||It has been suggested that this article be merged into Gabr. (Discuss) Proposed since January 2013.|
Giaour, Gawur or Ghiaour written gâvur in modern Turkish (Turkish pronunciation: [ɟaˈʋur], //, from Persian: گبر), is an offensive ethnic slur used by Muslims in Turkey and the Balkans to describe all who are non-Muslim, with particular reference to Christians like Greeks, Armenians, Bulgarians, Serbs, ethnic Macedonians, Romanians, Aromanians and Assyrians. The term is considered highly offensive by Christians in the Balkans.
The 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica described the term as follows:
Giaour (a Turkish adaptation of the Persian gdwr or gbr, an infidel), a word used by the Turks to describe all who are not Moslems, with especial reference to Christians. The word, first employed as a term of contempt and reproach, has become so general that in most cases no insult is intended in its use; similarly, in parts of China, the term foreign devil has become void of offence. A strict analogy to giaour is found in the Arabic kafir, or unbeliever, which is so commonly in use as to have become the proper name of peoples and countries.
Giaour is the name given to the evil monster of a man in the tale Vathek, by William Thomas Beckford, written in French in 1782, and translated into English soon after. The name Giaour appears in the French, as well as in the English translation.
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- The Giaour, a poem by Lord Byron
- Kafir, Kaffir
- Ary Scheffer, "Le Giaour", 1832, oil on canvas, Musée de la Vie romantique, Hôtel Scheffer-Renan, Paris
- Vathek, 1782, by William Beckford
- James Lewis Farley, Turks and Christians, Adamant Media Corporation, ISBN 1-4021-8786-6
- James Finn. Stirring Times, Or, Records from Jerusalem Consular Chronicles of 1853 To 1856, 2004, p. 12
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press