Ghulam Azam

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Ghulam Azam
Ghulam Azam Office 2009.jpg
Leader of Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh
In office
1960–2000
Preceded by Maulana Abdur Raheem
Succeeded by Motiur Rahman Nizami
Personal details
Born (1922-11-07) 7 November 1922 (age 91)
Dhaka,[1] Bengal, British Raj (now Bangladesh)
Political party Jamaat-e-Islami
Spouse(s) Afifa Azam
Relations wife
Children 6
Alma mater Dhaka University
Occupation Politician
Religion Islam

Ghulam Azam (Bengali: গোলাম আযম; born. 7 November 1922) is a convicted war criminal of 1971 Bangladesh Liberation War and a retired Islamist political leader.[2][3][4][5] He was the Ameer of Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh until 2000.[6] Azam opposed the independence of Bangladesh during the 1971 Bangladesh Liberation War.[7][8]

On 15 July 2013 the International Crimes Tribunal found Azam guilty of war crimes such as conspiring, planning, incitement to and complicity in committing genocide and gave him a 90-year prison sentence.[4][5] The judges unanimously agreed that Azam deserved capital punishment for his activity during Liberation war of Bangladesh but was given a lenient punishment because of his age and health condition.[2][3][9][10]

As a leader of the Jamaat-e-Islami, he led to form the controversial Peace or Shanti Committees which were formed at the time of the Liberation War alongside other pro-Pakistan Bengali leaders.[11] Azam is accused of forming paramilitary groups for the Pakistani Army, including Razakars, and Al-Badr.[12] These militias opposed the Mukti Bahini revolutionaries who fought for the independence of Bangladesh, and also stand accused of war crimes.[11][13][14][15] Azam's citizenship of Bangladesh had been cancelled by the Bangladeshi Government because of his role during the Bangladesh Liberation War.[16] He lived in Bangladesh illegally without any authorised Bangladeshi visa from 1978 to 1994.[17][18]

Azam was arrested on 11 January 2012 on the charges of committing war crimes during the Bangladesh Liberation War by the International Crimes Tribunal in Bangladesh.[19][20] The tribunal rejected the plea of bail after noting that there were formal charges against Azam of which it had taken cognisance.[21][22][23][24]

Background[edit]

Azam was born on 7 November 1922 in the then Bengal province of British India, the eldest son of Maulana Ghulam Kabir and Sayeda Ashrafunnisa. He attended a madrasa in his village of Birgaon, Nabinagar, Brahmanbaria and completed his secondary school education in Dhaka. He then joined Dhaka University, completing BA and MA degrees in Political Science.[25]

Early political career[edit]

University[edit]

While studying at the University of Dhaka Azam became active in student politics and was elected as the General Secretary of the Dhaka University Central Students' Union (DUCSU) for two consecutive years between 1947 and 1949. While General Secretary of the DUCSU Azam in 1947 submitted a memorandum on the union's behalf to the then Prime Minister of Pakistan Liaquat Ali Khan, demanding that Bengali be made a state language along with Urdu.[25] Later in 1970 in a news paper article Azam said "Bangla was a wrong decision with regard to the establishment of Pakistan since Urdu was widely used and all Muslims of the Indian subcontinent understand it."[26]

Jamaat-e-Islami[edit]

In 1950, Azam left Dhaka to teach political science at the Government Carmichael College in Rangpur. While there, he joined the Tablighi Jamaat religious movement and Tamaddun Majlish and headed both organisations' Rangpur branches until 1954. During this time, he became influenced by the writings of Abul Ala Maududi and he joined Maududi's party Jamaat-e-Islami in 1954, and was later elected as the Secretary General of Jamaat-e-Islami's East Pakistan branch.[25]

In 1964, the government of Ayub Khan banned Jamaat-e-Islami and its leaders, including Azam, was imprisoned for eight months without trial. He played a prominent role as the general secretary of the Pakistan Democratic Movement formed in 1967 and later as a member of Democratic Action Committee formed in 1969 to transform the anti-Ayub movement into a popular uprising. In 1969, he became the Ameer of the Jamaat in East Pakistan. He and other opposition leaders including future President of Bangladesh Sheikh Mujibur Rahman took part in the Round Table Conference held in Rawalpindi in 1969 to solve the prevailing political impasse in Pakistan.[25] On 13 March 1969, Khan announced his acceptance of their two fundamental demands of parliamentary government and direct elections.[27]

In the runup to the 1970 general election, Azam together with leaders of a number of other parties in East Pakistan (including the Pakistan Democratic Party, National Awami Party, Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam and the Pakistan National League) protested at the Awami League approach to electioneering for, accusing them of breaking up public meetings, physical attacks on political opponents and the looting and destruction of party offices.[28] During 1970, while Azam was the head of Jamaat-e-Islami East Pakistan, a number of political rallies, including rallies of Jamaat-e-Islami, were attacked by armed mobs alleged to be incited by the Awami League.[29][30]

Bangladesh Liberation War[edit]

Activities during 1971 War[edit]

During the Bangladesh Liberation War, Azam took a political stance in support of unified Pakistan,[31] and repeatedly denounced Awami League and Mukti Bahini secessionists,[32] whose declared aim after 26 March 1971 became the establishment of an independent state of Bangladesh in place of East Pakistan. Excerpts from Azam's speeches after 25 March 1971 used to be published in the spokespaper of Jamaat named The Daily Sangram. On 20 June 1971, Azam reaffirmed his support for the Pakistani army by stating that 'the army has eradicated nearly all criminals of East Pakistan'.[32]

During the war of 1971, it is alleged that Azam played a central role in the formation of Peace Committees on 11 April 1971, which declared the independence movement to be a conspiracy hatched by India.[11][33] It is also alleged that Azam was one of the founding members of this organisation.[11] The Peace Committee members were drawn from Azam's Jamaat-e-Islami, the Muslim League and Biharis.[34] The Peace Committee served as a front for the army, informing on the civil administration as well as the general public. They were also in charge of confiscating and redistribution of shops and lands from Hindu and pro-independence Bengalis, mainly relatives and friends of Mukti Bahini fighters. Almost 10 million Bangladeshis fled to neighbouring India as refugees. The Shanti Committee has also been alleged to have recruited Razakars.[12] The first recruits included 96 Jamaat party members, who started training in an Ansar camp at Shahjahan Ali Road, Khulna.[35][36] During Azam's leadership of Jamaat-e-Islami, Ashraf Hossain, a leader of Jamaat's student wing Islami Chhatra Sangha, created the Al-Badr militia in Jamalpur District on 22 April 1971.[37] On 12 April 1971, Azam and Matiur Rahman Nizami led demonstrations denouncing the independence movement as an Indian conspiracy.[38]

During the war Azam travelled the then West Pakistan to consult the Pakistani leaders.[39] Azam declared that his party (Jamaat) is trying its best to curb the activities of pro-independence "Miscreants".[40] Azam took part in meetings with General Yahiya Khan, the military dictator of Pakistan, and other military leaders, to organise the campaign against Bangladeshi independence.[39]

On 12 August 1971, Azam declared in a statement published in the Daily Sangram that "the supporters of the so-called Bangladesh Movement are the enemies of Islam, Pakistan, and Muslims".[41] He also called for an all out war against India.[42]

Azam is also alleged to be the chief protagonist and to present the blueprint of the killing of the intellectuals in a meeting with Rao Forman Ali in Early September 1971.[43] In accordance with this blue print, the largest number of Bengali intellectuals assassinations performed by Pakistani Army and the local collaborators, on 14 December 1971.

Allegations[edit]

On 20 June 1971, Azam declared in Lahore that the Hindu minority in East Pakistan, under the leadership of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, are conspiring to secede from Pakistan.[44] On 12 August 1971, Azam declared in a statement published in the Daily Sangram that "the supporters of the so-called Bangladesh Movement are the enemies of Islam, Pakistan, and Muslims".[45] For his part, Azam denies all such accusation and challenges that proof be brought forward to justify them.[46] However, he later admitted that he was on the list of collaborators of the Pakistani army, but denied he was a war criminal.[33]

The military junta of Yahya Khan decided to call an election in an attempt to legitimise themselves. On 12 October 1971 Yahya Khan declared that an election will be held from 25 November to 9 December. Azam decided to take part in this election. On 15 October, the Pakistani government suddenly declared that 15 candidates were elected without any competition. According to the declaration of 2 November as many as 53 candidates were elected without any competition.[47] In this election Jamaat won 14 of the uncontested seats.[48]

Former caretaker government adviser, human rights activist and witness for the prosecution Sultana Kamal said- "In brutality, Ghulam Azam is synonymous with German ruler Hitler who had influential role in implementation and execution of genocide and ethnic cleansing".[49] In response to this statement the defence cousel pointed out that the comparison was a fallacy and 'fake with malicious intention' as Hitler held state power, which Azam did not and that in 1971 General Tikka Khan and Yahya Khan held state power.[50] Prosecutor of ICT Zead-Al-Malum said- “He was the one making all the decisions, why would he need to be on any committee? Being Hitler was enough for Hitler in World War II.”[51]

Anti-Bangladesh Lobbying after 1971[edit]

After the victory of the Joint forces of the Indian Army and Mukti Bahini over Pakistan on 16 December 1971 a new nation named Bangladesh was born. Azam continued his anti-Bangladesh and pro-Pakistan activities even after 1971. He tried to convince many political leaders of Middle-East and Pakistan not to support the new born nation. A complete description of these lobbies are found in the writings of Dhaka University Professor Anisuzzaman.[17] Mr. Anisuzzaman submitted all the allegations against Golam Azam to the People's Court in 1992. People's Court was established as a mass movement to try war criminals and anti-independence activists by Jahanara Imam and others. Jahanara Imam held this unprecedented Peoples' Court as a symbolic trial of Azam where thousands of people gathered and the court gave verdict that Azam's offences committed during the Liberation War deserve capital punishment.[52]

According to Prothom Alo, three intellectuals submitted allegations of war crimes against Azam. The activities regarding Bengali culture were submitted by Syed Shamsul Huq, alleged war crimes during 1971 were detailed by Borhanuddin Khan Jahangir and his pro-Pakistan lobbying after 1971 was detailed by Anisuzzaman.[17] Notable pro-Pakistan lobbying of Azam after 1971 is as follows:[17]

  • After the liberation of Bangladesh Azam, staying in Pakistan, created an organisation named Purbo Pakistan Punoruddhar Committee (East Pakistan Revival Committee) along with anti-Bangladesh activists like Mahmud Ali. Azam tried to strengthen the international movement to re-establish East Pakistan. Accordingly he kept claiming himself as the Ameer of East Pakistan Jamaat-e-Islami many years after the elimination of East Pakistan.
  • In 1972 Azam formed Purbo Pakistan Punoruddhar Committee in London and conspired with others to replace Bangladesh with East Pakistan. In 1973, he lectured against Bangladesh in the annual conference of Federation of Students' Islamic Societies held in Manchester and conference of UK Islamic Commission held in Lester. In 1974, he arranged a meeting of Purbo Pakistan Punoruddhar Committee with Pakistanis like Mahmud Ali. As they had already failed to establish a Pakistan within Bangladesh, they decided to lead their movement towards the formation of a confederation combining Bangladesh and Pakistan. In this meeting Azam explained the necessity of working for the movement within Bangladesh though it was a bit risky then. In, 1977 in a meeting held in the Holy Trinity Church College, Azam expressed it again. He came to Bangladesh in 1978 with a Pakistani passport and Bangladeshi visa only to make his dream of Pakistan-Bangladesh confederation come true.
  • Azam participated in the International Islamic Youth Conference held in Riyadh in 1972 and begged the help of all Muslim countries to re-establish East Pakistan. From 1973 to 1976 he met Saudi King seven times and asked him not to acknowledge Bangladesh and never to help this country by any means. He lectured against Bangladesh again in the international conference arranged by Rabeta-e-Alam Al-Islami in Mecca in 1974 and at King Abdul Aziz University in 1977.
  • Azam lobbyied against the acknowledgment of new born Bangladesh in the conference of Foreign ministers of the Muslim countries held in Bengazi in 1973. In the same year he lectured in the Islamic Youth Conference held in Tripoli which was clearly against the independence and sovereignty of Bangladesh.
  • In 1973 Azam urged everybody to participate in the movement of combining Bangladesh with Pakistan in the annual conference of Muslim Students' Association of America and Canada held at Michigan State University.
  • Azam lectured against Bangladesh again in 1977, in the international conference of Islamic Federation of Students' Organizations held at Istanbul.[17]

Leader of Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh[edit]

Government of newly independent Bangladesh, banned Jamaat-e-Islami and cancelled Azam's citizenship due to his alleged role during the Bangladesh Liberation War.[16] Azam lived in exile in London until he was allowed to return home in 1978.[25]

Jamaat's rehabilitation began when Ziaur Rahman became president after a coup in 1975 and lifted the previous ban on religious parties. In 1977, Zia removed secularism in the constitution, replacing it with Islamic ideals, further clearing the way for Jamaat-e-Islami to return to political participation.[25] In 1978 Azam returned to Bangladesh on a temporary visa with a Pakistani passport and stayed as a Pakistani national after his visa expired, refusing to leave a country he considered his home by birth-right.[17][18]

In the 1980s, Azam was particularly critical of the military rule of General Ershad after he seized power in a bloodless coup in 1982 and Jamaat-e-Islami took part in demonstrations and strikes as well as other opposition parties such as the Awami League and the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP). He proposed a caretaker government system to facilitate free and fair elections, which was adopted in 1990. In the Bangladeshi general election, 1991, Jamaat-e-Islami won 18 seats and its support allowed the BNP to form a government.[25]

During this time, he acted unofficially as the Ameer of Jamaat-e-Islami until 1991, when he was officially elected to the post. This led to the government arresting him and an unofficial court called The People's Court was established by civilians such as Jahanara Imam to try alleged war criminals and anti-independence activists. Imam held a symbolic trial of Azam where thousands of people gathered and gave the verdict that Azam's offences committed during the Liberation War deserve capital punishment.[53] In 1994, he fought a lengthy legal battle which resulted in the Supreme Court of Bangladesh ruling in his favour and restoring his nationality.[25]

In the 1996 election, Jamaat won only three seats, and most of their candidates lost their deposits.[54] Azam announced his retirement from active politics in late 2000. He was succeeded by Motiur Rahman Nizami.[6]

War crimes trial[edit]

Arrest and incarceration[edit]

On 11 January 2012 Azam was arrested on charges of committing crimes against humanity and peace, genocide and war crimes in 1971 by the International Crimes Tribunal. His petition for bail was rejected by the ICT, and he was sent to Dhaka Central Jail. However, after three hours he was sent to Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) hospital for a medical check-up due to his old age. According to the Daily Star, Azam was allowed to remain in a hospital prison cell despite being declared fit for trial by a medical team on 15 January.[55][56] The same paper later acknowledged that he had been placed there due to his "ailing condition".[57]

Azam's health has deteriorated rapidly since being imprisoned.[58] His wife, Syeda Afifa Azam was reported in several newspapers as being shocked at his treatment, stating that he has become very weak and has lost 3 kilograms in a month due to malnutrition.[32] She described his treatment as "a gross violation of human rights" even though he was kept in a hospital prison cell.[59][60]

Azam's wife complains about him being denied proper family visits and access to books, saying that this amounted to "mental torture".[61] The Daily Star reported that Azam's wife and his counsels were allowed to meet him on 18 February.[62] On 25 February 2012, The Daily Star reported that Azam's nephew was denied a visit at the last minute just as he was about to enter the hospital prison room. This is despite the application for the visit being initially approved.[63]

Islamic activists from different countries expressed their concern for Mr. Azam. The International Union of Muslim Scholars, chaired by Yusuf al-Qaradawi called the arrest "disgraceful", and called on the Bangladesh government to release him immediately, stating that "the charge of Professor Ghulam Azam and his fellow scholars and Islamic activists of committing war crimes more than forty years ago is irrational and cannot be accepted".[64]

The judicial process under which Azam is on trial has been criticised by international organisations such as Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International.[65][66][67] So far, the ICT has sentenced two of the accused to death and has given a life sentence to another.

Verdict[edit]

Azam was convicted of war crimes during the Bangladesh Liberation War by the International Crimes Tribunal-1 of Bangladesh.[9] The charges against Azam were conspiring, planning, incitement to and complicity in committing genocide, crimes against humanity, and other war crimes and torture and killing of a police officer Shiru Mia and three other civilians. He was found guilty on all five charges and sentenced to 90 years in prison. The judges unanimously agreed that Azam deserved capital punishment but was given a lenient punishment because of his age and health condition.[9][10]

In a press release, Jamaat Acting Secretary General Rafiqul Islam said the International Crimes Tribunal's verdict against Azam was nothing but a reflection of what AL-led 14-party alliance leaders had said against him [Ghulam Azam] in different meetings.[68] Pro BNP news paper Daily Amardesh, whose publication is currently ceased for publishing false news to instigate violence reported that the evidence presented before the court against Ghulam Azam consisted of newspaper clippings published during 1971."[69][70]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Esposito, John L. (2004). The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Oxford University Press. p. 95. ISBN 978-0-19-512559-7. 
  2. ^ a b "Ghulam Azam spared death". Dhaka Tribune. 15 July 2013. Retrieved 20 October 2013. 
  3. ^ a b "GHULAM AZAM Deserves death, gets 90 years". The Daily Star (Bangladesh). 16 July 2013. Retrieved 20 October 2013. 
  4. ^ a b "Azam found guilty of Bangladesh war crimes". aljazeera. Retrieved 15 July 2013. 
  5. ^ a b "Bangladesh: Islamist leader found guilty of war crimes". euronews. Retrieved 15 July 2013. 
  6. ^ a b Prof. Ghulam Azam Retires, Islamic Voice, December 2006.
  7. ^ Uddin, Sufia M. (2006). Constructing Bangladesh: Religion, Ethnicity, And Language in an Islamic Nation. University of North Carolina. p. 169. ISBN 978-0-8078-3021-5. 
  8. ^ H. Evans in 'The Post-colonial States of South Asia:Democracy, Development and Identity', edited by A. Shastri and A. Wilson, Palgrave, 2001, p. 71.
  9. ^ a b c "GHULAM AZAM Deserves death, gets 90 years". The Daily Star. 16 July 2013. 
  10. ^ a b "Prosecution Blamed for Delay". BDNews24.com. 15 July 2013. Retrieved 15 July 2013. 
  11. ^ a b c d ঢাকায় নাগরিক শান্তি কমিটি গঠিত (Citizen's Peace Committee formed in Dhaka), Daily Pakistan, 11 April 1971.
  12. ^ a b The Wall Street Journal, 27 July 1971; quoted in the book Muldhara 71 by Moidul Hasan
  13. ^ "ভারতীয় চক্রান্ত বরদাস্ত করব না (We will never tolerate Indian conspiracy)". The Daily Sangram. 13 April 1971. 
  14. ^ Rubin, Barry A. (2010). Guide to Islamist Movements. M.E. Sharpe. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-7656-4138-0. Retrieved 6 March 2013. 
  15. ^ Fair, C. Christine (16 June 2010). Pakistan: Can the United States Secure an Insecure State?. Rand Corporation. pp. 21–22. ISBN 978-0-8330-4807-3. Retrieved 6 March 2013. 
  16. ^ a b Ahsan, Syed Aziz-al (October 1990). ",. ISLAMIZATION OF THE STATE IN A DUALISTIC CULTURE: THE CASE OF BANGLADESH". PhD Thesis, McGill University, Dept of Political Science. 
  17. ^ a b c d e f গোলাম আযমের বিরূদ্ধে ডঃ আনিসুজ্জামান উত্থাপিত অভিযোগপত্র (Allegations against Ghulam Azam submitted by Prof. Anisuzzaman); The Daily Prothom Alo – 14 March 2008
  18. ^ a b Women and Islam in Bangladesh: Beyond Subjection and Tyranny by Taj I. Hashmi; Preview at Google books
  19. ^ Ghulam Azam lands in jail, The Daily Star, January 12, 2012
  20. ^ Ghulam faces 52 charges, The Daily Star, 13 December 2011
  21. ^ Prof Azam transferred to ‘Prison Cell’ of BSMMU, BDINN, 26 November 2012.
  22. ^ Ghulam faces 52 charges, The Daily Star, 13 December 2011
  23. ^ Ghulam Azam is hospitalised after he loses bail appeal over war crimes, Corbis, 11 January 2012
  24. ^ Ghulam Azam taken to hospital, Bdnews24.com, 19 July 2012
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h I. Hossain, N. Siddiquee, 'Islam in Bangladesh Politics: the role of Ghulam Azam of Jamaat-i-Islaami', Inter-Asia Cultural Studies, Vol 5, 2004, p. 385
  26. ^ "Pro-Bangla activist turns anti-Bangladesh". Dhaka Tribune. 15 July 2013. Retrieved 20 October 2013. 
  27. ^ Keesing's Record of World Events (formerly Keesing's Contemporary Archives), Volume 15 (1969), May 1969 PAKISTAN, Page 23353
  28. ^ 'White Paper on The Crisis in East Pakistan', Government of Pakistan, Islamadab, 5 August 1971
  29. ^ Idem, pg. 6–8
  30. ^ 'Police accused over rioting', The Guardian, 26 January 1970, pg. 4
  31. ^ Salik, Siddiq (1977). "Politico-Military". Witness to Surrender (First ed.). Dhaka, Bangladesh: The University Press Limited. p. 93. ISBN 984-05-1373-7. 
  32. ^ a b c Ghulam Azams speeches in 1971, The daily Prothom Alo, 11 January 2012
  33. ^ a b "Ghulam Azam was on Peace Committee". The Daily Star (Bangladesh). 12 March 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2013. 
  34. ^ Kann, Peter R. (27 July 1971). "East Pakistan Is Seen Gaining Independence, But It Will Take Years". Wall Street Journal. 
  35. ^ Daily Pakistan. 25 May 1971. 
  36. ^ Daily Azad. 26 May 1971. 
  37. ^ Daily Purbodesh. 23 April 1971. 
  38. ^ "পাকিস্তানের প্রতি চীনের দৃঢ় সমর্থন রয়েছে (China fully supports Pakistan)". The Daily Sangram. 13 April 1971. 
  39. ^ a b "History speaks up – Julfikar Ali Manik and Emran Hossain". The Daily Star. 27 October 2007. 
  40. ^ "লাহোরে সাংবাদিক সম্মেলনে অধ্যাপক গোলাম আযম (Prof. Ghulam Azam in a conference at Lahore)". Daily Sangram. 21 June 1971. 
  41. ^ "মাওলানা মাদানীর শাহাদত মুসলমানদের সচেতন করার জন্য যথেষ্ট – গোলাম আযম". Daily Sangram. 12 August 1971. 
  42. ^ "Ghulam Azam calls for an all out war". The Pakistan Observer. 26 November 1971. 
  43. ^ "I Made No Mistake in 1971: Gholam Azam and the Jamaat Polilics". Bichitra. 17 April 1981. 
  44. ^ লাহোরে সাংবাদিক সম্মেলনে অধ্যাপক গোলাম আযম (Prof. Ghulam Azam in a conference at Lahore), Daily Sangram, 21 June 1971.
  45. ^ মাওলানা মাদানীর শাহাদত মুসলমানদের সচেতন করার জন্য যথেষ্ট – গোলাম আযম, Daily Sangram, 12 August 1971.
  46. ^ Azam ATN Bangla Interview, 14th Dec 2011, with Eng Subs Part 2, See video at 2:15 and 3:42.
  47. ^ Muldhara '71 (মূলধারা '৭১ Mainstream '71) by Moidul Hasan, page. 128, footnote. 177. published by University Press Limited
  48. ^ International Herald Tribune; 4 November 1971
  49. ^ *"In brutality, Ghulam Azam is synonymous with German ruler Hitler who had influential role in implementation and execution of genocide and ethnic cleansing, said Sultana Kamal.""Ghulam Azam synonymous with Hitler: Sultana Kamal". UNB Connect. 13 September 2012. Retrieved 14 March 2013. 
  50. ^ "13 Sep 2012: Azam 3rd witness cross exam day 3". David Bergman. Retrieved 9 May 2013. 
  51. ^
    • "War crimes prosecutors on Sunday said that in 1971 Ghulam Azam did in Bangladesh what Adolf Hitler did in Germany during the Second World War. 'Ghulam Azam was the Hitler in Bangladesh under Pakistan army occupation in 1971', said prosecutor Zead-Al-Malum. "Staff Correspondent. "Ghulam Azam was Hitler of 1971: prosecution". New Age (Bangladesh). Retrieved 14 March 2013. 
  52. ^ "Focus back on, 8yrs after". The Daily Star. 12 May 2009. 
  53. ^ "Focus back on, 8yrs after". The Daily Star. 12 May 2009. 
  54. ^ Nohlen, D, Grotz, F & Hartmann, C (2001) Elections in Asia: A data handbook, Volume I, p525 ISBN 0-19-924958-X
  55. ^ Hospital stay not needed, The Daily Star, 15 January 2012.
  56. ^ Ghulam Azam lands in jail, bdnews24.com, 11 January 2012.
  57. ^ Counsels and Family Meet with Ghulam Azam, 18 February 2012.
  58. ^ Ghulam Azam's counsels prefer ICT-2, Bdnews24.com, 31 May 2012
  59. ^ স্বামীর জীবন নিয়ে আমি শঙ্কিত : সৈয়দা আফিফা আযম (I am in fear of my husband's life: Syeda Afifa Azam), Daily Naya Diganta, 27 January 2012.
  60. ^ অধ্যাপক গোলাম আযমের (Professor Ghulam Azam has lost 3 kg in weight), The Daily Sangram, 5 February 2012.
  61. ^ গোলাম আযমকে ‘প্রিজন সেল'এ মানসিকভাবে নির্যাতন করা হচ্ছে -মিসেস আফিফা আযম (Ghulam Azam is being mentally tortured in his prison cell – Mrs Afifa Azam), The Daily Sangram, 12 February 2012. Azam is held in solitary confinement and is allowed a visit of 30 minutes per week by 3 close relatives only. Applications for visits are required to be made in advance and require approval.
  62. ^ Counsels, family meet Ghulam Azam
  63. ^ Wife, son meet Ghulam Azam
  64. ^ الإتحاد يندد بإعتقال الحكومة البنغالية المفكرين الإسلاميين ويطالب بإطلاق سراحهم(The Union condemns the arrest of Professor Ghulam Azam and other thinkers by the Bangladeshi government), International Union of Muslim Scholars, 18 January 2012.
  65. ^ ICT convicts A. Q. Molla of 5 charges and sentences him to life imprisonment The International Criminal Law Bureau (5 February 2013)
  66. ^ Detention of accused unlawful The Daily Star (16 February 2012)
  67. ^ Bangladesh: Government Backtracks on Rights Adams, Brad (1 February 2013) Bangladesh: Government Backtracks on Rights. Human Rights Watch.
  68. ^ http://www.thedailystar.net/beta2/news/jamaat-rejects-judgment/.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  69. ^ http://www.amardeshonline.com/pages/latestnews/2013/07/15/4965.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  70. ^ Amar Desh stops publication for now | Alleges govt obstruction to its printing; rights bodies criticise Mahmudur’s arrest

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
Maulana Abdur Raheem
Ameer of Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh
1969–2000
Succeeded by
Motiur Rahman Nizami