategically important river port during the British rule of India.

Ghazipur is well known for its opium factory, established by the British East India Company in 1820 and still the biggest legal opium factory in the world, producing the drug for the global pharmaceutical industry.[1] The city's perfume industry, especially its production of rose oil and attar of roses has also long been famous. A Ghazipur firm won a medal for these products at the British Empire Exhibition, and the perfume industry remains important. Other important constituents of the city's commercial life include handloom weaving factories, and Ghazipur's role as the market town for its surrounding rural and farming areas.

Sights in the city include several monuments built by Nawab Shaikh Abdulla, or Abdullah Khan, a governor of Ghazipur during the Mughal Empire in the eighteenth century, and his son. These include the palace known as Chihal Satun, or "forty pillars", which retains a very impressive gateway although the palace is in ruins, and the large garden with a tank and a tomb called the Nawab-ki-Chahar-diwari.[2][3] The mosque near this tomb was probably originally a Hindu building.[4] The road that starts at the Nawab-ki-Chahar-diwari tomb and runs past the mosque leads, after 10 km, to a matha devoted to Pavhari Baba.[2] The tank and tomb of Pahar Khan, faujdar of the city in 1580, and the plain but ancient tombs of the founder, Masud, and his son are also in Ghazipur, as is the tomb of Lord Cornwallis, one of the major figures of Indian and British history.[4] Cornwallis is famous for his role in the American Revolutionary War, and then for his time as Governor-General of India, being said to have laid the true foundation of British rule. He was later Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, there suppressing the 1798 Rebellion and establishing the Act of Union. He died in Ghazipur in 1805, soon after his returning to India for his second appointment as Governor-General. His tomb, overlooking the Ganges, is a heavy dome supported on 12 Doric columns above a cenotaph carved by John Flaxman.[3] The remains of an ancient mud fort also overlook the river, while there are many beautiful or impressive ghats leading to the Ganges, the oldest of which is the ChitNath Ghat.[2][4]

Ghazipur is nearest to the UP-Bihar border. The home tongue at the place is Bhojpuri. Ghazipur UP borders the important spiritual city of Varanasi and is located about 80 km east of Varanasi UP and 50 km from Buxar which is the entry point of Bihar state.


A Mughal palace in Ghazipur, 1814-15

As per the verbal and folk history.[5] Ghazipur was covered with dense forest during the Vedic era and it was a place for ashrams of saints during that period. The place is related to the Ramayana period. Maharshi Jamadagni, the father of Maharshi Parashurama, is said to have resided here.[6] The famous Gautama Maharishi and Chyavana were given teaching and sermon here in ancient period. Lord Buddha gave his first sermon in Sarnath,[7] which is not far from the here.[2] The Aurihar region of Ghazipur became the main centre of teachings of Lord Buddha. Many stupas and pillars are the main evidence of that period. Chinese traveller Hieun Tsang visited this area and has described this place as Chanchu "Kingdom of the Lord of battles."

Its ancient name of Gadhipuri or Gadhipur was renamed to Ghazipur about 1330, after Ghāzī Malik, a Muslim ruler of the Tughluq dynasty, who ruled this area.

[8] The first Scientific Society of India was established first in Ghazipur in 1862 by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan for propagating modern Western knowledge of science, technology and industry. It was a departure from the past in the sense that education made a paradigm shift from traditional humanities and related disciplines to the new field of science and agriculture. Some current institution like Technical Education and Research Institute (TERI),[9] part of post-graduate college PG College Ghazipur, in the city, takes their inspiration from that first Society.

The region has been active in India Independence Movement. The celebrated hero of First War of Independence (which is also referred as Sepoy Mutiny) Mangal Pandey belonged to that time of Ghazipur district area (now part of Ballia). The famous Raju Baxi revolt is also associated with this place where the farmers revolted against the British and set fire to several indigo godowns. This place has played a significant role in the Indian National movement. During the Home Rule movement and the Quit India movement people of Ghazipur took part courageously and fearlessly. During Quit India movement, Birpur is historical place of India where many warriors were born. On 18 August 1942 a group of freedom fighters of Sherpur Village under the leadership of Dr Shiv Pujan Rai hoisted the Tricoloure at Mohammadabad Tehsil.

In 1330 AD, when Sultan Muhammad Adil bin Tughluq became the King and ascended the throne of Delhi, he appointed Janab Syed Masud as his ‘ Moqarrib’. Sultan Tughluq left for Deccan after appointing Firuz Shah Tughlaq, his cousin, as his deputy at Delhi. At that time Raj Mandhata was the ruler of Kashtut (Kathaut) a place near Ghazipur (Eastern U.P.). Raja was hostile to the Delhi kingdom. Syed Masud Al-Husaini who had recently migrated from modern day Iraq to India went, along with his seven sons and 40 champions left Delhi and came to Ghazipur as per the command of Sultan Firoz Shah Tughlaq to rescue a young unmarried girl from the captivity of the Raja. Battle was fought and the ruler was defeated. Syed Masud was appointed as ruler and administrator of the place. He was conferred the title of ‘Ghazi’ by the Sultan Firoz Shah Tughlaq. Syed Masud founded a new city in 1330 AD. It was called Ghazipur. He died on 31.03.1366 AD and is buried in Ghazipur.* His grave is in Mohalla Harishankari. His son, Syed Raje, who was killed while fighting the army of Raja’s nephew in 1330 A.D. is also buried there. In Ghazipur one Mohalla is known as "Syedwara" and one riverbank is called Masudi Ghat. He had seven sons and distributed the areas under his control among his sons for administrative convenience and himself settled down in Ghazipur city. His descendants were later called 'Syeds of Ghazipur' as described in the research work of S. M. Taqi Husaini's genealogical tree of Syed Masud Al-Husaini.

He and his family are the descendants of Zayd ibn Ali who was the son of Imam Ali ibn al-Husayn Zayn al-'Abidin and they observe Moharram in Ghazipur City ares like Nakhas"Markaz of Azadari" Jurans shaheed(Shia Jama Masjid),Rajdepur,Mustafabad,Kathwalia,Shujawalpur,and many villages of Ghazipur till date, like Pallia Buzurg, Mahend, Nonhera, Para, Baghui Buzurg, Ganguli, Kamoonpur, Zahoorabad, Chavanpur, Tajpur, Mohammadpur, Hunderhi, Husainpur, Arzanipur, Mulnapur, Zangipur, Deokathia, Susandi, Hainsi, Jalalabad, Damodarpur, Mata, Sauram, Sadat, Bathor, Chilbiliya, Daraspur, Tendva, Yusufpur.

Mohammad Hamid Ansari,the current and 12th Vice-President of India has his roots in Ghazipur.


Ghazipur is located at 25°35′N 83°34′E / 25.58°N 83.57°E / 25.58; 83.57.[10] It has an average elevation of 62 metres (203 feet). The city of Ghazipur is located in the middle Ganges valley of North India, in the eastern part of the state of Uttar Pradesh, along the left is bank of the Ganges river. It is the headquarters of the Ghazipur district. The city nearly stretches parallel to the river Ganges. Its neighbouring cities are Varanasi, Jaunpur, Buxar in Bihar, Ballia, Mau, Chandauli and Azamgarh. Initially Ballia and Mau were part of Ghazipur district but latter were made separate districts. Being located in the plains of the Ganges, the soil is alluvial type and is fertile because of low level floods continually replenish the soil. This makes agriculture the most important profession of the people. The town is predominantly agrarian and so is the economy. The district is divided into four major sub parts. Ghazipur has a humid subtropical climate with large variations between summer and winter temperatures. Summers are long, from early April to October, with intervening monsoon seasons. Cold waves from the Himalayan region cause temperatures to dip across the city in the winter from December to February. The temperature ranges between 32 °C–46 °C (90 °F–115 °F) in the summers, and 2 °C–15 °C (41 °F–59 °F) in the winters.[17] The average annual rainfall is 1110 mm (44 in).[18]. Fog is common in the winters, while hot dry winds, called loo, blow in the summer.

The city is relatively free from air pollution.[citation needed]. Through a combination of water pollution, new constructions of upstream dams, and increase in the local temperature, the water level of the Ganges has recently gone down significantly, and small islands have become visible in the middle of the river.

Rivers in District---Ganges, Gomati, Gaangi, Beson, Magai, Bhainsai, Tons and Karmanasa River.

And, the bridge on Ganga River is one of the largest and advanced bridge in Uttar Pradesh.


As per provisional data of 2011 census, Ghazipur urban agglomeration had a population of 121,136, out of which males were 63,689 and females were 57,447. Males constituted 52.57% of the population while females constituted 47.43% of the population. The literacy rate of Ghazipur urban agglomeration was 84.97% (higher than the national average of 74.04%) of which male literacy was 90.23% and female literacy was 79.17%.Sex ratio of Ghazipur urban agglomeration was found to be 902. Ghazipur urban agglomeration consist of Ghazipur, Kapoorpur, Mishrolia Madhopur, and Razdepur.[11]

As of 2011 India census,[12] Ghazipur city had a population of 1,10,698, out of which males were 58,126 and females were 52,572. Males constituted 52.5% of the population and females constituted 47.5% of the population. Ghazipur has an average literacy rate of 85.46% (higher than the national average of 74.04%) of which male literacy is 90.61% and female literacy is 79.79%. 11.46% of the population is under 6 years of age and the sex ratio is 904.

Religions in Ghazipur
Religion Percent
Distribution of religions
Includes Sikhs (0.2%), Buddhists (<0.2%).

Literature and Celebs[edit]

Ghazipur is one of the most eastern district of Uttar Pradesh in India. The place has been notably famous for its literary contribution to India and to the world as a whole, in the field of literature. Major names include Dr. Raahi Masoom Raza, Dr. Kuber Nath Rai, Dr. Viveki Rai, Pt. Ravi Shankar, Pt. Uday Shankar, Zafar, Satara Devi, Nazir Hussain.

Amongst the people stated above, Dr. Raahi Masoom Raza is famous for being the dialogue writer of the first Mahabharata aired on Doordarshan. He also authored 'Neem Ka Ped', another serial on DD National. Gopal Ram Gahmari- Born in 1856 in Village Gahmar was a famous detective novel writer of the district. He also wrote other types of novel Chatura Chanchla, Madhvi, Kankara, Bhanumati.

Trade and Industries[edit]

A larger percentage of the population lives in the rural area. The Municipal Area is small as compared to other cities nearby. It is poorly developed despite being a very important city which was also a Port City under British rule. A military cantonment built by the British now houses a college and a colony for administrative officers and their subordinates.

The airport of Ghazipur was a commanding airport of most of the eastern part of the upper and western part of Bihar in those days, but now it remains vacant and is used when for VIP arrivals to Ghazipur or nearby areas. It is situated on the outer side of the city and is poorly maintained. Although being centrally located and near to Varansi, Ghazipur is lying quite low in terms of standard of living and education along with employment. People are either working as farmers or trying to go to Gulf countries, there is not any scope for them apart from migrating from their native places. The Government must start taking some urgent initiatives to stop the migration and provide proper oppurtunites to its people.

Ghazipur Opium Factory[edit]

The opium factory located in the city was established by the British and continues to be a major source of opium production in India. It is known as the Opium Factory Ghazipur or, more formally, the Government Opium and Alkaloid Works. It is the largest factory of its kind in the country and indeed the world.[13] The factory was initially run by the East India Company and was used by the British during the First and Second Opium Wars with China.[1] The factory as such was founded in 1820 though the British had been trading Ghazipur opium before that. Nowadays its output is entirely above board, controlled legally by the Narcotics Drugs and Psychotropic Substance Act and Rules (1985) and administratively by the Indian government Ministry of Finance, overseen by a committee and a Chief Controller.[14] The factory's output serves the global pharmaceutical industry. Until 1943 the factory only produced raw opium extracts from poppies, but nowadays it also produces many alkaloids, having first begun alkaloid production during World War Two to meet military medical needs.[14] Its annual turnover is in the region of 2 billion rupees (approximately 36 or 37 million US dollars, for a profit of about 80 million rupees(1.5 million dollars).[14] It has been profitable every year since 1820, but the alkaloid production currently makes a loss, while the opium production makes a profit. The typical annual opium export from the factory to the USA, for example, would be about 360 tonnes of opium.[14]

As well as the opium and alkaloid production, the factory also has a significant R&D program, employing up to 50 research chemists.[14] It also serves the unusual role of being the secure repository for illegal opium seizures in India—and correspondingly, an important office of the Narcotics Control Bureau of India is located in Ghazipur.[14] Overall employment in the factory is about 900. Because it is a government industry, the factory is administrated from New Delhi but a General Manager oversees operations in Ghazipur.[14]

In keeping with the sensitive nature of its production, the factory is guarded under high security (by the Central Industrial Security Force), and not easily accessible to the general public.[14] The factory has its own residential accommodation for its employees, and is situated across the banks of river Ganges from the main city of Ghazipur. It is surrounded by high walls topped with barbed wire. Its products are taken by high security rail to Mumbai or New Delhi for further export.[14]

The factory covers about 43 acres and much of its architecture is in red brick, dating from colonial times. Within the grounds of the factory there is a temple to Baba Shyam and a mazar, both said to predate the factory.[14] There is also a solar clock, installed by the British opium agent Hopkins Esor from 1911 to 1913.[14] Rudyard Kipling, who was familiar with opium both medicinally and recreationally,[15] visited the Ghazipur factory in 1888 and published a description of its workings in The Pioneer on 16 April 1888.[15] The text, In an Opium Factory is freely available from Adelaide University's ebook library.[16]

Amitav Ghosh's novel Sea of Poppies deals with the British opium trade in India and much of Ghosh's story is based on his research of the Ghazipur factory. In interview, Ghosh stresses how much of the wealth of the British Empire stemmed from the often unsavoury opium trade, with Ghazipur as one of its centers, but he is also amazed at the scale of the present-day operation.[13]

The Ghazipur Opium Factory may have one more claim to fame, for a rather unique problem it has. It is infested with monkeys, but these are too narcotic-addled to be a real problem and workers drag them out of the way by their tails.[1][13][17]


Ghazipur has sixteen development blocks. The district is divided into five tehsils and another is proposed. Ghazipur has one (formally two ghazipur,saidpur) members for Lok Sabha, and eight seats to UP Vidhan Sabha. The opium factory is largest in Asia. Largest village of Asia is in Ghazipur named as Gahmar. It is 35 km from Ghazipur city.


Lok Sabha Parliamentary constituencies and the Vidhan Sabha Legislative Assembly constituencies after delimitation. 75-Ghazipur Lok Sabha and 74- Ballia Lok Sabha, Vidhan Sabha-373 Jakhania, 374 Saidpur (SC), 375 Ghazipur Sadar, 376 Jangipur (SC), 379 Zamania, Mohammadabad and Zahoorabad. The latter two are shifted to Ballia Lok Sabha. Earlier Saidpur, (Ghazipur) Lok sabha seat, Dildarnagar & Sadat seat of vidhan Sabha were also in existence, but they are demolished under new parameters.

Rails, roads, waterways and airport[edit]

Ghazipur is the major railhead of the North Eastern Railway Zone, Varanasi Division. Ghazipur City station serves as major railway station of city. Ghazipur Ghat is a halt station situated 7 km from city. Tari Ghat station of ECR, Danapur Division near city approx. 10 km byroad connects Ghazipur to Mughalsarai by a routine passenger train. Dildarnagar ECR on Delhi-Patna-Howrah route and Aurihar Jn (N.E. Railway) on Varanasi-Ghazipur and Varanasi-Gorakhpur route are important Junctions.

Ghazipur is directly connected by Lucknow, New Delhi, Mumbai, Guwahati, Amritsar, Chennai by routine trains. Pawan Express, Ganga Kaveri Express, Dibrugarh Express, Harihar Express, Sadbhawna Express, Swatantra Senani and Sarnath Express are some important trains from Ghazipur City Station.

Railway Station--Ghazipur City Railway Station is the most important station in district. Dildarnagar Jn, Zamania and Aurihar Jn also serves as good stations. Yusufpur, Sadat, Dullahpur, Jakhania and Ghazipur Ghat are others small stations which serves for a mass of population. Saidpur, Karimuddinpur, Gahmar, Nandganj are also some stations connected by routine trains between Varanasi-Ghazipur-Chappra route and Mughalsarai-Patna route. There is no major railway station in the district and mostly people are forced to go to nearby Buxar station. If the government can make the existing stations a bit more modern and major trains start having stoppages in them then it would become quite convenient for the local people.

In view of roads, it is well connected by important cities by means of national highways and state highways. National Highway 29 starts from Varanasi to Gorakhpur passes from here. National Highway 19 starts from here and terminates in Patna. National Highway 97 starts from here and terminated in Saiyedraja Distt. Chandauli, UP in order to join NH2 (Kolkatta-Delhi highway) to Ghazipur. Some major state highways starts from here which joins Lucknow, Jaunpur, Azamgarh, Buxar, Sultanpur, and Deoria.

Andhau Airport in Andhau, 9 km from City Railway Station serves as airport for city. But, it is not a public airport. It is used for V.I.P. arrivals only. Yet, Babatpur Airport, Varanasi Airport, 90 km from here is airport which serves Ghazipur.

Shahbaaz Kuli Airport in Shahbaaz Kuli, 13 km from City Railway Station. But, it is not working nowadays. It was constructed for government use in World War II. It is not be able to use in any way due to lack of proper maintenance.


Ghazipur is an important waterway port on river Ganges between Haldia to Allahabad.


In city, mainly auto rickshaws and rickshaws are primary mode of transport. Taxis are even also available on railway stations. Earlier RTO was planning for City Buses, but it fails because of narrow roads. In old city, auto-rickshaws are not permitted during certain time interval, so, Rickshaws serves as most primary transport mode. No other means of transport available in city region. Still, in city, city buses are proposed and needs permission to start after clearance from State Government.

For District areas, taxis, buses and tempos are always available from Lanka, Shastrinagar,MahuaBaag,Rauza, Rajdepur, City Railway Station, Gorabazar and RTI square. Airport-Andhaun airport.

Industrial condition[edit]

The city has sound agriculture base and reasonably good infrastructure, yet the industrial potential is low. The lack of enterprise and technical knowledge of local people may be the major constraints in industrial growth. Ghazipur has long been famous for the manufacture of perfumes especially rose water (Ghazipuri Gulabjal )and attar of roses (rose oil). A local firm was awarded a medal for the quality of product in British Empire exhibition in London in the last century. Now this industry is facing gradual decline due to the shrinkage of cultivation of perfume bearing plants. Sugar industry was important to this region but now there are few factories left. The manufacturing of saltpeter is done in Saidpur. Cloth weaving is centered in Bahariabad. There are 47 registered factory under section 1948. But scenario have change from last decade, a multi productive agro manufacturing unit M/s Sukhbhir Agro, an alcohol manufacturing unit M/s Lords Distillery, a Polythene Manufacturing unit M/s Bryplast Private Limited, a Homoeopathic Medicines Manufacturing unit M/s M.D.Homoeo Lab. Pvt. Ltd., Maharajganj, Ghazipur worked successfully in district. These companies provide many employment opportunities.

The manufacture of rice, agriculture goods, furniture, leather, footwear, utensils, steel trunk, almirah, khandsari, candles and handlooms are the main small scale industry of the city. Village and cottage industry include mostly the handicraft handed down from generation to generation like gur making, village oil industry, Leather tanning, pottery etc. Opium and Alkaloid Works, a Government of India enterprise, specializes in manufacture of excise opium and export opium.

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c Paxman, Jeremy (2011). "Chapter 3". Empire:What Ruling the World Did to the British. London: Penguin Books. 
  2. ^ a b c d "Places of Interest of District Ghazipur". Retrieved 2012-04-08. 
  3. ^ a b Hunter, William Wilson (1908). The Imperial Gazetteer of India XII. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 230–231. 
  4. ^ a b c Führer, Alois Anton (1891). Archaeological Survey of India: The Monumental Antiquities and Inscriptions in the North-Western Province and Oudh XII. Allahabad: Superintendent, Government Press. p. 231. 
  5. ^ "Ghazipur That is known as Gadhipuri". Retrieved 2012-04-08. 
  6. ^ Yann Picand, Dominique Dutoit. "Ghazipur : definition of ghazipur and synonym of ghazipur (English)". Retrieved 2012-04-08. 
  7. ^ "Sarnath Buddhist Pilgrimage - Ticketed Monument - Archaeological Survey of India". Retrieved 2012-04-08. 
  8. ^ "Sir Syed Ahmad Khan | Books". Retrieved 2012-04-08. 
  9. ^ "Technical Education & Research Institute". Retrieved 2012-04-08. 
  10. ^ "Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Ghazipur". Retrieved 2012-04-08. 
  11. ^ "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above". Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011. Retrieved 2012-07-07. 
  12. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01. 
  13. ^ a b c "Opium financed British rule in India (interview with Amitav Ghosh)". BBC News. 23 June 2008. Retrieved 26 March 2013. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "A Visit to Gazipur Factory...A sea of surprise". Bihar Times. Retrieved 26 March 2013. 
  15. ^ a b Page, David (5 July 2008). John Radcliffe, ed. "In an Opium Factory". The New Readers' Guide to the works of Rudyard Kipling. Retrieved 26 March 2013. 
  16. ^ Kipling, Rudyard (21 October 2012). Steve Thomas, ed. "In an Opium Factory". eBooks@Adelaide, The University of Adelaide. Retrieved 26 March 2013. 
  17. ^ Bartholomew, Pablo. "Photo Essay on Cultivation of Opium in India". The Indian Economy Overview.  |chapter= ignored (help)