The Ghem are the military caste and the lower aristocracy of Cetaganda. The main way for Ghem males to gain prestige and recognition is to serve with distinction in the military forces of the Empire (though not all Ghem males are in the army). For Ghem females, it is to perform genetic engineering on species other than humans with success (manipulation of human genetics is reserved for the ladies of the Haut).
A distinguishing feature of the Ghem is their use of face-paint. The exact usage depends on the individual's clan, status, and the activity they are pursuing. In particular, there are painting patterns associated with military missions.
In the novel Cetaganda, it is revealed that among the younger generation of Ghem, fashion dictates that the face paint is reduced to a painted patch on one cheek.