Ghost in the Shell
||It has been suggested that Ghost in the Shell (manga) be merged into this article. (Discuss) Proposed since October 2013.|
|Ghost in the Shell|
Cover of The Ghost in the Shell, the first volume of the manga
|Written by||Masamune Shirow|
|Original run||May 1989 – August 1997|
|Directed by||Mamoru Oshii|
|Produced by||Yoshimasa Mizuo
|Written by||Kazunori Itō|
|Music by||Kenji Kawai|
|Genre||Action, third-person shooter|
|Anime television series|
|Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex|
|Directed by||Kenji Kamiyama|
|Written by||Kenji Kamiyama|
|Music by||Yoko Kanno|
Ghost in the Shell (攻殻機動隊 Kōkaku Kidōtai , literally "Mobile Armored Riot Police") is a Japanese media franchise originally published as a seinen manga series of the same name written and illustrated by Masamune Shirow. The manga, first serialized in 1989 under the subtitle of The Ghost in the Shell, and later published as its own tankōbon volumes by Kodansha, told the story of the fictional counter-cyberterrorist organization Public Security Section 9, led by protagonist Major Motoko Kusanagi, in the mid 21st century of Japan.
Animation studio Production I.G has produced several different anime adaptations of Ghost in the Shell, starting with the 1995 film of the same name, telling the story of Section 9's investigation of the Puppet Master. The television series Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex followed in 2002, telling an alternate story from the manga and first film, featuring Section 9's investigations of government corruption in the Laughing Man and Individual Eleven incidents. The year 2013 will see the start of the Ghost in the Shell: Arise film series.
Shirow has stated that he had always wanted the title of his manga to be "GHOST IN THE SHELL", even in Japan, but his original publishers preferred Kōkaku Kidōtai (攻殻機動隊?). He had chosen "Ghost in the Shell" in homage to Arthur Koestler's The Ghost in the Machine, from which he also drew inspiration.
Primarily set in the mid-twenty-first century in the fictional Japanese city of Niihama, Niihama Prefecture (新浜県新浜市 Niihama-ken Niihama-shi ),[Note 1] otherwise known as New Port City (ニューポートシティ Nyū Pōto Shiti ), the manga and the many anime adaptations follow the members of Public Security Section 9, a special-operations task-force made up of former military officers and police detectives. Political intrigue and counter-terrorism operations are standard fare for Section 9, but the various actions of corrupt officials, companies, and cyber-criminals in each scenario are unique and require the diverse skills of Section 9's staff to prevent a series of incidents from escalating.
In this cyberpunk iteration of a possible future, computer technology has advanced to the point that many members of the public possess cyberbrains, technology that allows them to interface their biological brain with various networks. The level of cyberization varies from simple minimal interfaces to almost complete replacement of the brain with cybernetic parts, in cases of severe trauma. This can also be combined with various levels of prostheses, with a fully prosthetic body enabling a person to become a cyborg. The heroine of Ghost in the Shell, Major Motoko Kusanagi, is such a cyborg, having had a terrible accident befall her as a child that ultimately required that she use a full-body prosthesis to house her cyberbrain. This high level of cyberization, however, opens the brain up to attacks from highly skilled hackers, with the most dangerous being those who will hack a person to bend to their whims.
The Ghost in the Shell originally ran from April 1989 to November 1990 in Kodansha's manga anthology Young Magazine, and was released in tankobon format on October 2, 1991. Ghost in the Shell 2: Man-Machine Interface ran in Young Magazine from September 1991 to August 1997. Four chapters that were not released in tankobon format from previous releases were later collected into a single volume titled Ghost in the Shell 1.5: Human-Error Processor serving as an interquel. The manga was published in July 23, 2003 by Kodansha. Several art books have also been published for the manga.
Two animated films based on the original manga have been released, both directed by Mamoru Oshii and animated by Production I.G. Ghost in the Shell was released in 1995 and follows the "Puppet Master" storyline from the manga. It was re-released in 2008 as Ghost in the Shell 2.0 with new audio and updated 3D computer graphics in certain scenes. Innocence, otherwise known as Ghost in the Shell 2: Innocence, was released in 2004, with its story based on a chapter from Man-Machine Interface.
As of 2008, DreamWorks has acquired the rights to produce a live-action film adaptation of the original manga with Steven Spielberg. Avi Arad and Steven Paul are confirmed producers; Jamie Moss was originally hired to adapt the manga into a screenplay but in October 2009 it was announced that Laeta Kalogridis had replaced Moss as writer.
Ghost in the Shell was developed by Exact and released for the PlayStation on July 17, 1997, in Japan by Sony Computer Entertainment. It is a third-person shooter featuring an original storyline where the character plays a rookie member of Section 9. The video game's soundtrack Megatech Body features various electronica artists.
Stand Alone Complex
In 2002, Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex premiered on Animax, presenting a new telling of Ghost in the Shell independent from the original manga, focusing on Section 9's investigation of the Laughing Man hacker. It was followed in 2004 by a second season titled Ghost in the Shell: S.A.C. 2nd GIG, which focused on the Individual Eleven terrorist group. Both seasons' primary storylines were compressed into OVAs broadcast in 2005 and 2006. Also in 2006, Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex - Solid State Society, featuring Section 9's confrontation with a hacker known as the Puppeteer, was broadcast, serving as a finale to the anime series.
A series of novels and two manga series have also been released for Stand Alone Complex.
Ghost in the Shell: Arise is another animated iteration that takes place in yet another alternate setting, set before the original manga. It is being released as a series of OVAs (with limited theatrical releases), with Kazuchika Kise as chief director and Tow Ubukata as head writer. Cornelius was brought onto the project to compose the score for the OVAs.
A manga based on Arise subtitled Sleepless Eye was serialized in Young Magazine starting April 2013.
- "Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex Official Log 1", p. 9. Young Magazine Pirate Edition, 2003.
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- "攻殻機動隊ＳＯＬＩＤ ＢＯＸ" (in Japanese). 7net. Retrieved 2012-10-13.
- "攻殻機動隊 １．５" (in Japanese). Kodansha. Retrieved 2012-10-13.
- "Ghost in the Shell to Return to Japanese Theaters". Anime News Network. Retrieved November 9, 2011.
- Siegel, Tatiana; Fleming, Michael (April 14, 2008). "DreamWorks to make 'Ghost' in 3-D". Variety.com. Retrieved November 9, 2011.
- Siegel, Tatiana (October 22, 2009). "Kalogridis to adapt 'Ghost in the Shell'". Variety.com. Retrieved November 9, 2011.
- "攻殻機動隊 GHOST IN THE SHELL". Sony Computer Entertainment. Retrieved 2012-12-19.
- "世界中で絶賛されている近未来SFコミックス「攻殻機動隊」のプレイステーション・ゲームのSound [Techno] Trax。". Sony Music Entertainment Japan. Retrieved January 4, 2013.
- "Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex Online Game Coming From Nexon". Siliconera. Ishaan. Retrieved 20 February 2013.
- "Ghost in the Shell Arise Anime to Launch in 2013". Anime News Network. January 15, 2013. Retrieved 2013-01-15.