List of Latin-script trigraphs

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Ghw (trigraph))
Jump to: navigation, search

A large number of trigraphs are found in Irish orthography.

A[edit]

aai is used in Dutch to write the sound /aːi̯/.

abh is used in Irish to write the sound /əu̯/, or in Donegal, /oː/, between broad consonants.

adh is used in Irish to write the sound /əi̯/, or in Donegal, /eː/, between broad consonants, or an unstressed /ə/ at the end of a word.

aei is used in Irish to write the sound /eː/ between a broad and a slender consonant.

agh is used in Irish to write the sound /əi̯/, or in Donegal, /eː/, between broad consonants.

aim is used in French to write the sound /ɛ̃/ (/ɛm/ before a vowel).

ain is used in French to write the sound /ɛ̃/ (/ɛn/ before a vowel). It also represents /ɛ̃/ in Tibetan Pinyin, where it is alternatively written än.

aío is used in Irish to write the sound /iː/ between broad consonants.

amh is used in Irish to write the sound /əu̯/, or in Donegal, /oː/, between broad consonants.

aoi is used in Irish to write the sound /iː/ between a broad and a slender consonant.

aon is used in French to write the sound /ɑ̃/ (/ɑn/ before a vowel).

aou is used in French to write the sound /u/.

aoû is used in a few words in French to write the sound /u/.

aqh is used in the practical orthography of the Taa language, where it represents the strident vowel /a᷽/. (If this symbol does not display properly, it is an a with a double tilde underneath.)

aye[clarification needed]

B[edit]

bhf is used in Irish, like the digraph bh, to write the sounds /w/ and /vʲ/.

C[edit]

ccs is a long Hungarian cs, [tːʃ]. It is collated as cs rather than as c. It is only used within roots; when two cs are brought together in a compound word, they form the regular sequence cscs.

c’h is used in Breton in order to represent the [x] sound (a voiceless velar fricative). It should not be confused with ch, which represents in Breton the [ʃ] sound (a voiceless postalveolar fricative).

chd is used in Eskayan romanised orthography for the sound /dʒ/ (English "j").

chh is used in Quechua and romanizations of Indic languages to write the sound /tʃʰ/.

chj is used in Corsican to write the sound /c/.

Initial chw is pronounced in the Welsh language as /w/.

chz was used in medieval Czech for /tʃ/.

ckh was used in the Tindall orthography of Khoehkoe for the dental affricated click /ǀχ/.

D[edit]

ddh is used in the Dene Suline language (Chipewyan) for the dental affricate /tθ/.

ddz is a long Hungarian dz, [dːz]. It is collated as dz rather than as d. It is not used within roots, where dz may be either long or short; but when an assimilated suffix is added to the stem, it may form the trigraph rather than the regular sequence *dzdz. Examples are eddze, lopóddzon.

dlh is used in the Romanized Popular Alphabet used to write Hmong, where it represents the sound /tˡʰ/.

drz is used to write the sound /dʒ/ in English transcriptions of the Polish digraph <>.

dsh is used to write the foreign sound /dʒ/ in German. A common variant is the tetragraph dsch.

dtc is used in Naro to write the voiced palatal click /ᶢǂ/.

dzh is used to write the sound /dʒ/ in English transcriptions of the Russian digraph дж. In the practical orthography of the Taa language, where it represents the prevoiced affricate /dtsʰ/.

dzv is used in the Shona language to write the whistled sibilant affricate /dz͎/.

dzs is used in the hungarian to write the voiced palato-alveolar affricate /dʒ/.

E[edit]

eai is used in Irish to write the sound /a/ between slender consonants.

eái is used in Irish to write the sound /aː/ between slender consonants.

eau (see article)

ein is used in French to write the sound /ɛ̃/ (/ɛn/ before a vowel).

eoi is used in Irish to write the sound /oː/ between slender consonants.

eqh is used in the practical orthography of the Taa language, where it represents the strident vowel /e᷽/. (If this symbol does not display properly, it is an e with a double tilde underneath.)

G[edit]

geü is used in French to write the sound /ʒy/ in words such as vergeüre.

ggw is used in Hadza for ejective /kʷʼ/.

ggy is a long Hungarian gy, [ɟː]. It is collated as gy rather than as g. It is only used within roots; when two gy are brought together in a compound

ghj is used in Corsican to write the sound /ɟ/.

ghw is used in the Dene Suline language (Chipewyan) for a labialized velar/uvular /ʁʷ/. In Canadian Tlingit it represents /qʷ/, which in Alaska is written gw.

gli is used in Italian to write the sound /ʎː/ before a vowel other than i.

gni is used in French to write the sound /ɲ/ in a few words such as châtaignier /ʃɑtɛɲe/.

guë and güe are used in French to write the sound /ɡy/ at the ends of words that end in the feminine suffix -e, such as aiguë "sharp" and ambiguë "ambiguous". In the French spelling reform of 1990, it was recommended that traditional guë be changed to güe.

gqh is used in the practical orthography of the Taa language, where it represents the prevoiced affricate /ɢqʰ/.

H[edit]

hhw is used in the Dene Suline language (Chipewyan) for a labialized velar/uvular /χʷ/.

hml is used in the Romanized Popular Alphabet used to write Hmong, where it represents the sound /m̥ˡ/.

hny is used in the Romanized Popular Alphabet used to write Hmong, where it represents the sound /ɲ̥/.

I[edit]

idh is used in Irish to write an unstressed /iː/ sound at the ends of words.

igh is used in Irish to write an unstressed /iː/ sound at the ends of words. Igh might also be considered a trigraph for the diphthong /aɪ/ in English. It differs from the vowel letter i followed by the silent digraph gh in that the vowel is always "long", as in night /naɪt/ vs. nit /nɪt/, for example.

ign is used in a few French words to write the sound /ɲ/ such as oignon /ɔɲɔ̃/ "onion" and encoignure "corner". It was eliminated in the French spelling reform of 1990, but continues to be used.

ije is used in the ijekavian reflex of Serbo-Croatian for /je/ or /jeː/.

ilh is used to write the sound /ʎ/ in Breton.

ill is used in French to write the sound /j/, as in épouiller /epuje/.

iqh is used in the practical orthography of the Taa language, where it represents the strident vowel /i᷽/. (If this symbol does not display properly, it is an i with a double tilde underneath.)

iúi is used in Irish to write the sound /uː/ between slender consonants.

J–L[edit]

jyu is used in Cantonese Jyutping romanization to write the sound /y/ at the beginning of a syllable, as in the name Jyutping itself. Elsewhere, /y/ is written yu.

khu is used in the Ossete Latin alphabet to write the sound /kʷʼ/.

khw is used in Canadian Tlingit to write the sound /qʷʰ/, which in Alaska is written kw.

kng is used for /ᵏŋ/ in Arrernte.

k'u is used in Purépecha for /kʷʰ/.

kwh is a common convention for /kʷʰ/.

lhw is used for /l̪ʷ/ in Arrernte.

lli is used in French to write the sound /j/ after /i/ in a few words, such as coquillier.

lly is a long Hungarian ly, [jː]. It is collated as ly rather than as l. It is only used within roots; when two ly are brought together in a compound word, they form the regular sequence lyly.

lyw is used for /ʎʷ/ in Arrernte.

N[edit]

nch is used in the Romanized Popular Alphabet used to write Hmong, where it represents the sound /ɲɟʱ/.

ndl is used in the Romanized Popular Alphabet used to write Hmong, where it represents the sound /ndˡ/. In Xhosa is represents /ndɮ/.

ndz is used in the Xhosa language to write the sound /ndz/.

ng’ is used in the Swahili language to write the sound /ŋ/. Technically, it may be considered a digraph rather than a trigraph, as is not a letter of the Swahili alphabet.

ngb is used in some African orthographies for /ⁿɡ͡b/, a prenasalised gb /ɡ͡b/.

ngc is used in the Xhosa language to write the sound /ŋǀʱ/.

ngg is used to represent the sound /ŋɡ/, as in English finger, in several languages such as Filipino and Malay that use ng for /ŋ/ ( as in English singer).

ngh is used in Vietnamese for the velar nasal consonant, before the letters e, i, and y. It was previously considered a single letter, but is not currently. In Welsh, it represents a voiceless velar nasal (a c under the nasal mutation). In Xhosa, ngh represents a murmured velar nasal.

ngk is used in Yanyuwa to represent a back velar stop, /ⁿɡ̱ ~ ⁿḵ/.

ngm is used in Yélî Dnye of Papua New Guinea to represent doubly articulated /ŋ͡m/.

ngq is used in the Xhosa language to write the sound /ŋǃʱ/.

ngv is used for /ŋʷ/ in Bouyei and Standard Zhuang.

ngw is /ŋʷ/ or /ŋɡʷ/ in the orthographies of several languages.

ngx is used in the Xhosa language to write the sound /ŋǁʱ/.

nhw is used for /n̪ʷ/ in Arrernte.

nkc is used in the Xhosa language to write the sound /ŋ.ǀ/.

nkh is used in the Romanized Popular Alphabet used to write Hmong, where it represents the sound /ŋɡʱ/.

nkp is used in some African orthographies for /ⁿk͡p/, a prenasalized /k͡p/.

nkq is used in the Xhosa language to write the prenasalized alveolar click /ŋ.ǃ/.

nkx is used in the Xhosa language to write the prenasalized lateral click /ŋ.ǁ/.

nng is used in Inuktitut to write a long (geminate) velar nasal, /ŋː/.

nny is a long Hungarian ny, [ɲː]. It is collated as ny rather than as n. It is only used within roots; when two ny are brought together in a compound word, they form the regular sequence nyny.

nph is used in the Romanized Popular Alphabet used to write Hmong, where it represents the sound /mbʱ/.

npl is used in the Romanized Popular Alphabet used to write Hmong, where it represents the sound /mbˡ/.

nqh is used in the Romanized Popular Alphabet used to write Hmong, where it represents the sound /ɴɢʱ/.

nrh is used in the Romanized Popular Alphabet used to write Hmong, where it represents the sound /ɳɖʱ/.

ntc is used to write the click /ᵑǂ/ in Naro.

nth is used in the Romanized Popular Alphabet used to write Hmong, where it represents the sound /ndʱ/. In the transcription of Australian Aboriginal languages such as Yanyuwa it represents a dental stop, /n̪t̪ ~ n̪d̪/.

ntl is used in the Xhosa language to write the sound /ntɬʼ/.

nts is used in the Romanized Popular Alphabet used to write Hmong, where it represents the sound /ɳɖʐ/. In Malagasy, it represents /nts/.

ntx is used in the Romanized Popular Alphabet used to write Hmong, where it represents the sound /ndz/.

nyh is used in the Xhosa language to write the sound /n̤ʲ/.

nyk is used in Yanyuwa to represent a pre-velar stop, /ⁿɡ̟ ~ ⁿk̟/.

nyw is used for /ɲʷ/ in Arrernte.

nzv is used in the Shona language to write the prenasalized whistled sibilant /ndz͎/.

O[edit]

obh is used in Irish to write the sound /əu̯/, or in Donegal, /oː/, between broad consonants.

odh is used in Irish to write the sound /əu̯/, or in Donegal, /oː/, between broad consonants.

oen is that represents a Walloon nasal vowel.

ogh is used in Irish to write the sound /əu̯/, or in Donegal, /oː/, between broad consonants.

oin is used in French to write the sound /wɛ̃/ (/wɛn/ before a vowel). In Tibetan Pinyin, it represents /ø̃/ and is alternately written ön.

oío is used in Irish to write the sound /iː/ between broad consonants.

omh is used in Irish to write the sound /oː/ between broad consonants.

ooi is used in Dutch to write the sound /oːi̯/.

oqh is in the practical orthography of the Taa language, where it represents the strident vowel /o᷽/. (If this symbol does not display properly, it is an o with a double tilde underneath.)

ous is used in English to write the sound /əs/ in a suffix, as in "contiguous".

P–R[edit]

plh is used in the Romanized Popular Alphabet used to write Hmong, where it represents the sound /pˡʰ/.

pmw is used for /ᵖmʷ/ in Arrernte.

qkh was used in the Tindall orthography of Khoehkoe for the alveolar affricated click /ǃχ/.

qx’ is in the practical orthography of the Taa language, where it represents the affricate /qχʼ/.

rlw is used for /ɭʷ/ in Arrernte.

rnd is used in Yanyuwa to represent a retroflex stop, /ɳʈ ~ ɳɖ/.

rng is used in Inuktitut to represent a sequence of uvular nasal followed by velar nasal, [ɴŋ].

rnw is used for /ɳʷ/ in Arrernte.

rrh is used to write the sound /r/ in words of Greek derivation such as diarrhea.

rrw is used for /rʷ/ in Arrernte.

rtn is used for /ʈɳ/ in Arrernte.

rtw is used for /ʈʷ/ in Arrernte.

S[edit]

sch is used in German to represent [ʃ]. It was also used in medieval Polish orthography. In Middle English, sch was the most common spelling for this sound, replacing earlier sc of Old English; it was replaced in turn by sh in Modern English. Most words with sch in Modern English are based on Latin orthography, where the ch is /k/. An exception is the word schedule (from the Late Latin schedula) where the pronunciation of sch is /ʃ/ or /sk/ depending on dialect.

In German, when a t is added in front of it, the resulting tetragraph tsch becomes [tʃ]. Similarly, German adds a d for a tetragraph dsch in loanwords, to denote the sound [ʤ], as in the word Dschungel (jungle). An orthographic sch also occurs in Dutch and Italian, but as a sequence of s plus ch, not as a trigraph. It is pronounced as a cluster: in Dutch [sx], in Italian and often in West Flemish [sk]. In Dutch, however, it is pronounced as [s] as the end of words, as in the common suffix -isch and in some (sur)names, like Bosch and Den Bosch.
Rheinische Dokumenta uses sch to denote the sounds [ʃ], [ɕ] and [ʂ]. It uses sch with an arc below so as to denote [ʒ].

sci is used in Italian to write the sound /ʃː/ before the non-front vowel letters a, o, u. sc is used in Corsican to write the sound /ʃ/ before e, ia, io and iu.

sh’ is used in Bolivian dialects of Quechua to write the sound /ʂ/.

skj is used to represent the voiceless postalveolar fricative /ʃ/, in the Norwegian and Faroese languages, as in Norwegian "kanskje" (maybe) and "teskje" (tea spoon), and Faroese "at skjóta" (to shoot) and "skjóra" (magpie). In Swedish, it's one of several spellings for the sje sound /ɧ/, though only used in five words.

ssi is used in English to write the sound /ʃ/ in words such as mission.

sth is found in words of Greek origin. In French, it is pronounced /s/ before a consonant, as in isthme and asthme; in American English, it is pronounced /s/ in the first word (isthmus) and /z/ in the second (asthma).

stj is used in five words in Swedish to write the sje sound /ɧ/, can also represent the voiceless postalveolar fricative /ʃ/ or the consonant cluster /stʲ/ in Norwegian depending on dialect.

ssz is a long Hungarian sz, [sː]. It is collated as sz rather than as s. It is only used within roots; when two sz are brought together in a compound word, they form the regular sequence szsz.

s-c and s-cc are used in Piedmontese for the sequence /stʃ/.

s-g and s-gg are used in Piedmontese for the sequence /zdʒ/.

T[edit]

tcg is used to write the click /ǂχ/ in Naro.

tch is used to write the click /ǂʰ/ in Naro, the affricate /tʃʰ/ in Sandawe and Hadza, and the affricate /tʃ/ in French and Portuguese. In English it is a variant of the digraph ch, used in situations similar to those that trigger the digraph ck for k.

thn and tnh are used for /ᵗ̪n̪/ in Arrernte.

ths is used in Xhosa to write the sound /tsʰ/. It is often replaced with the ambiguous trigraph tsh.

thw is used for /t̪ʷ/ in Arrernte.

tlh is used to write the sound /tɬʰ/ in languages such as Tswana, and is also a significant sound in the fictional Klingon language from Star Trek, even treating this trigraph's sound as a single "letter".

tnh and thn are used for /ᵗ̪n̪/ in Arrernte.

tnw is used for /ᵗnʷ/ in Arrernte.

tny is used for /ᶜɲ/ in Arrernte.

tsg is used to write the sound /tsχ/ in Naro.

tsh is in various languages. In the Romanized Popular Alphabet used to write Hmong, it represents the sound /tʂʰ/. In Xhosa, it may be used to write /tsʰ/, /tʃʼ/, or /tʃʰ/, though it is sometimes limited to /tʃʼ/, with /tsʰ/ and /tʃʰ/ distinguished as ths and thsh.

tsj is used in Dutch to write the sound /tʃ/.

tsv is used in the Shona language to write the whistled sibilant affricate /ts͎/.

tsz is used in Cantonese romanization to write the syllable /zi/.

tth is used in the Dene Suline language (Chipewyan) for dental affricate /tθʰ/.

ttl is used in the Haida language (Bringhurst orthography) for ejective /tɬʼ/.

tts is used in the Haida language (Bringhurst orthography) for ejective /tsʼ/.

tty is a long Hungarian ty, [cː]. It is collated as ty rather than as t. It is only used within roots; when two ty are brought together in a compound word, they form the regular sequence tyty.

txh is used in the Romanized Popular Alphabet used to write Hmong, where it represents the sound /tsʰ/.

tyh is used in the Xhosa language to write the sound /tʲʰ/.

tyw is used for /cʷ/ in Arrernte.

U–W[edit]

uío is used in Irish to write the sound /iː/ between broad consonants.

uqh is used in the practical orthography of the Taa language, where it represents the strident vowel /u᷽/. (If this symbol does not display properly, it is an u with a double tilde underneath.)

urr is used in Central Alaskan Yup'ik to write the sound /χʷ/.

vkh was used in the Tindall orthography of Khoehkoe for the palatal affricated click /ǂχ/.

X–Z[edit]

xhw is used in Canadian Tlingit to write the sound /χʷ/, which in Alaska is written xw.

xkh was used in the Tindall orthography of Khoehkoe for the lateral affricated click /ǁχ/.

zzs is a long Hungarian zs, [ʒː]. It is collated as zs rather than as z. It is only used within roots; when two zs are brought together in a compound word, they form the regular sequence zszs.

other[edit]

ŋgb (capital Ŋgb) is used in Kabiye to write [ŋ͡mɡ͡b], a pre-nasalized gb.

ǀkh ǁkx ǃkx ǂkx are used in Nama for its four affricated clicks.