Giant leaf frog

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Giant leaf frog
Phyllomedusa bicolor
Phyllomedusa bicolor01a.jpg
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Hylidae
Subfamily: Phyllomedusinae
Genus: Phyllomedusa
Species: P. bicolor
Binomial name
Phyllomedusa bicolor
Americas Phyllomedusa bicolor.jpg

The giant leaf frog, Phyllomedusa bicolor, also known as Kambo, Kambô, Cambô, and Sapo Verde, is a hylid frog.


It is found throughout the Amazon Rain forest of northern Bolivia, western and northern Brazil, southeastern Colombia, eastern Peru, southern and eastern Venezuela, and the Guianas. Occasionally, it is also found in the riparian forest area of the Cerrado, a vast tropical savanna ecoregion of Brazil.

The IUCN endangered species database lists them in the "Least Concern species" category for now, in view of their current wide distribution and large population.

The Frog[edit]

The giant leaf frog, Phyllomedusa bicolor, is nocturnal and hunts small insects, which explains its arboreal locomotion. It has been found emitting its territorial or mating "song" in trees in tropical humid forests at heights greater than 2 metres (6.6 ft) above water near rainforest waterways.[2] Biologists report finding leaf-nests of this species approximately 2 metres (6.6 ft) above forest pools.[3] When the eggs hatch from these nests, the tadpoles fall into the water, where they continue the development into adult frogs. Tadpoles develop in mass in seasonal wetlands. They are also found in riparian forest areas of the Cerrado. The skin secretion of the frog contains deltorphin, deltorphin I, deltorphin II and dermorphin.[4][5][6]


  1. ^ Claudia Azevedo-Ramos, Enrique La Marca (2010). "Phyllomedusa bicolor". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 October 2013. 
  2. ^ (Duellman 1997)
  3. ^ Gorzula and Señaris (1999)
  4. ^ Erspamer V, Melchiorri P, Falconieri-Erspamer G et al. (July 1989). "Deltorphins: a family of naturally occurring peptides with high affinity and selectivity for delta opioid binding sites". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 86 (13): 5188–92. doi:10.1073/pnas.86.13.5188. PMC 297583. PMID 2544892. 
  5. ^ Melchiorri P, Negri L (1996). "The dermorphin peptide family". Gen. Pharmacol. 27 (7): 1099–107. doi:10.1016/0306-3623(95)02149-3. PMID 8981054. 
  6. ^ Amiche M, Delfour A, Nicolas P (1998). "Opioid peptides from frog skin". EXS 85: 57–71. doi:10.1007/978-3-0348-8837-0_4. PMID 9949868. 

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