Ghost in the Shell

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This article is about the media franchise. For other uses, see Ghost in the Shell (disambiguation).
Ghost in the Shell
Ghost in the Shell.jpg
Cover of The Ghost in the Shell, the first volume of the manga
攻殻機動隊
(Kōkaku Kidōtai)
Genre Cyberpunk
Manga
Ghost in the Shell
Written by Masamune Shirow
Published by Kodansha
English publisher
Demographic Seinen
Magazine Young Magazine
Original run May 1989August 1997
Volumes 3 (List of volumes)
Anime film
Ghost in the Shell
Directed by Mamoru Oshii
Produced by Yoshimasa Mizuo
Ken Matsumoto
Ken Iyadomi
Mitsuhisa Ishikawa
Written by Kazunori Itō
Music by Kenji Kawai
Studio Production I.G
Released
  • November 18, 1995 (1995-11-18)
Runtime 82 minutes
Game
Ghost in the Shell
Developer Exact
Publisher
Genre Action, third-person shooter
Platform PlayStation
Released
  • JP July 17, 1997
  • NA October 31, 1997
  • EU July 1, 1998
Anime television series
Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex
Directed by Kenji Kamiyama
Written by Kenji Kamiyama
Music by Yoko Kanno
Studio Production I.G
Licensed by
Bandai Entertainment
Manga Entertainment
Network Perfect Choice (PPV)
English network
Original run October 1, 2002October 1, 2003
Episodes 26 (List of episodes)
Anime television series
Ghost in the Shell: S.A.C. 2nd GIG
Directed by Kenji Kamiyama
Written by Kenji Kamiyama
Music by Yoko Kanno
Studio Production I.G
Network Perfect Choice (PPV)
NTV
English network
Original run January 1, 2004January 8, 2005
Episodes 26 (List of episodes)
Anime film
Ghost in the Shell 2: Innocence
Directed by Mamoru Oshii
Produced by Mitsuhisa Ishikawa
Toshio Suzuki
Written by Mamoru Oshii
Music by Kenji Kawai
Studio Production I.G
Released
  • June 24, 2004 (2004-06-24)
Runtime 98 minutes
Anime film
Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex - Solid State Society
Directed by Kenji Kamiyama
Tomohiko Ishii
Produced by Mitsuhisa Ishikawa
Toshio Suzuki
Written by Kenji Kamiyama
Shotaro Suga
Yoshiki Sakurai
Music by Yoko Kanno
Studio Production I.G
Released
  • November 1, 2006 (2006-11-01)
Runtime 110 minutes
Original video animation
Ghost in the Shell: Arise
Directed by Kazuchika Kise
Produced by Production I.G
Written by Tow Ubukata
Music by Cornelius
Studio Production I.G
Licensed by
Released June 22, 2013 (2013-06-22)September 6, 2014 (2014-09-06)
Episodes 4
Portal icon Anime and Manga portal

Ghost in the Shell (攻殻機動隊 Kōkaku Kidōtai?, literally "Mobile Armored Riot Police") is a Japanese media franchise originally published as a seinen manga series of the same name written and illustrated by Masamune Shirow. The manga, first serialized in 1989 under the subtitle of The Ghost in the Shell, and later published as its own tankōbon volumes by Kodansha, told the story of the fictional counter-cyberterrorist organization Public Security Section 9, led by protagonist Major Motoko Kusanagi, in the mid 21st century of Japan.

Animation studio Production I.G has produced several different anime adaptations of Ghost in the Shell, starting with the 1995 film of the same name, telling the story of Section 9's investigation of the Puppet Master. The television series Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex followed in 2002, telling an alternate story from the manga and first film, featuring Section 9's investigations of government corruption in the Laughing Man and Individual Eleven incidents. The year 2013 saw the start of the Ghost in the Shell: Arise film series with the release of the first two episodes. The third episode of the four-part series is set to be released on June 28, 2014.

Title[edit]

Shirow has stated that he had always wanted the title of his manga to be "GHOST IN THE SHELL", even in Japan, but his original publishers preferred Kōkaku Kidōtai (攻殻機動隊?). He had chosen "Ghost in the Shell" in homage to Arthur Koestler's The Ghost in the Machine, from which he also drew inspiration.[1]

Setting[edit]

Primarily set in the mid-twenty-first century in the fictional Japanese city of Niihama, Niihama Prefecture (新浜県新浜市 Niihama-ken Niihama-shi?),[Note 1] otherwise known as New Port City (ニューポートシティ Nyū Pōto Shiti?), the manga and the many anime adaptations follow the members of Public Security Section 9, a special-operations task-force made up of former military officers and police detectives. Political intrigue and counter-terrorism operations are standard fare for Section 9, but the various actions of corrupt officials, companies, and cyber-criminals in each scenario are unique and require the diverse skills of Section 9's staff to prevent a series of incidents from escalating.

In this post-cyberpunk iteration of a possible future, computer technology has advanced to the point that many members of the public possess cyberbrains, technology that allows them to interface their biological brain with various networks. The level of cyberization varies from simple minimal interfaces to almost complete replacement of the brain with cybernetic parts, in cases of severe trauma. This can also be combined with various levels of prostheses, with a fully prosthetic body enabling a person to become a cyborg. The heroine of Ghost in the Shell, Major Motoko Kusanagi, is such a cyborg, having had a terrible accident befall her as a child that ultimately required that she use a full-body prosthesis to house her cyberbrain. This high level of cyberization, however, opens the brain up to attacks from highly skilled hackers, with the most dangerous being those who will hack a person to bend to their whims.

Media[edit]

Original manga[edit]

The Ghost in the Shell originally ran from April 1989 to November 1990 in Kodansha's manga anthology Young Magazine, and was released in tankobon format on October 2, 1991.[2] Ghost in the Shell 2: Man-Machine Interface ran in Young Magazine from September 1991 to August 1997.[3] Four chapters that were not released in tankobon format from previous releases were later collected into a single volume titled Ghost in the Shell 1.5: Human-Error Processor serving as an interquel. The manga was published on July 23, 2003 by Kodansha.[4] Several art books have also been published for the manga.

Animated films[edit]

Two animated films based on the original manga have been released, both directed by Mamoru Oshii and animated by Production I.G. Ghost in the Shell was released in 1995 and follows the "Puppet Master" storyline from the manga. It was re-released in 2008 as Ghost in the Shell 2.0 with new audio and updated 3D computer graphics in certain scenes.[5] Innocence, otherwise known as Ghost in the Shell 2: Innocence, was released in 2004, with its story based on a chapter from Man-Machine Interface.

Video games[edit]

Ghost in the Shell was developed by Exact and released for the PlayStation on July 17, 1997, in Japan by Sony Computer Entertainment.[6] It is a third-person shooter featuring an original storyline where the character plays a rookie member of Section 9. The video game's soundtrack Megatech Body features various electronica artists.[7]

Several video games were also developed to tie into the Stand Alone Complex television series, in addition to a planned MMORPG.

Stand Alone Complex TV series[edit]

In 2002, Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex premiered on Animax, presenting a new telling of Ghost in the Shell independent from the original manga, focusing on Section 9's investigation of the Laughing Man hacker.[8] It was followed in 2004 by a second season titled Ghost in the Shell: S.A.C. 2nd GIG, which focused on the Individual Eleven terrorist group.[9] Both seasons' primary storylines were compressed into OVAs broadcast as Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex The Laughing Man in 2005 and Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex Individual Eleven in 2006.[10][11] Also in 2006, Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex - Solid State Society, featuring Section 9's confrontation with a hacker known as the Puppeteer, was broadcast, serving as a finale to the anime series.[12] The extensive score for the series and its films was composed by Yoko Kanno.

In addition to the anime, a series of published books, two separate manga adaptations, and several video games for consoles and mobile phones have been released for Stand Alone Complex. An MMORPG has also been in development for several years.

Live-action adaptation[edit]

In 2008, DreamWorks and Steven Spielberg acquired the rights to produce a live-action film adaptation of the original manga. Avi Arad, Ari Arad, and Steven Paul were later confirmed as producers, with Jamie Moss (Street Kings) to write the screenplay.[13] In October, 2009, it was announced that Laeta Kalogridis (Alexander, Shutter Island) had replaced Moss as writer.[14] On January 24, 2014, it was reported that Rupert Sanders (Snow White and the Huntsman) will direct the film, with a screenplay by William Wheeler (The Hoax, The Reluctant Fundamentalist).[15] On September 3, 2014, Margot Robbie was in early talks for the lead role.[16]

Arise OVA series[edit]

Ghost in the Shell: Arise is another animated iteration that takes place in yet another alternate setting, set before the original manga. It is being released as a series of OVAs (with limited theatrical releases), with Kazuchika Kise as chief director and Tow Ubukata as head writer.[17] Cornelius was brought onto the project to compose the score for the OVAs. A manga adaptation began serialization in Kodansha's Young Magazine's April 2013 issue, released March 13, 2013.[18][19]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ There is a real-world Niihama, located in Ehime Prefecture, but its name is written differently in kanji: 新居浜市.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex Official Log 1", p. 9. Young Magazine Pirate Edition, 2003.
  2. ^ "攻殻機動隊(1)" (in Japanese). Kodansha. Retrieved 2012-10-13. 
  3. ^ "攻殻機動隊SOLID BOX" (in Japanese). 7net. Retrieved 2012-10-13. 
  4. ^ "攻殻機動隊 1.5" (in Japanese). Kodansha. Retrieved 2012-10-13. 
  5. ^ "Ghost in the Shell to Return to Japanese Theaters". Anime News Network. Retrieved November 9, 2011. 
  6. ^ "攻殻機動隊 GHOST IN THE SHELL". Sony Computer Entertainment. Retrieved 2012-12-19. 
  7. ^ "世界中で絶賛されている近未来SFコミックス「攻殻機動隊」のプレイステーション・ゲームのSound [Techno] Trax。". Sony Music Entertainment Japan. Retrieved January 4, 2013. 
  8. ^ "Animax's official GitS:SAC webpage" (in Japanese). Animax. Archived from the original on 2011-01-29. Retrieved 09-02-2011. 
  9. ^ "Into the Network: The Ghost in the Shell Universe". Production I.G. Archived from the original on 2011-01-29. Retrieved 2011-01-29. 
  10. ^ "Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex The Laughing Man". Production I.G. Retrieved 14 January 2014. 
  11. ^ "Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex Individual Eleven". Production I.G. Retrieved 14 January 2014. 
  12. ^ "Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex Solid State Society". Production I.G. Retrieved 14 January 2014. 
  13. ^ Siegel, Tatiana; Fleming, Michael (April 14, 2008). "DreamWorks to make 'Ghost' in 3-D". Variety.com. Retrieved November 9, 2011. 
  14. ^ Siegel, Tatiana (October 22, 2009). "Kalogridis to adapt 'Ghost in the Shell'". Variety.com. Retrieved November 9, 2011. 
  15. ^ Bishop, Bryan. "Live-action 'Ghost in the Shell' movie signs the director of 'Snow White and the Huntsman'". The Verge. Retrieved 2014-3-3. 
  16. ^ Fleming Jr, Mike (September 3, 2014). "‘Wolf Of Wall Street’s Margot Robbie Eyes ‘Ghost In The Shell’". deadline.com. Retrieved September 3, 2014. 
  17. ^ "Ghost in the Shell Arise Anime to Launch in 2013". Anime News Network. January 15, 2013. Retrieved 2013-01-15. 
  18. ^ "6月22日から映画「攻殻機動隊ARISE GHOST IN THE SHELL」全4部作公開". Gigazine. Retrieved 2013-03-13. 
  19. ^ "「攻殻機動隊ARISE」コミカライズ 月刊ヤングマガジンで連載開始 公安9課以前を描く | アニメ!アニメ!". Animeanime.jp. Retrieved 2013-03-13. 

External links[edit]