Ghetto

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Ghettos)
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the social concept. For other uses of the word "ghetto", see Ghetto (disambiguation).

A ghetto is a part of a city in which members of a minority group live, especially because of social, legal, or economic pressure.[1] The term was originally used in Venice to describe the part of the city to which Jews were restricted and segregated.

Etymology[edit]

Dictionaries list a number of possible origins for the originally Italian term, including "gheto" or "ghet", which means slag or waste in Venetian, and was used in this sense in a reference to a foundry where slag was stored located on the same island as the area of Jewish confinement (the Venetian Ghetto),[2] and borghetto, diminutive of borgo 'borough'.[3] Others theorize that the word is derived from the Hebrew word get, a divorce or separation document. [4]

Jewish ghettos[edit]

Europe[edit]

Plan of Jewish ghetto, Frankfurt, 1628.
Demolition of the Jewish ghetto, Frankfurt, 1868.

A Jewish quarter is the area of a city traditionally inhabited by Jews in the diaspora. Jewish quarters, like the Jewish ghettos in Europe, were often the outgrowths of segregated ghettos instituted by the surrounding authorities. A Yiddish term for a Jewish quarter or neighborhood is Di yiddishe gas (Yiddish: די ייִדדישע גאַס ), or "The Jewish street". Many European and Middle Eastern cities once had a historical Jewish quarter.

Jewish ghettos in Europe existed because Jews were viewed as alien due to their non-Christian beliefs in a Christian environment.[citation needed] As a result, Jews were placed under strict regulations throughout many European cities.[5] The character of ghettos has varied through times.

In some cases, the ghetto was a Jewish quarter with a relatively affluent population (for instance the Jewish ghetto in Venice). In other cases, ghettos were places of terrible poverty and during periods of population growth, ghettos (as that of Rome), had narrow streets and tall, crowded houses. Residents had their own justice system. Around the ghetto stood walls that, during pogroms, were closed from inside to protect the community, but from the outside during Christmas, Pesach, and Easter Week to prevent the Jews from leaving during those times.[citation needed]

Starting in the early second millennium Jews became an asset for rulers who regarded them as a reliable and steady source of taxes and fees, as well as a source of economic stimuli stemming from their exemption from Christian and especially Roman Catholic prohibitions against usury. They often went to great lengths to have them settle in their realm, offering protected settlements and endowing them with special privileges. A first such ghetto was documented by bishop Rüdiger Huzmann of Speyer in 1084.

Africa[edit]

Main article: Mellah

A mellah (Arabic ملاح, probably from the word ملح, Arabic for "salt") is a walled Jewish quarter of a city in Morocco, an analogue of the European ghetto. Jewish populations were confined to mellahs in Morocco beginning from the 15th century and especially since the early 19th century. In cities, a mellah was surrounded by a wall with a fortified gateway. Usually, the Jewish quarter was situated near the royal palace or the residence of the governor, in order to protect its inhabitants from recurring riots. In contrast, rural mellahs were separate villages inhabited solely by the Jews.

Jewish ghettos in Nazi-occupied Europe[edit]

During World War II, ghettos were established by the Nazis to confine Jews and sometimes Gypsies into tightly packed areas of the cities of Eastern Europe. The Nazis most often referred to these areas in documents and signage at their entrances as Jüdischer Wohnbezirk or Wohngebiet der Juden, both of which translate as Jewish quarter. These Nazi ghettos sometimes coincided with traditional Jewish ghettos and Jewish quarters, but not always. On June 21, 1943, Heinrich Himmler's issued a decree ordering the dissolution of all ghettos in the East and their transformation into concentration camps.[6]

Asian Shanghai ghetto[edit]

The Shanghai ghetto was an area of approximately one square mile in the Hongkou District of Japanese-occupied Shanghai, to which about 20,000 Jewish refugees were relocated by the Japanese-issued Proclamation Concerning Restriction of Residence and Business of Stateless Refugees after having fled from German-occupied Europe before and during World War II.[7]

United States[edit]

History[edit]

The development of ghettos in America is closely associated with different waves of immigration and internal urban migration. The Irish and German immigrants of the mid-19th century were the first ethnic groups to form ethnic enclaves in America's cities. This was followed by large numbers of immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe, including many Italians and Poles between 1880 and 1920. These later European immigrants actually were more segregated than blacks in the early twentieth century.[8] Most of these remained in their established immigrant communities, but by the second or third generation, many families were able to relocate to better housing in the suburbs after World War II.

These ethnic ghetto areas included the Lower East Side in Manhattan, New York, which later became notable as predominantly Jewish, and East Harlem, which became home to a large Puerto Rican community in the 1950s. Little Italys across the country were predominantly Italian ghettos. Many Polish immigrants moved to sections like Pilsen of Chicago and Polish Hill of Pittsburgh and Brighton Beach is the home of mostly Russian and Ukrainian immigrants.[citation needed]

Also, during the Great Depression, many people would congregate in large open parking lots. They built shelters out of whatever materials they could find at the time. These congregations of shelters were also called "ghettos".

African American ghettos[edit]

A commonly used definition of a ghetto is communities distinguished by a homogeneous race or ethnicity; usually determined by census tracts. Additionally, a key feature that developed throughout the postindustrial era and continues to symbolize the demographics of American ghettos is the prevalence of poverty. Poverty constitutes the separation of ghettos from other, suburbanized or private neighborhoods. The high percentage of poverty partly justifies the difficulty of out-migration, which tends to reproduce constraining social opportunities and inequalities in society.[9]

Chicago ghetto on the South Side, May 1974.

Urban areas in the U.S. can often be classified as "black" or "white", with the inhabitants primarily belonging to a homogenous racial grouping.[10] Forty years after the African-American civil rights era (1955–1968), most of the United States remains a residentially segregated society in which blacks and whites inhabit different neighborhoods of significantly different quality.[11][12]

Many of these neighborhoods are located in Northern cities where African Americans moved during The Great Migration (1914–1950) a period when over a million[13] African Americans moved out of the rural Southern United States to escape the widespread racism of the South, to seek out employment opportunities in urban environments, and to pursue what was widely perceived to be a better quality of life in the North.[13]

Two main factors ensured further separation between races and classes, and ultimately the development of contemporary ghettos: the relocation of industrial enterprises and the movement of middle to upper class residents into suburban neighborhoods. Between 1967 and 1987, economic restructuring resulted in a dramatic decline of manufacturing jobs. The once thriving northern industrial cities directed a shift to service occupations and in combination with the movement of middle-class families and other businesses to the suburbs, left much economic devastation in the inner cities. Consequently, African Americans were disproportionately affected and became either unemployed or underemployed with little wage and reduced benefits. Accordingly, a concentration of African Americans was established in the inner city neighbourhoods of places such as New York, Chicago and Detroit.[9]

It is also significant to compare the demographic patterns between blacks and European immigrants, according to the labor market. European immigrants and African Americans were both subject to an ethnic division of labor, and subsequently African Americans have pre-dominated the least secure division of the labor market. David Ward refers to this stagnant position in African American ghettos as the 'elevator' model which implies that each group of immigrants or migrants takes turns in the processes of social mobility and suburbanization; and several groups did not start on the ground floor. The inability for blacks to move from the ground floor, as Ward suggests, is dependent upon prejudice and segregationist patterns experienced in the South, prior to WWI. After the exodus of African Americans to the North, the range of occupations in the North was further altered by the settlement of European immigrants; thus, African Americans were diminished to unskilled jobs. The slow rate of advancement in black communities outlines the rigidity of the labor market, competition and conflict; adding another dimension to the prevalence of poverty and social instability in African American ghettos.[14]

In the years following World War II, many white Americans began to move away from inner cities to newer suburban communities, a process known as white flight. White flight occurred, in part, as a response to black people moving into white urban neighborhoods.[15][16] Discriminatory practices, especially those intended to "preserve" emerging white suburbs, restricted the ability of blacks to move from inner cities to the suburbs, even when they were economically able to afford it. In contrast to this, the same period in history marked a massive suburban expansion available primarily to whites of both wealthy and working-class backgrounds, facilitated through highway construction and the availability of federally subsidized home mortgages (VA, FHA, HOLC). These made it easier for families to buy new homes in the suburbs, but not to rent apartments in cities.[17]

The United States began restructuring their economy after World War II, fueled by new globalizing processes; demonstrated through technological advances and improvements in efficiency. The structural shift of 1973, during the postfordist era, became a large component to the racial ghetto and its relationship with the labor market. Sharon Zukin declares the designated stratum of African Americans in the labor force was placed even below the working class; low-skill urban jobs were now given to incoming immigrants from Mexico or the Caribbean. Additionally, Zukin denotes, "Not only have social services been drastically reduced, punitive and other social controls over the poor have been increased;" such as law enforcement and imprisonment.[18][19] Described as the "urban crisis" during the 1970s and 1980s, the transition stressed regional divisions according to differences in income and racial lines – white "donuts" around black holes.[20] Hardly coincidental, the steady separation occurred during the period of civil rights laws, urban riots and Black Power. In addition, the International Encyclopedia of Social Sciences stresses the various challenges developed by this "urban crisis" including:

"poorly underserviced infrastructures, inadequate housing to accommodate a growing urban populace, group conflict and competition over limited jobs and space, the inability for many residents to compete for new technology- based jobs, and tensions between the public and private sectors left to the formation and growth of U.S. ghettos."[9][21]

The cumulative economic and social forces in ghettos give way to social, political and economic isolation and inequality; while indirectly defining a separation between superior and inferior status of groups.

In response to the influx of black people from the South, banks, insurance companies, and businesses began denying or increasing the cost of services, such as banking, insurance, access to jobs,[22] access to health care,[23] or even supermarkets[24] to residents in certain, often racially determined,[25] areas. The most devastating form of redlining, and the most common use of the term, refers to mortgage discrimination. Data on house prices and attitudes toward integration suggest that in the mid-twentieth century, segregation was a product of collective actions taken by non-blacks to exclude blacks from outside neighborhoods.[26]

The "Racial" Provisions of FHA Underwriting Manual of 1936, included the following guidelines which exacerbated the segregation issue:

Recommended restrictions should include provision for: prohibition of the occupancy of properties except by the race for which they are intended ... Schools should be appropriate to the needs of the new community and they should not be attended in large numbers by inharmonious racial groups.[15][27]

This meant that ethnic minorities could secure mortgage loans only in certain areas, and it resulted in a large increase in the residential racial segregation and urban decay in the United States.[28] The creation of new highways in some cases divided and isolated black neighborhoods from goods and services, many times within industrial corridors. For example, Birmingham, Alabama's interstate highway system attempted to maintain the racial boundaries that had been established by the city's 1926 racial zoning law. The construction of interstate highways through black neighborhoods in the city led to significant population loss in those neighborhoods and is associated with an increase in neighborhood racial segregation.[29] By 1990, the legal barriers enforcing segregation had been replaced by decentralized racism, where whites pay more than blacks to live in predominantly white areas.[8] Some social scientists suggest that the historical processes of suburbanization and decentralization are instances of white privilege that have contributed to contemporary patterns of environmental racism.[30]

Following the emergence of anti-discrimination policies in housing and labor sparked by the civil rights movement, members of the black middle class moved out of the ghetto. The Fair Housing Act was passed in 1968. This was the first federal law that outlawed discrimination in the sale and rental of housing on the basis of race, color, national origin, religion and later sex, familial status, and disability. The Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity was charged with administering and enforcing the law. Since housing discrimination became illegal, new housing opportunities were made available to the black community and many left the ghetto. Urban sociologists frequently title this historical event as "black middle class exodus" (also see black flight). Elijah Anderson describes a process by which members of the black middle class begin to distance themselves socially and culturally from ghetto residents during the later half of the twentieth century, "eventually expressing this distance by literally moving away."[31] This is followed by the exodus of black working-class families.[32] As a result, the ghetto becomes primarily occupied by what sociologists and journalists of the 1980s and 1990s frequently title the "underclass." William Julius Wilson suggests this exodus worsens the isolation of the black underclass – not only are they socially and physically distanced from whites, they are also isolated from the black middle class.[33]

Two dominant theories arise pertaining to the production and development of U.S. ghettos. First are the race-based theorists who argue the importance of race in ghettos. Their analysis consists of the dominant racial group in the U.S. (White Anglo-Saxon Protestants) and their use of certain racist tactics in order to maintain their hegemony over blacks and lengthen their spatial separation. Race-based theorists offset other arguments that focus on the influence of the economy on segregation. More contemporary research of race-based theorists is to frame a range of methods conducted by White Americans to, "preserve race-based residential inequities;" as a function of the dominantly white, state-run government. Involving uneven development, mortgage and business discrimination and disinvestment – U.S. ghettos then, as suggested by race-based theorists, are conserved by distinctly racial reasoning. The more dominant view, on the other hand, is represented by class-based theorists. Such theories confirm class to be more important than race in the structuring of U.S. ghettos. Although racial concentration is a key signifier for ghettos, class-based theorists emphasize the role and impact of broader societal structures in the creation of African American ghettos. Dynamics of low-wage service and unemployment triggered from deindustrialization, and the intergenerational diffusion of status within families and neighborhoods, for instance, prove the rise in socioeconomic polarization between classes to be the creation of American ghettos; not racism.[34] Furthermore, the culture of poverty theory, first developed by Oscar Lewis, expresses a prolonged history of poverty can itself become a cultural obstacle to socioeconomic success; in turn, continue a pattern of socioeconomic polarization. Ghettos, in short, instill a cultural adaptation to social and class-based inequalities; enhancing the inability for future generations to mobilize or migrate.[20]

Contemporary African American ghettos are characterized by an overrepresentation of a particular ethnicity or race, vulnerability to crime, social problems, governmental reliance and political disempowerment. Sharon Zukin explains that through these reasons, society rationalizes the term "bad neighborhoods." Zukin stresses that these circumstances are largely related to, "racial concentration, residential abandonment, and deconstitution and reconstitution of communal institutions." [19][35] Many scholars diagnose this poorly facilitated and fragmented view of the United States as the "age of extremes." This term argues that inequalities of wealth and power reinforce spatial separation; for example, the growth of gated communities can be interconnected with the continued ghettoization of the poor.[20]

Another characteristic to African American ghettos and spatial separation is the dependence on the state, and lack of communal autonomy; Sharon Zukin refers to the Brownsville, Brooklyn as an example. This relationship between racial ghettos and the state is demonstrated through various push and pull features, implemented through government subsidized investments; which certainly assisted the movement of White Americans into the suburbs after WWII. Since the 1960s, after the deconstitution of the inner cities, African American ghettos have attempted to reorganize or reconstitute; in effect, they are increasingly regarded as public and state dependent communities. Brownsville, for instance, initiated the constitution of community established public housing, anti-poverty organizations and social service facilities – all, in their own way, depend on state resources. Though, certain dependence contradicts society's desires to be autonomous actors in the market. Moreover, Zukin implies, "the less 'autonomous' the community – in its dependence on public schools, public housing and various subsidy programs – the greater the inequity between their organizations and the state, and the less willing residents are to organize."[19][36] This should not, on the other hand, undermine local development corporations or social service agencies helping these neighborhoods. Although the lack of autonomy and growing dependence on the state, especially in a neoliberal economy, remains a key indicator to the production as well as the prevalence of African American ghettos; particularly due to the lack of opportunities to compete in the global market.[19]

Despite mainstream America's use of the term "ghetto" to signify a poor, culturally or racially homogenous urban area, those living in the area often used it to signify something positive. The black ghettos did not always contain dilapidated houses and deteriorating projects, nor were all of its residents poverty-stricken. For many African Americans, the ghetto was "home": a place representing authentic blackness and a feeling, passion, or emotion derived from rising above the struggle and suffering of being black in America.[37] Langston Hughes relays in the "Negro Ghetto" (1931) and "The Heart of Harlem" (1945): "The buildings in Harlem are brick and stone/And the streets are long and wide,/But Harlem's much more than these alone,/Harlem is what's inside." Playwright August Wilson used the term "ghetto" in Ma Rainey's Black Bottom (1984) and Fences (1987), both of which draw upon the author's experience growing up in the Hill district of Pittsburgh, a black ghetto.[8]

Recently the word "ghetto" has been used in slang as an adjective rather than a noun. It is used to indicate an object's relation to the inner city or black culture, and also more broadly to denote something that is shabby or of low quality. While "ghetto" as an adjective can be used derogatorily, the African American community, particularly the hip hop scene, has taken the word for themselves and begun using it in a more positive sense that transcends its derogatory origins (Reference??).

The Geographical Review claims, "The degree of residential segregation of the black community is greater than for any other group in urban America, yet the blacks have not had the political power necessary to exercise any significant degree of control over the improvement of the basic services necessary for their healthy, education, and welfare."[38][39] Scholars have been interested in the study of African American ghettos precisely for the concentration of disadvantage residents and their vulnerability to social problems. American ghettos also bring attention to geographical and political barriers, and as Doreen Massey highlights that racial segregation in African American ghettos challenge America's democratic foundations.[40] Though it is still advocated that, "One solution to these problems depends on our ability to use the political process in eliminating the inequities... geographical knowledge and theory to public-policy decisions about poor people and poor regions is a professional obligation."[38][41]

Europe[edit]

Northern Ireland[edit]

In Northern Ireland, towns and cities have long been segregated along ethnic, religious and political lines. Northern Ireland's two main communities are its Irish nationalist/republican community (who mainly self-identify as Irish and/or Catholic) and its unionist/loyalist community (who mainly self-identify as British and/or Protestant). Ghettos emerged in Belfast during the riots that accompanied the Irish War of Independence. For safety, people fled to areas where their community was the majority. They then sealed off these neighborhoods with barricades to keep out rioters or gunmen from the other side.[citation needed]

Many more ghettos emerged after the 1969 riots and beginning of the "Troubles". In August 1969 the British Army was deployed to restore order and separate the two sides. The government built barriers called "peace lines". Many of the ghettos came under the control of paramilitaries such as the (republican) Provisional Irish Republican Army and the (loyalist) Ulster Defence Association. One of the most notable ghettos was Free Derry.[citation needed]

A "peace line" in Belfast, seen from the Irish nationalist/republican side. The small back gardens of houses are protected by cages as missiles are sometimes thrown from the other side
Mural at the edge of a loyalist ghetto in Belfast

Great Britain[edit]

The existence of ethnic enclaves in the United Kingdom is controversial.

Southall Broadway, a predominantly Asian area in London, where less than 12 per cent of the population is white, has been cited as an example of a 'ghetto', but in reality the area is home to a number of different ethnic groups and religious groups.[42][verification needed][43] Analysis of data from Census 2001 revealed that only two wards in England and Wales, both in Birmingham, had one dominant non-white ethnic group comprising more than two-thirds of the local population, but there were 20 wards where whites were a minority making up less than a third of the local population.[44][45][need quotation to verify] By 2001, two London boroughs – Newham and Brent – had 'minority majority' populations, and most parts of the city tend to have a diverse population.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ ghetto - Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
  2. ^ http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=ghetto&searchmode=none
  3. ^ The New Oxford American Dictionary, Second Edition, Erina McKean, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-517077-6
  4. ^ Eileen Lavine (2013) Jewish Word: Ghetto Moment Magazine
  5. ^ GHETTO Kim Pearson
  6. ^ Ghetto in Flames Yitzhak Arad, pp. 436–437
  7. ^ Shanghai Jewish History (Shanghai Jewish Center)
  8. ^ a b c Ghettos: The Changing Consequences of Ethnic Isolation
  9. ^ a b c Darity, William A., Jr., ed. "Ghetto." International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences 3.2 (2008): 311–14. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 25 Oct. 2012.
  10. ^ Inequality and Segregation R Sethi, R Somanathan – Journal of Political Economy, 2004
  11. ^ Douglas S. Massey (August 2004). "Segration and Strafication: A Biosocial Perspective". Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race 1 (1): 7–25. doi:10.1017/S1742058X04040032. 
  12. ^ Sethi, Rajiv; Somanathan, Rohini (2004). "Inequality and Segregation". Journal of Political Economy 112 (6): 1296–1321. doi:10.1086/424742. 
  13. ^ a b The Great Migration
  14. ^ Ward, David. "The Ethnic Ghetto in the United States: Past and Present." Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers ns 7.3 (1982): 257–75. JSTOR. Web. 26 Oct. 2012. <http://www.jstor.org/stable/621990>.
  15. ^ a b The Suburban Racial Dilemma: Housing and Neighborhoods By William Dennis Keating. Temple University Press. 1994. ISBN 1-56639-147-4
  16. ^ Central City White Flight: Racial and Nonracial Causes William H. Frey American Sociological Review, Vol. 44, No. 3 (Jun., 1979), pp. 425–448
  17. ^ "Racial" Provisions of FHA Underwriting Manual
  18. ^ Zukin 514
  19. ^ a b c d Zukin, Sharon. "How 'Bad' Is It?: Institutions and Intentions in the Study of the American Ghetto." International Journal or Urban and Regional Research 22.3 (2002): 511–20. Wiley Online Library. Web. 28 Oct. 2012.
  20. ^ a b c Fischer, Claude S., Gretchen Stockmayer, Jon Stiles, and Michael Hout. "Distinguishing the Geographical Levels and Social Dimensions of U.S. Metropolitan Segregation, 1960–2000." Demography 41.7 (2004): 37–59.
  21. ^ Darity 313
  22. ^ Racial Discrimination and Redlining in Cities
  23. ^ See: Race and health
  24. ^ In poor health: Supermarket redlining and urban nutrition, Elizabeth Eisenhauer, GeoJournal Volume 53, Number 2 / February, 2001
  25. ^ How East New York Became a Ghetto by Walter Thabit. ISBN 0-8147-8267-1. Page 42.
  26. ^ The Rise and Decline of the American Ghetto David M. Cutler, Edward L. Glaeser, Jacob L. Vigdor The Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 107, No. 3 (Jun., 1999), pp. 455–506
  27. ^ Federal Housing Administration, Underwriting Manual: Underwriting and Valuation Procedure Under Title II of the National Housing Act With Revisions to February, 1938 (Washington, D.C.), Part II, Section 9, Rating of Location.
  28. ^ Jackson, Kenneth T. (1985). Crabgrass Frontier: The Suburbanization of the United States. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-504983-7. 
  29. ^ From Racial Zoning to Community Empowerment: The Interstate Highway System and the African American Community in Birmingham, Alabama Charles E. Connerly Journal of Planning Education and Research, Vol. 22, No. 2, 99–114 (2002)
  30. ^ Rethinking Environmental Racism: White Privilege and Urban Development in Southern California Laura Pulido Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 90, No. 1 (Mar., 2000), pp. 12–40
  31. ^ Anderson, Elijah (1990). Streetwise: Race, Class, and Change in an Urban Community. The University of Chicago Press. p. 2. ISBN 0-226-01816-4. 
  32. ^ Wilson, William Julius (1987). The Truly Disadvantaged: The Inner City, the Underclass, and Public Policy. The University of Chicago Press. p. 49. ISBN 0-226-90131-9. 
  33. ^ Wilson, William Julius (1987). The Truly Disadvantaged: The Inner City, the Underclass, and Public Policy. The University of Chicago Press. pp. 7–8. ISBN 0-226-90131-9. 
  34. ^ Shelton, Jason E. "Ghetto." Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Society. 2008. SAGE Knowledge. Web. 25 Oct. 2012.
  35. ^ Zukin 516
  36. ^ Zukin 517
  37. ^ Smitherman, Geneva. Black Talk: Words and Phrases from the Hood to the Amen Corner. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2000.
  38. ^ a b Geographical Review 107
  39. ^ "Geographical Record." Geographical Review 63.1 (1973): 106–17. JSTOR. Web. 27 Oct. 2012. <http://www.jstor.org/stable/213241>.
  40. ^ Fischer, Claude S., Gretchen Stockmayer, Jon Stiles, and Michael Hout. "Distinguishing the Geographical Levels and Social Dimensions of U.S. Metropolitan Segregation, 1960-2000." Demography 41.7 (2004): 37–59.
  41. ^ "Geographical Record." Geographical Review 63.1 (1973): 106–17. JSTOR. Web. 27 Oct. 2012. <http://www.jstor.org/stable/213241>.
  42. ^ Browne, Anthony (May 5, 2004). "We cant run away from it white flight is here too". The Times (London). Retrieved May 3, 2010. 
  43. ^ Kerr, J., Gibson, A. and Seaborne, M. (2003) London from punk to Blair. Reaktion Books. see entries
  44. ^ http://www.london.gov.uk/gla/publications/factsandfigures/dmag-briefing-2005-38.rtf[dead link]
  45. ^ http://www.lse.ac.uk/collections/BSPS/ppt/May06_BB.ppt

External links[edit]