Gibraltar Range

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Gibraltar Range
Gibraltar Range is located in New South Wales
Gibraltar Range
Location of the range in New South Wales.
Highest point
Coordinates 29°32′15″S 152°19′51″E / 29.537619°S 152.330933°E / -29.537619; 152.330933Coordinates: 29°32′15″S 152°19′51″E / 29.537619°S 152.330933°E / -29.537619; 152.330933
Dimensions
Length 100 km (62 mi) N
Geography
Country Australia
State New South Wales
Parent range Great Dividing Range

The Gibraltar Range is a mountain range that is located in the Northern Tablelands region of New South Wales, Australia. The range extends off the Great Dividing Range at Bald Nob about 25 kilometres (16 mi) east northeast of Glen Innes and trends generally east northeast and north northeast for about 100 kilometres (62 mi) to the junction of Timbarra and Clarence rivers. It forms the watershed between these two rivers.[1]

Within the range is the Gibraltar Range National Park. Mines in the area have produced amalgamated ores of titanium, tin, gold, nickel, rhodium and iron. Recently, there have been forest fires or threats of forest fires in the Gibraltar Range.

Location[edit]

The Gibraltar Range is located in the northeastern part of New South Wales.[2] The mountain range is the site of the Gibraltar Range National Park, one of the Gondwana Rainforests of Australia.[3] The mountains are found in the Clarence Valley Council area.[4] The range is inland of Grafton, New South Wales.[5] The Gwydir Highway runs through the range and its national park.[6]

Geology[edit]

The Gibraltar Range is defined by its high ridges and steep valleys that intersect plateaus.[7] They were created in the middle of the Palaeozoic Era. Volcanoes found in the range date to the Late Permian (Lopingian) Epoch, with granite in the range dating to the Permo-Triassic.[7] The range is home to volcanic intrusions.[8] This can be seen in "intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks which clearly pre-date the Great Escarpment."[9]

Environment[edit]

The Gibraltar Range gets a lot of rain.[10] There is a surface water measurement station found in the range at Dandahra Creek that was opened on 10 May 1972.[11] The area gets a mean annual rainfall of 1,146 millimetres (45.1 in) with a mean annual run-off of 624 millimetres (24.6 in) and mean annual run-off as a percentage of annual rainfall of 54 millimetres (2.1 in).[12] The ranges have rock outcroppings and heath.[13] The range is also home to malle ecosystems.[13] The area is a Northeast Forest Lands.[14] Amalgamated ores of titanium, tin, gold, nickel, rhodium and iron are found within the range.

Biodiversity[edit]

"Thickly forested highland" areas cover part of the mountains, and there are isolated populations of Waratah.[2][8] The Rufous Scrub-bird lives in the Gibraltar Range, although its population was slightly reduced due to a fire in 2002.[10][15] The mountain range is also home to the Parma wallaby.[16] During the 1850s, European fruit trees flourished at the base of the range.

Recent history[edit]

In the 1850s, the mountains were the sites of mines. In 1890s and 1900s, an area of the mountain range had been reserved for forestry.[17][18] Construction of the first "sealed road" over the mountain range began in 1960. It allowed the first bicycle race from the town of Grafton on the East Coast to the town of Inverell on the Northern Tablelands.[19] In 2002, forest fires were burning in the Gibraltar Ranges.[20] In late 2007, a pair of prison escapees were last spotted near the ranges and the police were actively looking for them.[21][22] In October 2009, parts of the Gibraltar Range were closed because of the potential for bushfires.[23]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Gibraltar Range". Geographical Names Register (GNR) of NSW. Geographical Names Board of New South Wales. Retrieved 9 October 2013. 
  2. ^ a b HIGHER SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION, 1995, BIOLOGY, 2 UNIT. New South Wales: NSW Board of Studies. 1995. p. 23. 
  3. ^ "Gibraltar Range National Park". environment.nsw.gov.au. Office of Environment & Heritage. Retrieved 28 October 2012. 
  4. ^ "About council :: Clarence Valley Council". Clarence.nsw.gov.au. Retrieved 2012-10-26. 
  5. ^ Jon Murray; Tom Smallman; David Willett (1 November 1997). New South Wales. Lonely Planet Publications. p. 274. ISBN 978-0-86442-464-8. Retrieved 26 October 2012. 
  6. ^ Jon Murray; Tom Smallman; David Willett (1 November 1997). New South Wales. Lonely Planet Publications. p. 276. ISBN 978-0-86442-464-8. Retrieved 26 October 2012. 
  7. ^ a b Cynthia V. Burek; Colin D. Prosser (2008). The History of Geoconservation. Geological Society. p. 292. ISBN 978-1-86239-254-0. Retrieved 26 October 2012. 
  8. ^ a b Geoffrey Hutton (1981). Australia's natural heritage. Australian Conservation Foundation. p. 86. ISBN 978-0-85802-063-4. Retrieved 26 October 2012. 
  9. ^ Paul Adam; New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service (1987). New South Wales rainforests: the nomination for the world heritage list. National Parks and Wildlife Service of N.S.W. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-7305-2075-7. Retrieved 26 October 2012. 
  10. ^ a b "Scrub-Birds: Atrichornithidae - Rufous Scrub-bird (atrichornis Rufescens): Species Account". Animals.jrank.org. 2004-05-17. Retrieved 2012-10-26. 
  11. ^ "Water Resources - Availability - Surface Water Measurement Station". Anra.gov.au. 2009-05-13. Retrieved 2012-10-26. 
  12. ^ "Water Resources - Availability - MS". Anra.gov.au. 2009-06-07. Retrieved 2012-10-26. 
  13. ^ a b "Biodiversity Assessment - New England Tableland - Natural Values". Anra.gov.au. 2009-06-15. Retrieved 2012-10-26. 
  14. ^ "Biodiversity Assessment - New England Tableland - Natural Values". Anra.gov.au. 2009-06-15. Retrieved 2012-10-26. 
  15. ^ Stephen Garnett; Judit Szabo; Guy Dutson (30 August 2012). The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2010. Csiro Publishing. p. 284. ISBN 978-0-643-10368-9. Retrieved 26 October 2012. 
  16. ^ Australian Mammal Society (June 1991). Australian Mammal Society. Australian Mammal Society. p. 29. Retrieved 26 October 2012. 
  17. ^ "No title". Clarence and Richmond Examiner (Grafton, NSW : 1889 - 1915) (Grafton, NSW: National Library of Australia). 7 May 1895. p. 3. Retrieved 26 October 2012. 
  18. ^ "Gazette Notifications.". Clarence and Richmond Examiner (Grafton, NSW : 1889 - 1915) (Grafton, NSW: National Library of Australia). 25 November 1902. p. 8. Retrieved 26 October 2012. 
  19. ^ "Grafton to Inverell Cycle Classic History". graftontoinverellcycleclassic.com. Grafton to Inverell Cycle Classic. Retrieved 28 October 2012. 
  20. ^ "New alert as 40 fires rage across state". smh.com.au. 2002-10-19. Retrieved 2012-10-26. 
  21. ^ "Hunt continues for jail escapees - ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)". Abc.net.au. 2007-12-06. Retrieved 2012-10-26. 
  22. ^ "Hunt for violent prison escapees intensifies - ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)". Abc.net.au. 2007-11-30. Retrieved 2012-10-26. 
  23. ^ "North coast crews anticipate fire threat - ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)". Abc.net.au. 2009-10-02. Retrieved 2012-10-26. 

External links[edit]