|Administrative region:||Central Macedonia|
|Population statistics (as of 2011)|
|Time zone:||EET/EEST (UTC+2/3)|
|Elevation (center):||42 m (138 ft)|
|Postal code:||581 00|
Giannitsa (Greek: Γιαννιτσά, in English also Yannitsa, Yenitsa) is the largest city in the regional unit of Pella and the capital of the Pella municipality, in the region of Central Macedonia in northern Greece.
Its population is 31,983 people (2011 census). The community of Giannitsa includes a few outlying villages (Mesiano, Melissi, Pentaplatanos, Archontiko, Ampelies and Damiano). The municipality as a whole includes many villages and has 63,122 inhabitants. The ciy is located in the center of Macedonia between the Mount Paiko and the plain of Giannitsà, and is economic, commercial and industrial center of the prefecture of Pella. European route E86 (Greek National Road 2) runs along the south of the city.
The former shallow, swampy, and variable-sized Giannitsa Lake or Loudias Lake, south of the city, was drained in 1928-1932 by the New York Foundation Company.
The city was founded as Yenice-i Vardar 'new (town) of Vardar' in around 1372. It was sometimes called Evrenos Beg yöresi 'Evrenos Bey's town'.
The Turkish name, in the form Γενιτσά, was used until February 1926 when its name was Hellenized as Yannitsa/Γιαννιτσά. In other languages, the city is called: Ottoman Turkish Yenice-i Vardar ('new-town of Vardar', as opposed to Yenice-i Karasu, modern Genisea, near Xanthi and known for tobacco), Turkish: Yenice or Vardar Yenicesi,and Bulgarian: Енидже Вардар, Enidže Vardar or Пазар Pazar 'market'.
In the area of "Old Market", on the southern hill of the city, there was an Early Neolithic settlement (late 7th early 6th millennium BC).
Though there was probably a pre-existing Byzantine castle in the vicinity, the importance of the city of Yenije begins with its foundation by Gazi Evrenos in around 1372. Yenije became the base of the ghazi followers of Evrenos who took Macedonia and later Albania. The city was an important Ottoman cultural center in the 15th and 16th centuries. In the early 20th century, Yenije was a battleground between Bulgarian and Greek-Macedonian partisans in the Struggle for Macedonia. Penelope Delta's novel Secrets of the Swamp (referring to the shores of Giannitsa Lake) is a romanticised account of this from the Greek point of view.
Yenidje "retained its emphatically Turkish character up to 1912" and members of the Evrenos family lived in the city in a large palace in the center of town until then. In the First Balkan War, the Battle of Yenidje (20 October 1912) was the most deadly battle of the Balkan wars and perhaps the most important.
On 14 September 1944, during the German occupation of Greece, about 120 residents of Giannitsa were executed by forces of the Jagdkommando Schubert and collaboration Greek units under the command of G. Poulos. Part of the city was also had burned.
Yenidje was an important center in the Ottoman period, and several important monuments survive: the tombs of Gazi Evrenos (a 19th-century substitute for the original) and Gazi Ahmed Bey, Kaifoun Baths,the Great Mosque, the Army Mosque, the hammam of Evrenos, and the clock tower, which have been declared historical monuments by the Greek Archaeological Service. Points of interest include also the Cathedral church of Giannitsa (1860), the neoclassical Multicenter, the open theater (3,000 seats), and the navigable Loudias river with a rowing center.
Giannitsa is predominantly a rural area. The draining of the Lake Giannitsà left fertile soil for agriculture, leading to population growth in the region.
- Gazi Evrenos (died 1417), founder of the Ottoman city, whose mausoleum is in the center of town
- K̲h̲ayālī (died 1556), Ottoman poet
- Āgehī (died 1577/8), Ottoman poet and historian
- Georgios Gonos Giotas (1880 - 1911), revolutionary in the Macedonian Struggle
- Ahmet Derviş (1883-1932), military officer in the Ottoman and Turkish armies
The focus of the social life of the city is at the central pedestrian street, where people gather to eat and drink or to take a walk.
Seven kilometers (4.3 miles) south of the center is the Loudias river, which has a sailing center. The Nautical Club of Giannitsa (NOG) teaches canoeing, kayaking, and rowing.
- Tsali (Nea Trapezounta)
- Palaia agora
- Detailed census results 2011 (Greek)
- Kallikratis law Greece Ministry of Interior (Greek)
- Encyclopedia of Islam, 2nd edition, s.v. Ewrenos
- Institute for Neohellenic Research, "Name Changes of Settlements in Greece" Genitsa/Giannitsa
- Vasilis Demetriades, "The Tomb of Ghāzī Evrenos Bey at Yenitsa and Its Inscription", Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies (University of London) 39:2:328-332 (1976); Eleni Kanetaki, "The Still Existing Ottoman Hamams in the Greek Territory", Middle East Technical University Journal of the Faculty of Architecture 21:1-2:81-110 (2005); citing M. Kiel, "Yenice-i Vardar. A forgotten Turkish cultural center in Macedonia of the 15th and 16th century", Studia Byzantina et Neohellenica Neerlandica 3:300-329 (1971)
- Δήμος Πέλλας, Official site-municipality of pella.