Giallo

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the literature and film genre. For the 2009 Dario Argento film, see Giallo (film). For the Italian wine grape also known as Giallo, see Verdicchio.

Giallo (Italian pronunciation: [ˈdʒallo], plural gialli) is an Italian 20th-century genre of literature and film, which in Italian indicates crime fiction and mystery. In English, it refers to a genre similar to the French fantastique genre and includes elements of horror fiction and eroticism. The word "giallo" is Italian for "yellow" and comes from a series of cheap paperback mystery novels with trademark yellow covers.

Literature[edit]

The term giallo derives from a series of crime-mystery pulp novels entitled Il Giallo Mondadori 'Mondadori Yellow (books)', published by Mondadori from 1929 on, and taking its name from the trademark yellow cover background. The series consisted almost exclusively of Italian translations of mystery novels by British and American writers, such as Agatha Christie, Ellery Queen, Edgar Wallace, Ed McBain, Rex Stout, and Raymond Chandler.

Published as cheap paperbacks, the success of the "giallo" novels soon began attracting the attention of other publishing houses, who began releasing their own versions, mimicking the yellow covers. The popularity of these series eventually established the word giallo as meaning a mystery novel.

Film[edit]

For Italian audiences, giallo has come to refer to any kind of thriller, regardless of its origin. Thus, American, British or other thrillers such as Psycho, Vertigo or Peeping Tom are considered gialli. For English-speaking audiences, however, the term has over time come to refer only to a very specific type of Italian-produced thriller which Italian audiences have historically referred to as "thrilling all'italiana" or "spaghetti thrillers."

The film subgenre that emerged from these novels in the 1960s began as literal adaptations of the books, but soon began taking advantage of modern cinematic techniques to create a unique genre which veered into horror and psychological thrillers. The giallo film genre proved to be a major influence on the later slasher film genre.

Characteristics[edit]

Giallo films are generally characterized as gruesome murder-mystery thrillers that combine the suspense elements of a Hitchcock film with scenes of shocking horror featuring excessive bloodletting, stylish camerawork, and often jarring musical arrangements. The standard plot, used in countless films, involves a mysterious, black-gloved psychopathic killer who stalks and butchers a series of beautiful women. The killings are invariably violent and gory, including throat-slashings and decapitations. These murders often occur when the victim is most vulnerable (showering, taking a bath, or scantily clad). The literary whodunit element is retained, while being filtered through Italy's longstanding tradition of opera and staged grand guignol drama. There are also stories that involve supernatural forces, ghostly spirits, etc. Giallo films often include liberal amounts of nudity and sex, with several actresses becoming strongly associated with the genre such as Edwige Fenech, Barbara Bach, Daria Nicolodi, Barbara Bouchet, Suzy Kendall, Ida Galli, and Anita Strindberg.

Gialli typically introduce strong psychological themes of madness, alienation and paranoia. For example, Sergio Martino's Your Vice Is a Locked Room and Only I Have the Key was explicitly based on Edgar Allan Poe's short story "The Black Cat". A typical giallo finale will reveal the killer to be a mentally disturbed madman (or woman) posing throughout the film as a very normal, even subdued, individual, while the more obvious suspects turn out to be red herrings. Typically the killer is well-hidden with a hat, sunglasses, gloves, and/or trench coat to conceal their features, and even their gender.

One reason this film genre remains unique is its expressive use of music, most notably Dario Argento's collaborations with Ennio Morricone and his musical director Bruno Nicolai, and later with the band Goblin.

Gialli often feature titles based on animal references or the use of numbers. Examples of the former trend include Giornata nera per l'ariete, La morte negli occhi del gatto and La tarantola dal ventre nero; while instances of the latter include Sette note in nero and Sette scialli di seta gialla.[1]

Development[edit]

As well as the literary giallo tradition, the films were also initially influenced by the German "krimi" phenomenon—originally black and white films of the 1960s that were based on Edgar Wallace stories. A particularly good example is The Monster of London City (1964) which seems almost like a prototype of the Italian giallo in every aspect. The Swedish director Arne Mattsson has also been pointed out as an influence, in particular his film Mannequin in Red (1958).

The first giallo film is Mario Bava's The Girl Who Knew Too Much (1963). Its title alludes to Alfred Hitchcock's famous The Man Who Knew Too Much (1956), again establishing strong links with Anglo-American culture. Bava's stylish and influential Blood and Black Lace (1964) introduced elements that became emblematic of the genre: a masked stalker with a shiny weapon in his black-gloved hand who brutally murders a series of glamorous fashion models.[2]

Dario Argento's first feature, The Bird with the Crystal Plumage (1970), was greatly influenced by Blood and Black Lace and introduced a new level of stylish violence and suspense that helped redefine the genre. The film was a box office smash and was widely imitated. Its success encouraged a frenzy of Italian film makers to shoot more colorful and gory films. Soon the giallo became a genre of its own, with its own rules and with a typical Italian flavour: adding additional layers of intense colour and style. The term "giallo" finally became synonymous with a heavy, theatrical and stylised visual element.

The genre had its heyday from 1968 through 1978, with dozens of films released. The most prolific period however was the three-year timespan between 1971 and 1973, during which time 65 different gialli were produced (see filmography below). Among the directors represented with notable works in this genre are Mario Bava, Dario Argento, Lucio Fulci, Sergio Martino, Paolo Cavara and Umberto Lenzi.

Pupi Avati went as far as satirizing the genre in 1977 with a slapstick giallo titled Tutti defunti... tranne i morti.

Although often based around crime and detective work, gialli should not be confused with the other popular Italian crime genre of the 1970s, the poliziotteschi, which refers to "tough cop", action-oriented films (largely influenced by Dirty Harry, The Godfather, and The French Connection). Directors and stars often moved between both genres, and some films could be considered under either banner, such as Massimo Dallamano's 1974 film La polizia chiede aiuto (What Have They Done to Your Daughters?).

Influence[edit]

The giallo cycle has had a lasting effect on horror films and murder mysteries made outside of Italy since the late 1960s. This cinematic style and unflinching content is also at the root of the gory slasher and splatter films that became widely popular in the early 1980s. In particular, two violent shockers from Mario Bava, Hatchet for the Honeymoon (1970) and Twitch of the Death Nerve (1971) were especially influential.

Early examples of the giallo effect can be seen in the British film Berserk! (1967) and the American mystery-thrillers No Way to Treat a Lady (1968), Klute (1971), Pretty Maids All in a Row (1971, based on an Italian novel), Alfred Hitchcock's Frenzy (1972), Vincent Price's Madhouse (1974) and Eyes of Laura Mars (1978). Berberian Sound Studio (2012) offers an affectionate tribute to the genre.

Giallo filmography[edit]

1960s[edit]

  • The Girl Who Knew Too Much (Mario Bava, 1963; Italian: La ragazza che sapeva troppo) aka The Evil Eye
  • The Monster of London City (1964) This German crimi film was an obvious template for the giallo form
  • Blood and Black Lace (Mario Bava, 1965; Italian: Sei donne per l'assassino / Six Women for the Murderer)
  • Libido (Ernesto Gastaldi, 1965)
  • The Third Eye (Mino Guerrini, 1966; Italian: Il terzo occhio)
  • A For Assassin (Angelo Dorigo, 1966; Italian: A... come Assassino)
  • Omicidio per appuntamento (Mino Guerrini, 1966) aka Agent 3S3 Setzt Alles Auf Eine Karte.
  • The Killer Without a Face (Angelo Dorigo, 1967: Italian: Assassino senza volto)
  • The Sweet Body of Deborah (Ernesto Gastaldi, 1968; Italian: Il dolce corpo di Deborah)
  • La morte ha fatto l'uovo / Death Laid an Egg (Giulio Questi, 1968) aka Plucked, aka A Curious Way to Love
  • Naked... You Die! (Antonio Margheriti, 1968, Italian: Nude... si muore) aka The Young, the Evil and the Savage, aka The Schoolgirl Killer
  • Deadly Inheritance (Vittorio Sindoni, 1968; Italian: L'assassino ha le mani pulite / The Killer Has Clean Hands)
  • A Black Veil for Lisa (Massimo Dallamano, 1968; Italian: La morte non ha sesso / Death Has No Sex)
  • Orgasmo (Umberto Lenzi, 1968) released theatrically in USA as Paranoia
  • Paranoia (Umberto Lenzi, 1969) released in USA as A Quiet Place To Kill (not to be confused with "Orgasmo")
  • So Sweet...So Perverse (Umberto Lenzi, 1969; Italian: Così dolce...così perversa)
  • Satan's Baby Doll (Ferrruccio Casapinta, 1969; Italian: La bambola di Satana)
  • Una sull'altra / One on Top of the Other (Lucio Fulci, 1969) aka Perversion Story
  • The House That Screamed (Narcisco Serrador, 1969; Spanish: La Residencia)
  • Death Knocks Twice (Harald Philip, 1969; Italian: La morte bussa due volte) aka Blonde Bait for the Murderer, aka Hard Women, aka The Blonde Connection
  • Double Face (Riccardo Freda, 1969: Italian: A doppia faccia) aka Liz et Helen
  • Macabre (Javier Seto, 1969; Spanish: Viaje al Vacio/ Journey into Emptiness) aka The Invisible Assassin, aka Shadow of Death

1970s[edit]

  • The Bird with the Crystal Plumage (Dario Argento, 1970; Italian: L'uccello dalle piume di cristallo) aka Phantom of Terror, aka The Gallery Murders,
  • Five Dolls for an August Moon (Mario Bava, 1970; Italian: 5 bambole per la luna d'agosto) aka Island of Terror
  • Hatchet for the Honeymoon (Mario Bava, 1970; Italian: Il rosso segno della follia / The Red Sign of Madness) aka Blood Brides
  • La morte risale a ieri sera / Death Occurred Last Night (Duccio Tessari, 1970)
  • A Suitcase For a Corpse (Alfonso Brescia, 1970; Italian: Il tuo dolce corpo da uccidere / Your Sweet Body to Murder)
  • Le foto proibite di una signora per bene / Forbidden Photos of a Lady Above Suspicion (Luciano Ercoli, 1970)
  • Kill the Fatted Calf and Roast It (Salvatore Samperi, 1970; Italian: Uccidete il vitello grasso e arrostitelo)
  • In the Folds of the Flesh (Sergio Bergonzelli, 1970; Italian: Nelle pieghe della carne)
  • The Weekend Murders (Michele Lupo, 1970; Italian: Concerto per pistola solista) aka The Story of a Crime
  • The Man with Icy Eyes (Alberto de Martino, 1971; Italian: L'uomo dagli occhi di ghiaccio)
  • A Lizard in a Woman's Skin (Lucio Fulci, 1971; Italian: Una lucertola con la pelle di donna) aka Schizoid
  • The Fifth Cord (Luigi Bazzoni, 1971; Italian: Giornata nera per l'ariete / Black Day for the Ram) aka Evil Fingers
  • Oasis of Fear (Umberto Lenzi, 1971; Italian: Un posto ideale per uccidere / An Ideal Place for Murder) aka Dirty Pictures
  • The Strange Vice of Mrs. Wardh (Sergio Martino, 1971; Italian: Lo strano vizio della Signora Wardh) aka Blade of the Ripper, aka Next!, aka The Next Victim
  • The Case of the Scorpion's Tail (Sergio Martino, 1971; Italian: La coda dello scorpione / Tail of the Scorpion)
  • Black Belly of the Tarantula (Paolo Cavara, 1971; Italian: La tarantola dal ventre nero)
  • The Cat o' Nine Tails (Dario Argento, 1971; Italian: Il gatto a nove code)
  • The Bloodstained Butterfly (Duccio Tessari, 1971; Italian: Una farfalla con le ali insanguinate)
  • Four Flies on Grey Velvet (Dario Argento, 1971; Italian: 4 mosche di velluto grigio)
  • My Dear Killer (Tonino Valerii, 1971; Italian: Mio caro assassino)
  • Marta (Jose Antonio Nieves Conde, 1971; Italian: ...dopo di che, uccide il maschio e lo divora / After That, It Kills and Devours the Male)
  • The Double (Romolo Guerrieri, 1971; Italian: La Controfigura)
  • Cross Current (Tonino Ricci, 1971; Italian: Un Omicidio perfetto a termine di legge / A Perfect Murder According to Law)
  • Twitch of the Death Nerve (Mario Bava, 1971; Italian: Reazione a catena / Chain Reaction) aka Ecologia del delitto / Ecology of Crime, aka A Bay of Blood, aka Last House on the Left, Part 2
  • The Iguana with the Tongue of Fire (Riccardo Freda, 1971; Italian: L'iguana dalla lingua di fuoco)
  • They Have Changed Their Face (Corrado Farina, 1971; Italian: Hanno cambiato faccia)
  • Murder By Design (Maurizio Lucidi, 1971; Italian: La vittima designata / The Designated Victim)
  • Slaughter Hotel (Fernando Di Leo, 1971; Italian: La bestia uccide a sangue freddo / The Beast Kills in Cold Blood) aka Asylum Erotica, aka The Cold-Blooded Beast
  • The Fourth Victim (Eugenio Martin, 1971; Italian: In fondo alla piscina / At the Front of the Pool) aka Death at the Deep End of the Pool, aka La ultima senora Anderson / The Last Mrs. Anderson
  • The Devil Has Seven Faces (Osvaldo Civirani, 1971; Italian: Il diavolo ha sette facce) aka The Devil with Seven Faces
  • Jack the Ripper of London (Jose Luis Madrid, 1971; Spanish: Jack el destripador de Londres) aka 7 Murders for Scotland Yard, aka 7 Corpses for Scotland Yard
  • Death Walks on High Heels (Luciano Ercoli, 1971; Italian: La morte cammina con i tacchi alti )
  • Cold Eyes of Fear (Enzo G. Castellari, 1971; Italian: Gli occhi freddi della paura) aka Desperate Moments
  • In the Eye of the Hurricane (Jose Maria Forque, 1971; Italian: La volpe dalla coda di velluto / The Fox with the Velvet Tail)
  • The Glass Ceiling (Eloy de la Iglesias, 1971; Spanish: El techo de cristal) stars Patty Sheppard and Emma Cohen
  • The Night Evelyn Came Out of the Grave (Emilio Miraglia, 1971; Italian: La notte che Evelyn uscì dalla tomba)
  • Amuck! (Silvio Amadio, 1972; Italian: Alla ricerca del piacere / In Pursuit of Pleasure) aka Maniac Mansion, aka Leather and Whips, aka Hot Bed of Sex
  • The Red Headed Corpse (Renzo Russo, 1972; Italian: La rossa dalla pelle che scotta) aka The Sensuous Doll
  • The Case of the Bloody Iris (Giuliano Carnimeo, 1972; Italian: Perché quelle strane gocce di sangue sul corpo di Jennifer? / What Are Those Strange Drops of Blood on Jennifer's Body?
  • Don't Torture a Duckling (Lucio Fulci, 1972; Italian: Non si sevizia un paperino) aka The Long Night of Exorcism
  • Who Killed the Prosecutor and Why? (Giuseppe Vari, 1972; Italian: Terza ipotesi su un caso di perfetta strategia criminale / Third assumption about perfect criminal strategy case)
  • La morte accarezza a mezzanotte / Death Walks at Midnight (Luciano Ercoli, 1972)
  • An Open Tomb...An Empty Coffin (Alfonso Balcazar, 1972; Spanish: La casa de las muertas vivientes / House of the Living Dead Women)
  • Who Saw Her Die? (Aldo Lado, 1972; Italian: Chi l'ha vista morire?)
  • A White Dress for Marialé (Romano Scavolini, 1972; Italian: Un bianco vestito per Marialé) aka Spirits of Death
  • Your Vice Is a Locked Room and Only I Have the Key (Sergio Martino, 1972; Italian: Il tuo vizio è una stanza chiusa e solo io ne ho la chiave) aka Gently Before She Dies, aka Eye of the Black Cat, aka Excite Me!
  • French Sex Murders (Ferdinando Merighi, 1972; Italian: Casa d'appuntamento) aka The Bogey Man and the French Murders
  • Smile of the Hyena (Silvio Amadio, 1972; Italian: Il sorriso della iena) aka Smile Before Death
  • What Have You Done to Solange? (Massimo Dallamano, 1972; Italian: Cosa avete fatto a Solange?) aka Secret of the Green Pins, aka Who's Next?, aka Terror in the Woods
  • Il coltello di ghiaccio / Knife of Ice (Umberto Lenzi, 1972) aka Detrás del Silencio, aka Vertigine
  • Murder Mansion (Francisco Lara Polop, 1972; Italian: Quando Marta urlò dalla tomba / When Marta Screamed from the Grave) aka The House in the Fog
  • All the Colors of the Dark (Sergio Martino, 1972; Italian: Tutti i colori del buio) aka Day of the Maniac, aka They're Coming to Get You!
  • The Killer is on the Phone (Alberto de Martino, 1972; Italian: L'assassino e' al telefono) aka Scenes From a Murder
  • Tropic of Cancer (Edoardo Mulargia, 1972; Italian: Al Tropico del Cancro) aka Death in Haiti
  • The Dead Are Alive (Armando Crispino, 1972; Italian: L'etrusco uccide ancora / The Etruscan Kills Again)
  • So Sweet, So Dead (Roberto Montero, 1972; Italian: Rivelazione di un maniaco sessuale) aka The Slasher is the Sex Maniac, aka Penetration
  • Delirium (Renato Polselli, 1972; Italian: Delirio caldo)
  • The Short Night of the Glass Dolls (Aldo Lado, 1972; Italian: La corta notte delle bambole di vetro) aka Paralyzed
  • Seven Blood-Stained Orchids (Umberto Lenzi, 1972; Italian: Sette orchidee macchiate di rosso)
  • The Crimes of the Black Cat (Sergio Pastore, 1972; Italian: Sette scialli di seta gialla / Seven Shawls of Yellow Silk)
  • Naked Girl Killed in the Park (Alfonso Brescia, 1972; Italian: Ragazza tutta nuda assassinata nel parco)
  • The Two Faces of Fear (Tulio Demichelli, 1972; Italian: I due volti della paura)
  • The Red Queen Kills Seven Times (Emilio Miraglia, 1972; Italian: La dama rossa uccide sette volte) aka Blood Feast, aka Feast of Flesh
  • Death Carries a Cane (Maurizio Pradeux, 1973) Italian: Passi di danza su una lama di rasoio / Dance Steps on a Razor's Edge; aka Maniac at Large, aka Tormentor
  • Torso (Sergio Martino, 1973; Italian: I corpi presentano tracce di violenza carnale / The Bodies Show Traces of Carnal Violence)
  • The Flower with the Petals of Steel (Gianfranco Piccioli, 1973; Italian: Il fiore dai petali d'acciaio) aka The Flower with the Deadly Sting
  • Seven Deaths in the Cat's Eye (Antonio Margheriti, 1973; Italian: La morte negli occhi del gatto / Death in the Eyes of the Cat)
  • Blue Eyes of the Broken Doll (Carlos Aured, 1973; Spanish: Los ojos azules de la muñeca rota) aka House of Psychotic Women
  • The Bloodstained Lawn (Riccardo Ghione, 1973; Italian: Il prato macchiato di rosso)
  • Love and Death on the Edge of a Razor (Giusseppe Pellegrini, 1973; Italian: Giorni d'amore sul filo di una lama) aka Muerte au Rasoir
  • The Girl in Room 2-A (William Rose, 1973, Italian: La casa della paura / The House of Fear) aka The Perversions of Mrs. Grant
  • L'arma, l'ora, il movente (Francesco Mazzei, 1973; English: The Weapon, The Hour, The Motive)
  • No One Heard the Scream (Eloy de la Iglesia, 1973; Spanish: Nadie oyó gritar)
  • The Perfume of the Lady in Black (Francesco Barilli, 1973; Italian: Il profumo della signora in nero)
  • Five Women for the Killer (Stelvio Massi, 1974; Italian: Cinque donne per l'assassino)
  • Spasmo (Umberto Lenzi, 1974)
  • Puzzle (Duccio Tessari, 1974; Italian: L'uomo senza memoria / The Man Without a Memory)
  • A Dragonfly For Each Corpse (León Klimovsky, 1974; Spanish: Una libélula para cada muerto)
  • The Killer Reserved Nine Seats (Giuseppe Benati, 1974; Italian: L'assassino ha riservato nove poltrone)
  • What Have They Done to Your Daughters? (Massimo Dallamano, 1974; Italian: La polizia chiede aiuto / The Police Need Help) aka The Co-ed Murders
  • Ciak si muore (Mario Moroni, 1974; rough translation: Click...She Dies)
  • The Killer Is One of the Thirteen (Javier Aguirre, 1974; Spanish: El asesino está entre los trece)
  • The Killer Wore Gloves (Juan Bosch, 1974; Spanish: La Muerte llama a las diez / Death Calls at Ten) aka Le calde labbra del carnefice / The Hot Lips of the Killer
  • The Killer With a Thousand Eyes (Juan Bosch, 1974; Spanish: Los mil ojos del asesino) aka On The Edge
  • The Fish With the Gold Eyes (Pedro Luis Ramirez, 1974, Spanish: El pez del los ojos de oro)
  • Eyeball (Umberto Lenzi, 1975; Italian: Gatti rossi in un labirinto di vetro / Red Cats in a Glass Maze) aka Wide-Eyed in the Dark
  • Autopsy (Armando Crispino, 1975); Italian: Macchie solari / Sunspots
  • The Killer Must Kill Again (Luigi Cozzi, 1975; Italian: L'assassino è costretto ad uccidere ancora) aka Il Ragno (The Spider), aka The Dark is Death's Friend
  • All the Screams of Silence (Ramon Barco, 1975, Spanish: Todo los gritos del silencio)
  • Deep Red (Dario Argento, 1975; Italian: Profondo rosso) aka The Hatchet Murders
  • Nude per l'assassino / Strip Nude for your Killer (Andrea Bianchi, 1975)
  • Reflections in Black (Tano Cimarosa, 1975; Italian: Il vizio ha le calze nere / Vice Wears Black Hose)
  • The Suspicious Death of a Minor (Sergio Martino, 1975; Italian: Morte sospetta di una minorenne / Too Young to Die)
  • The Bloodsucker Leads the Dance (Alfredo Rizzo, 1975; Italian: La sanguisuga conduce la danza) aka The Passion of Evelyn
  • A tutte le auto della polizia (Mario Caiano, 1975; English: Calling All Police Cars)
  • The House with Laughing Windows (Pupi Avati, 1976; Italian: La casa dalle finestre che ridono)
  • Plot of Fear (Paolo Cavara, 1976; Italian: E tanta paura)
  • Death Steps in the Dark (Maurizio Pradeux, 1977; Italian: Passi di morte perduti nel buio)
  • Crazy Desires of a Murderer (Filippo Walter Ratti, 1977; Italian: I vizi morbosi di una governante)
  • Sette note in nero / The Psychic (Lucio Fulci, 1977) aka Murder to the Tune of Seven Black Notes
  • The Pajama Girl Case (Flavio Mogherini, 1977; Italian: La ragazza dal pigiama giallo / The Girl in the Yellow Pyjamas)
  • Watch Me When I Kill (Antonio Bido, 1977; Italian: Il gatto dagli occhi di giada / The Cat with the Jade Eyes) aka The Cat's Victims
  • The Monster (Luigi Zampa, 1977; Italian: Il Mostro) aka Criminal
  • Hotel Fear (Francesco Barilli, 1977; Italian: Pensione Paura)
  • Nine Guests for a Crime (Ferdinando Baldi, 1977; Italian: 9 ospiti per un delitto) aka A Cry in the Night
  • The Sister of Ursula (Enzo Milioni, 1978; Italian: La sorella di Ursula) aka La muerte tiene ojos / Death Has Eyes
  • Red Rings of Fear (Alberto Negrin, 1978; Italian: Enigma rosso) aka Virgin Terror, aka Trauma
  • The Bloodstained Shadow (Antonio Bido, 1978; Italian: Solamente nero / Only Blackness)
  • The Perfect Crime (Giuseppe Rosati, 1978; Italian: Indagine su un delitto perfetto)
  • Killer Nun (Giulio Berutti, 1979; Italian: Suir omicidi) aka Deadly Habit
  • Thrilling in Venice (Mario Landi, 1979) aka Giallo in Venice, aka Giallo a Venezia, aka Giallo, Venetian Style

1980s[edit]

  • Thrauma (Gianni Martucci, 1980; Italian: Il mistero della casa maledetta / Mystery of the Cursed House) aka Trauma
  • Murder Obsession (Riccardo Freda, 1980; Italian: Follia omicida) aka Fear, aka The Wailing, aka The Murder Syndrome
  • The Secret of Seagull Island (Nestore Ungaro, 1981; Italian: L'isola del gabbiano)
  • Madhouse (Ovidio Assonitis, 1981) aka There Was a Little Girl
  • Tenebrae (Dario Argento, 1982) aka Unsane
  • The Scorpion with Two Tails (Sergio Martino, 1982; Italian: Assassinio al cimitero etrusco / Murder in the Etruscan Cemetery)
  • A Blade in the Dark (Lamberto Bava, 1982; Italian: La casa con la scala nel buio / The House with the Dark Staircase)
  • The New York Ripper (Lucio Fulci, 1982; Italian: Lo squartatore di New York)
  • Carnal Crime (Cesare Canaveri, 1982; English: Delitto Carnale)
  • Extrasensorial (Alberto de Martino, 1983) aka Blood Link
  • Mystère (Carlo Vanzina, 1983) aka Murder Near Perfect
  • The House of the Yellow Carpet (Carlo Lizzani, 1983; Italian: La casa del tappeto giallo)
  • Murder Rock (Lucio Fulci, 1984; Italian: Murderock - uccide a passo di danza) aka The Demon Is Loose!, aka Murder Rock - Dancing Death
  • Nothing Underneath (Carlo Vanzina, 1985; Italian: Sotto il vestito niente / The Last Shot)
  • Sweets from a Stranger (Franco Ferrini, 1985; Italian: Caramelle da uno sconosciuto)
  • Formula For a Murder (Alberto de Martino, 1985) aka 7 Hyden Park - La casa maledetta
  • The House with the Blue Shutters (Beppe Cino, 1986; Italian: La casa del buon ritorno)
  • The Killer Has Returned (Camillo Teti, 1986; Italian: L'assassino è ancora tra noi)
  • Delitti (Giovanna Lenzi, 1986; English: Crimes)
  • You'll Die at Midnight (Lamberto Bava, 1986; Italian: Morirai a mezzanotte) aka The Midnight Killer, aka Midnight Horror
  • The Monster of Florence (Cesare Ferrario, 1986; Italian: Il mostro di firenze)
  • Phantom of Death (Ruggero Deodato, 1987; Italian: Un delitto poco comune / An Uncommon Crime) aka Off Balance
  • Stage Fright (Michele Soavi, 1987; Italian: Deliria) aka Aquarius, aka Bloody Bird
  • Delirium (Lamberto Bava, 1987; Italian: Le foto di Gioia / Photos of Gioia)
  • Body Count / Body Count (Ruggero Deodato, 1987) aka Camping del terrore, aka The Eleventh Commandment
  • Too Beautiful to Die (Dario di Piana, 1988; Italian: Sotto il vestito niente 2 / Nothing Underneath 2)
  • Dial: Help (Ruggero Deodato, 1988; Italian: Minaccia d'amore / Love Threat)
  • Delitti e profumi (Vittorio De Sisti, 1988) aka Crimes and Perfume
  • Obsession: A Taste for Fear (Piccio Raffanini, 1988; Italian: Pathos - Un sapore di paura)
  • Opera (Dario Argento, 1988) aka Terror at the Opera
  • The Murder Secret (Mario Bianchi, Lucio Fulci, 1988; Italian: Non aver paura della zia Marta / Don't Be Afraid of Aunt Martha) aka Aunt Martha Does Dreadful Things
  • Massacre (Andrea Bianchi, 1989)
  • Nightmare Beach (Umberto Lenzi, 1989) aka Welcome To Spring Break
  • Arabella, the Black Angel (Stelvio, 1989) aka Black Angel

1990s – to present[edit]

  • Homicide in Blue Light (Alfonso Brescia, 1991; Italian: Omicidio a luci blu)
  • Trauma (Dario Argento, 1992) aka Dario Argento's Trauma
  • Misteria (Lamberto Bava, 1992) aka Body Puzzle
  • Circle of Fear (Aldo Lado, 1992) aka The Perfect Alibi
  • Dangerous Attraction (Bruno Mattei, 1993)
  • Eyes Without a Face (Bruno Mattei, 1994; Italian; Gli occhi dentro)
  • The Strange Story of Olga O (Antonio Bonifacio, 1995) written by Ernesto Gastaldi
  • The Stendhal Syndrome (Dario Argento, 1996; Italian: La sindrome di Stendhal)
  • The House Where Corinne Lived (Maurizio Lucidi, 1996; Italian: La casa dove abitava Corinne)
  • Fatal Frames (Al Festa, 1996)
  • The Wax Mask (Sergio Stivaletti, 1997; Italian: M.D.C. – Maschera di cera)
  • Milonga (Emidio Greco, 1999)
  • Sleepless (Dario Argento, 2001; Italian: Non ho sonno)
  • The Card Player (Dario Argento, 2004; Italian: Il cartaio)
  • Eyes of Crystal (Eros Puglielli, 2004; Italian: Occhi di cristallo)
  • The Vanity Serum (Alex Infascelli, 2004; Italian: Il siero della vanità)
  • Do You Like Hitchcock? (Dario Argento, 2005; Italian: Ti piace Hitchcock?)
  • Giallo (Dario Argento, 2009)
  • Amer (Hélène Cattet and Bruno Forzani, 2009)
  • Masks (Andreas Marschall, 2011)
  • Tulpa (Federico Zampaglione, 2012)
  • Sonno Profondo (Luciano Onetti, 2013)
  • The Strange Color of Your Body's Tears (Hélène Cattet and Bruno Forzani, 2014; French: L'étrange couleur des larmes de ton corps)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Giovannini 1986, pp. 27–28.
  2. ^ Rockoff 2002, p. 30.
Sources

External links[edit]