Gheg Albanian

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"Geg" redirects here. For Spokane International Airport (IATA: GEG), see Spokane International Airport.
Region Albania, Kosovo,[a] Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia
Native speakers
unknown (undated figure of 3.5 million)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 aln
Glottolog gheg1238[2]
Linguasphere 55-AAA-aaa to 55-AAA-aag
A map showing Gheg speakers in green
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

Gheg (or Geg) is one of the two major varieties of Albanian. The other one is Tosk, on which standard Albanian is based. The dividing line between these two varieties is the Shkumbin River, which winds its way through central Albania.

Gheg is spoken in Northern Albania, Kosovo[a], northwestern Republic of Macedonia, southern Montenegro and Serbia.

There are still some authors who write in Gheg.

Gheg does not have any official status as a written language in any country. Publications in Kosovo and Macedonia are in standard Albanian, which is based on Tosk.


Gheg has several dialects, notably:

Southern Gheg[edit]

Main article: Southern Gheg

Northern Gheg[edit]

The Italian linguist Carlo Tagliavini puts the Gheg of Kosovo and Macedonia in Eastern Gheg.[4]


Assimilations are common in Gheg, but are not part of the Albanian literary language which only follows Tosk Albanian.[5]



IPA Written as
[ə] ë (nër)
[a] a (dash)
[ɑ] â (prâpë)
[ɒ] ä (knaçët)
[e] e (dêre)
[ɛ] ê (mênôj)
[i] i (dritë)
[o] o (kos)
[u] u (kur)
[y] y (shyçyr)
[ɔ] ô (dôrë)


IPA Written as
[ĩ] ĩ
[ɑ̃] ã
[ɔ̃] õ (some dialects)
[ũ] ũ (hũna)

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Serbia and the Republic of Kosovo. The latter declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. Kosovo's independence has been recognised by 108 out of 193 United Nations member states.


  1. ^ Gheg at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Gheg". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ a b Hinrichs, Uwe; Buttner, Uwe (1999). Handbuch der Sudosteuropa-Linguistik. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 285. ISBN 978-3-447-03939-0. Retrieved 5 April 2011. 
  4. ^ Carlo Tagliavini (1942), Le parlate albanesi di tipo Ghego orientale: Dardania e Macedonia nord-occidentale
  5. ^ Camaj 1984, p. 4


  • Martin Camaj (1984), Albanian grammar, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag
  • Carlo Tagliavini (1942), Le parlate albanesi di tipo Ghego orientale: Dardania e Macedonia nord-occidentale,

External links[edit]