Gibson Guitar Corporation

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Gibson Guitar Corporation
Type Private
Industry Musical instruments
Founded 1902; 112 years ago (1902) [1] in Kalamazoo, Michigan
Founders Orville Gibson
Headquarters Nashville, Tennessee, USA
Area served Worldwide
Key people Orville Gibson, Ted McCarty, Les Paul, Seth Lover
Products Electric, acoustic and resonator guitars
basses
mandolins
Subsidiaries
Website Gibson.com

Gibson Guitar Corporation is an American manufacturer of guitars and other instruments, now based in Nashville, Tennessee. It is a division of Gibson Brands.[3]

Orville Gibson founded the company in 1902 as "The Gibson Mandolin-Guitar Mfg. Co., Ltd." in Kalamazoo, Michigan to make mandolin-family instruments.[1] Gibson invented archtop guitars by constructing the same type of carved, arched tops used on violins. By the 1930s, the company was also making flattop acoustic guitars, as well as one of the first commercially available hollow-body electric guitars, used and popularized by Charlie Christian. It was bought by Chicago Musical Instruments in 1944, which was then acquired by the E.C.L. conglomerate that changed its name to Norlin Inc. Many observers see this as the beginning of an era of mismanagement.[citation needed]

Gibson sells guitars under a variety of brand names[4] and builds one of the world's most iconic guitars, the Gibson Les Paul. Many Gibson instruments are highly collectible. Gibson was at the forefront of innovation in acoustic guitars, especially in the big band era of the 1930s; the Gibson Super 400 was widely imitated. In 1952, Gibson introduced its first solid-body electric guitar, the Les Paul which became its most popular guitar to date— designed by Ted McCarty and Les Paul. Gibson was owned by the Norlin corporation from 1969 to 1986. In 1986 the company was acquired by its present owners. Gibson Guitar is a privately held corporation owned by its chief executive officer Henry Juszkiewicz and its president David H. Berryman.

In addition to guitars, Gibson offers audio equipment devices through its subsidiaries Onkyo Corporation, Cerwin Vega, KRK Systems and Stanton.[5]

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

Mandolin
(c. 1917)
Harp guitar
(c. 1912).

Orville Gibson (born 1856) patented a single-piece mandolin design in 1898 that was more durable than other mandolins and could be manufactured in volume.[6] Orville Gibson began to sell his instruments in 1894 out of a one-room workshop in Kalamazoo Michigan. In 1902 Gibson Mandolin-Guitar Mfg. Co, Ltd. was incorporated to market the instruments. Initially, the company produced only Orville Gibson's original designs.[7] Orville died in 1918 of endocarditis (inflammation of the inside lining of the heart chambers and valves).[6]

Gibson L-5 sunburst guitar
L-5 acoustic.
Gibson ES-150
ES-150
(based on L-50)
Gibson ES-175
ES-175 D
(based on L-4)
Gibson Super 400 CES

The following year the company hired designer Lloyd Loar to create newer instruments.[7] Loar designed the flagship L-5 archtop guitar and the Gibson F5 mandolin that was introduced in 1922, before leaving the company in 1924.[8] In 1936 Gibson introduced their first "Electric Spanish" model, the ES-150 followed by other electric instruments like steel guitars, banjos and mandolins.

During World War II, instrument manufacturing at Gibson slowed due to shortages of wood and metal, and Gibson began manufacturing wood and metal parts for the military. Between 1942-1945, Gibson employed women to manufacture guitars. "Women produced nearly 25,000 guitars during World War II yet Gibson denied ever building instruments over this period," according to a 2013 history of the company. Gibson folklore has also claimed its guitars were made by "seasoned craftsmen" who were "too old for war."[9][10]

non-reverse (left) & reverse Firebird

In 1944 Gibson was purchased by Chicago Musical Instruments. The ES-175 was introduced in 1949. Gibson hired Ted McCarty in 1948, who became President in 1950. He led an expansion of the guitar line with new guitars such as the "Les Paul" guitar introduced in 1952 and designed by Les Paul. The Les Paul was offered in Custom, Standard, Special, and Junior models.[11] In the mid-50s, the Thinline series was produced, which included a line of thinner guitars like the Byrdland. The first Byrdlands were slim, custom built, L-5 models for guitarists Billy Byrd and Hank Garland. Later, a shorter neck was added. Other models such as the ES-350T and the ES-225T were introduced as less costly alternatives.[12] In 1958, Gibson introduced the ES-335T model. Similar in size to the hollow-body Thinlines, the ES-335 family had a solid center, giving the string tone a longer sustain.

In the 1950s, Gibson also produced the Tune-o-matic bridge system and its version of the humbucking pickup, the PAF ("Patent Applied For"), first released in 1957 and still sought after for its sound.[citation needed] In 1958, Gibson produced two new designs: the eccentrically shaped Explorer and Flying V. These "modernistic" guitars did not sell initially. It was only in the late 1960s and early 70s when the two guitars were reintroduced to the market that they sold well. The Firebird, in the early 60s, was a reprise of the modernistic idea, though less extreme.

Modernization[edit]

In the late 50s, McCarty knew that Gibson was seen as a traditional company and began an effort to create more modern guitars. In 1961 the body design of the Les Paul was changed due to the demand for a double-cutaway body design.[13] The new body design then became known as the SG (for "solid guitar"). The Les Paul returned to the Gibson catalog in 1968.

On December 22, 1969, the Gibson parent company Chicago Musical Instruments was taken over by the South American brewing conglomerate ECL. Gibson remained under the control of CMI until 1974 when it became a subsidiary of Norlin Musical Instruments. Norlin Musical Instruments was a member of Norlin Industries which was named for ECL president Norton Stevens and CMI president Arnold Berlin. This began an era characterized by corporate mismanagement and decreasing product quality.

Gibson left Kalamazoo in 1984, then previous factory became Heritage Guitars
Gibson Showcase at Nashville
Gibson Factory at Memphis

Between 1974 and 1984 production of Gibson guitars was shifted from Kalamazoo to Nashville, Tennessee. The Kalamazoo plant kept going for a few years as a custom-instrument shop, but was closed in 1984; several Gibson employees led by plant manager Jim Duerloo established Heritage Guitars in the old factory, building versions of classic Gibson designs.

The company (Gibson) was within three months of going out of business before it was bought by Henry E. Juszkiewicz, David H. Berryman, and Gary A. Zebrowski in January 1986.[14] New production plants were opened in Memphis, Tennessee, as well as Bozeman, Montana. The Memphis facility is used for semi-hollow and custom shop instruments, while the Bozeman facility is dedicated to acoustic instruments.[15]

In 1977 Gibson sued Hoshino/Elger for copying the Gibson Les Paul.[16] In 2000, Gibson sued Fernandes Guitars in a Tokyo court for allegedly copying Gibson designs. Gibson did not prevail.[17] Gibson also sued PRS Guitars in 2005, to stop them from making their Singlecut model. The lawsuit against PRS was initially successful.[18] However, the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit reversed the lower court decision and ordered the dismissal of Gibson's suit against PRS.[19]

Gibson Factories[edit]

Below are some of the facilities used to produce Gibson instruments, along with years of their operation:

Address Years of Operation Notes
114 So. Burdick, Kalamazoo, MI. 1896-1897 This was the “business location” of “O. H. Gibson, Manufacturer, Musical Instruments.”[20]
104 East Main, Kalamazoo, MI 1899-1902 This was Orville Gibson’s residence, and he built instruments on the 2nd floor of this location.[20][21]
114 East Main, Kalamazoo, MI 1902-1906 The “Gibson Mandolin-Guitar Manufacturing Co, Ltd.” was established in 1902.[20] This building, said to be infested with cockroaches, was probably the former Witmer Bakery.[22]
114 East Exchange Place, Kalamazoo, MI 1906-1911 Located quite close to the previous location, in Kalamazoo’s business district.[23]
521-523 East Harrison Court, Kalamazoo, MI 1911-1917 Located about .5 miles from previous location. The building was next to the Michigan Central Railroad, and stood for many decades, until it came down in the late 20th century.[24]
225 Parsons St, Kalamazoo, MI, 49007 1917-1984 Also located next to railroad tracks, this facility had major expansions in 1945, 1950, and 1960.[25] Various brands were produced there, including Gibson, Epiphone, (1957-1970)[26][27] and Kalamazoo. During the depression of the 1930s, children’s toys were produced there, and during WW2 it produced materials to support the war effort in addition to producing guitars.[28] Between 1974 and 1984 Gibson moved its manufacturing out of this facility to Tennessee. Most of this move happened in 1974, leaving only acoustic and some semi-acoustic production for this plant.[29] In 1985, Heritage Guitars began production, renting part of this facility.[30]
641 Massman Drive, Nashville, TN, 37210 1984 - present This is Gibson's facility for production of their main solid body models, such as the Les Paul and the SG.
145 Lt. George W. Lee Av, Memphis, TN 38103 1984 - present This facility is located on the same block as Gibson's Beale Street "Showcase" location.[31]
1894 Orville Way, Bozeman, MT, 59715 1984 - present This facility is dedicated to acoustic guitar production.

Recent history[edit]

Gibson purchased Garrison Guitars in 2007.[32] In mid 2009 Gibson reduced its work force to adjust for a decline in guitar industry sales in the United States.[33]

In 2011, Gibson acquired the Stanton Group, including Cerwin Vega, KRK Systems and Stanton DJ. Gibson then formed a new division, Gibson Pro Audio, which will deliver professional grade audio items, including headphones, loudspeakers and DJ equipment.[34]

Gibson announced a partnership with the Japanese-based Onkyo Corporation in 2012. Onkyo, known for audio equipment and home theater systems, became part of the Gibson Pro Audio division.[35]

FWS raids & Lacey Act violation[edit]

Gibson's factories were raided in 2009 and 2011 by agents of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS). In November 2009 authorities found illegally imported ebony wood from Madagascar.[36][37] A second raid was conducted in August 2011,[36] during which the FWS seized wood imports from India that had been mislabeled on the US Customs declaration.[38][39] Gibson Guitar Corp. filed a motion in January 2011 to recover seized materials and overturn the charges, which was denied by the court.[40][41]

The United States Department of Justice found emails from 2008 and 2009 in which Gibson employees discussing the "gray market" nature of the ebony wood available from a German wood dealer—who obtained it from a supplier in Madagascar—as well as plans to obtain the wood. It filed a civil proceeding in June 2011,[42][43][39] the first such case under the amended Lacey Act, which requires importing companies to purchase legally harvested wood and follow the environmental laws of the producing countries regardless of corruption or lack of enforcement.[43] Gibson argued in a statement the following day that authorities were "bullying Gibson without filing charges" and denied any wrongdoing.[38][44] Arguing against the federal regulations and claiming that the move threatened jobs, Republicans and tea party members spoke out against the raids and supported Juszkiewicz.[45]

The case was settled on August 6, 2012, with Gibson admitting to violating the Lacey Act and agreeing to pay a fine of $300,000 in addition to a $50,000 community payment. Gibson also forfeited the wood seized in the raids, which was valued at roughly the same amount as the settlement.[46][47] However, in a subsequent statement Gibson maintained its innocence with Juszkiewicz claiming that "Gibson was inappropriately targeted" and that the government raids were "so outrageous and overreaching as to deserve further Congressional investigation." Juszkiewicz continued to state, "We felt compelled to settle as the costs of proving our case at trial would have cost millions of dollars and taken a very long time to resolve."[48]

The case raised concerns for musicians who lack documentation of vintage instruments made of traditional, non-sustainable materials.[49][50] However, officials from the Justice Department and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service have stated that musicians who unknowingly possess instruments made from illegal wood would not be treated as criminals.[51]

Instruments[edit]

Gibson also owns and makes instruments under brands such as Baldwin,[4] Epiphone,[52] Kalamazoo,[53] Kramer,[54] Maestro,[55] Slingerland,[4] Steinberger,[56] Tobias,[57] Valley Arts[citation needed] and Wurlitzer.[4]

Gibson makes authorized copies of its most successful guitar designs. They are less expensive than those bearing the Gibson name. A former competitor, Epiphone was purchased by Gibson and now makes competitively priced Gibson models, such as the Les Paul and SG, sold under the Epiphone brand,[58] while continuing to make Epiphone-specific models like the Sheraton and Casino. In Japan, Orville by Gibson once made Gibson designs sold in that country.[59] Gibson has sought legal action against those that make and sell guitars Gibson believes are too similar to their own.

In 1977, Gibson introduced the serial numbering system in use until 2006.[60] An eight-digit number on the back shows the date when the instrument was produced, where it was produced, and its order of production that day (e.g., first instrument stamped that day, second, etc.).[61] As of 2006, the company used seven serial number systems,[60] making it difficult to identify guitars by their serial number alone.[60][61] and as of 1999 the company has used six distinct serial numbering systems.[61] An exception is the year 1994, Gibson's centennial year; many 1994 serial numbers start with "94", followed by a six-digit production number[citation needed]. The Gibson website provides a book to help with serial number deciphering.[61]

In 2006 Gibson introduced a nine-digit serial number system replacing the eight-digit system used since 1977, but the sixth digit now represents a batch number.[60]

In 2003,[62] Gibson debuted its ethernet-based[63] communications protocol, MaGIC, which it developed in partnership with 3COM, Advanced Micro Devices, and Xilinx.[62] Replacing traditional analog hook-ups with a digital connection that would, "...satisfy the unique requirements of live audio performances," may have been the goal of this project.[63]

This system may require a special pickup,[62] but cabling is provided by standard Cat-5 ethernet cord.[62][63]

The Gibson "self-tuning guitar", also known as a "robot model", an option on some newer Les Paul, SG, Flying V and Explorer instruments, will tune itself in little more than two seconds using robotics technology developed by Tronical GmbH.[64] Under the tradename Min-ETune, this device became standard on several models in 2014. [65]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Gibson History". Gibson Corporate Press Kit. Gibson Guitar Corp. Retrieved 20 May 2012. 
  2. ^ Gisbon Brands at Gibson Press website, retrieved 10 Dec 2014
  3. ^ "Drop the guitar Gibson rebrands" on BizJournals.com
  4. ^ a b c d Gibson Guitar embraces China, Latin markets reuters.com, Mon Apr 9, 2007 12:07am EDT
  5. ^ Gibson Pro Audio line, 10 Dec 2014
  6. ^ a b "Orville H. Gibson, 1856—1918". Siminoff.net. Retrieved 2011-01-28. 
  7. ^ a b "Gibson Dusk Tiger". Gibson.com. 2008-06-24. Retrieved 2011-01-28. 
  8. ^ Wheeler, Tom. American Guitars. HarperCollins. 1992.pp 100—1 ISBN 978-0-06-273154-8
  9. ^ Lister, Kat (2014-04-23). "The forgotten women of Kalamazoo". Feminist Times. Retrieved 2014-09-15. 
  10. ^ Thomas, John (2012). Kalamazoo gals: a story of extraordinary women and Gibson's banner guitars of WWll. Franklin, TN: American History Press. ISBN 9780983082781. 
  11. ^ Hembree 2007, p. 74—85
  12. ^ Duchossoir 1998, p. 55—62
  13. ^ Hembree 2007, p. 110
  14. ^ Hembree 2007, p. 306
  15. ^ Gleick 1987
  16. ^ Fjestad, Zachary (June 16, 2010). "Ibanez "Lawsuit Era" Les Paul Custom Copy". Premier Guitar. 
  17. ^ "Northwestern Journal of Technology and Intellectual Property | Vol 4 | Iss 2". Law.northwestern.edu. 2010-08-19. Retrieved 2012-05-09. 
  18. ^ Gibson Guitar Corp. v. Paul Reed Smith Guitars, L.P., 325 F. Supp. 2d 841 (M.D. Tenn., 2004)
  19. ^ Gibson Guitar Corp. v. Paul Reed Smith Guitars, LP, 423 F.3d 539 (6th Cir. 2005).
  20. ^ a b c Wheeler 1992, p. 95
  21. ^ Carter 1994, p. 12
  22. ^ Spann 2011, p. 1
  23. ^ Spann 2011, p. 1—2
  24. ^ Spann 2011, p. 2
  25. ^ Wheeler 1992, pp. 101, 151
  26. ^ Wheeler 1992, p. 144
  27. ^ Bonds 2004, p. 318
  28. ^ Thomas 2012, p. 3
  29. ^ Bonds 2004, p. 396
  30. ^ Bonds 2004, p. 406
  31. ^ http://images.gibson.com.s3.amazonaws.com/Lifestyle/PDFs/Memphis-Tour-Brochure-Outside.pdf (Accessed Mar 24, 2014.)
  32. ^ Garrison Guitars sold to Gibson thetelegram.com, July 4th, 2007
  33. ^ Email, published by Walker Duncan (2009-03-23). "Sources: Gibson adds to layoff tally | Make and Buy | NashvillePost.com: Nashville Business News + Nashville Political News". NashvillePost.com. Retrieved 2011-01-28. 
  34. ^ "Gibson Guitar increases high-tech lineup with purchase". Tennessean.com. 2011-12-06. Retrieved 2011-12-06. 
  35. ^ "Gibson Expands Pro Audio Division". Gibson.com. 2012-01-04. Retrieved 2012-02-09. 
  36. ^ a b Wadhwani, A.; Paine, A. (25 August 2011). "Gibson Guitar raided but lips zipped". The Tennessean. Archived from the original on 26 August 2011. Retrieved 26 August 2011. 
  37. ^ Lind, J.R. (29 December 2010). "Federal agent: Gibson wood investigation likely to result in indictments". NashvillePost.com. Archived from the original on 10 July 2011. 
  38. ^ a b "Gibson Guitar Corp. responds to federal raid". Gibson Guitar Corp. 25 August 2011. Archived from the original on 1 September 2011. Retrieved 1 September 2011. 
  39. ^ a b Trotter, J. (25 August 2011). "Endangered lemurs could be connected to Gibson raid". WMCTV.com. Archived from the original on 26 August 2011. Retrieved 26 August 2011. 
  40. ^ "Update: CEO's Outrage Gets Media Buzzing". Gibson Guitar Corp. 26 August 2011. Archived from the original on 1 September 2011. Retrieved 1 September 2011. 
  41. ^ "Gibson Guitars fails to squash illegal wood investigation". Sound & Fair. 19 January 2011. Archived from the original on 1 September 2011. Retrieved 1 September 2011. 
  42. ^ "Gibson/Lacey Act Update". Home Furnishings Business. 6 July 2011. Archived from the original on 10 July 2011. 
  43. ^ a b "Endangered species trafficking: What did Gibson Guitar know?". mongabay.com. 7 July 2011. Archived from the original on 23 August 2011. Retrieved 23 August 2011. 
  44. ^ Stern, Andrew (25 August 2011). "Gibson Guitar to fight U.S. probe of its wood imports". Reuters. Archived from the original on 1 September 2011. Retrieved 1 September 2011. 
  45. ^ Schelzig, E. (August 7, 2012). "Gibson Guitar Corporation admits to importing endangered wood". The Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on 24 November 2014. Retrieved November 24, 2014. 
  46. ^ Black, R. (6 August 2012). "Gibson settles discord on timber". BBC News. Archived from the original on 7 August 2012. Retrieved 6 August 2012. 
  47. ^ Clarke, C.; Grant, A. (4 May 2011). "Are your wood products really certified?". wri.org. Archived from the original on 23 August 2011. Retrieved 23 August 2011. 
  48. ^ "Gibson Comments on Department of Justice Settlement". Gibson Guitar Corporation. August 6, 2012. Archived from the original on 24 November 2014. Retrieved November 24, 2014. 
  49. ^ Felten, E. (26 August 2011). "Guitar frets: Environmental enforcement leaves musicians in fear". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 1 September 2011. Retrieved 1 September 2011. 
  50. ^ Simmons, L. (31 August 2011). "Raid highlights music manufacturers' environmental risks". bizmology.com. Archived from the original on 1 September 2011. Retrieved 1 September 2011. 
  51. ^ Eilperin, J. (13 November 2011). "Gibson Guitar ignites debate over environmental protections". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 16 November 2011. Retrieved 16 November 2011. 
  52. ^ "Home". Epiphone. Retrieved 2012-05-09. 
  53. ^ "Gibson Kalamazoo". January 2, 2009. 
  54. ^ kramerguitars.com Kramer Official Site
  55. ^ Maestro by Gibson Gibson Official Site
  56. ^ steinberger.com Steinberger Official Site
  57. ^ Tobias Gibson Official Site
  58. ^ "Epiphone Les Paul Standard". Epiphone.com. 
  59. ^ "Epiphone: A History — Epiphone and Gibson". Epiphone.com. 
  60. ^ a b c d Gibson Serial Numbers: What a serial number can and can't tell you about your Gibson Gibson Official Site, 7.17.2007
  61. ^ a b c d Blue Book of Electric Guitars. Sixth Edition: Gibson Serialization. Edited by S.P. Fjestad Gibson Official Site
  62. ^ a b c d The MaGIC of Gibson's Digital Guitars Maximum PC magazine, April 2003
  63. ^ a b c This Is MaGIC Gibson Official Site
  64. ^ Yuri Kageyama (The Associated Press) (December 3, 2007). "World's first robot guitar takes care of the tuning". Seattle Times. Retrieved 2007-12-04. 
  65. ^ http://www2.gibson.com/Products/min-etune.aspx

References[edit]

  • Achard, Ken (1989). The History and Development of the American Guitar. Westport, CT: Bold Strummer Ltd. ISBN 978-0-933-22418-6. 
  • Bacon, Tony (2002). 50 Years of the Gibson Les Paul. San Francisco: Backbeat Books. ISBN 978-0-879-30711-0. 
  • Bacon, Tony (2009). The Les Paul Guitar Book: A Complete History of Gibson Les Paul Guitars. San Francisco: Backbeat Books. ISBN 978-0-879-30951-0. 
  • Bacon, Tony (2011). Flying V, Explorer, Firebird: An Odd-shaped History of Gibson’s Weird Electric Guitars. Milwaukee, WI: Backbeat Books. ISBN 978-1-617-13008-3. 
  • Bacon, Tony (2012). The History of the American Guitar: From 1833 to the Present Day. San Francisco: Backbeat Books. ISBN 978-1-617-13033-5. 
  • Bacon, Tony (2014). Sunburst: How the Gibson Les Paul Standard Became a Legendary Guitar. Montclair: Backbeat Books. ISBN 978-1-617-13466-1. 
  • Bonds, Ray (2004). The Illustrated Directory of Gutiars. New York: Barnes and Noble. ISBN 978-0-760-76317-9. 
  • Carter, Walter (1994). Gibson Guitars: 100 Years of an American Icon. Los Angeles: General Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1-881-64939-7. 
  • Carter, Walter (2007). Gibson Electric Guitar Book – Seventy Years of Classic Guitars. Backbeat Books: New York. ISBN 978-0-879-30895-7. 
  • Day, Paul; Carter, Walter; Hunter, Dave; Verheyen, Carl (2011). The Ultimate Gibson Guitar Book. New York: Metro Books. ISBN 978-1-435-13756-1. 
  • Duchossoir, A. R. (1998). Gibson Electrics: The Classic Years. Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard. ISBN 978-0-793-59210-4. 
  • Duchossoir, A. R. (2008). Guitar Identification: A Reference for Dating Guitars made by Fender, Gibson, Gretsch, and Martin (4th ed.). Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard. ISBN 978-1-423-42611-0. 
  • Duchossoir, A. R. (2009). Gibson Electric Steel Guitars: 1935-1967. Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard. ISBN 978-1-423-45702-2. 
  • Erlewine, Dan; Whitford, Eldon; Vinopal, David (2009). Gibson’s Fabulous Flat-top Guitars: An Illustrated History & Guide. San Francisco: Backbeat Books. ISBN 978-0-879-30962-6. 
  • Fjestad, Zachary R.; Meiners, Larry (2007). Gibson Flying V. Minneapolis, MN: Blue Book Publications. ISBN 978-1-886-76872-7. 
  • Fox, Paul (2011). The Other Brands of Gibson. Anaheim Hills, CA: Centerstream Publications. ISBN 978-1-574-24271-3. 
  • Gruhn, George; Carter, Walter (1993). Acoustic Guitars and Other Fretted Instruments: A Photographic History. San Francisco: GPI Books. ISBN 978-0-879-30240-5. 
  • Gruhn, George; Carter, Walter (2010b). Gruhn’s Guide to Vintage Guitars: An Identification Guide for American Fretted Instruments. New York: Backbeat Books. ISBN 978-0-879-30422-5. 
  • Hembree, George (2007). Gibson Guitars: Ted McCarty’s Golden Era 1948-1966. Austin, TX: GH Books. ISBN 978-1-423-41813-9. 
  • Ingram, Adrian (1997). The Gibson L5: Its History and its Players. Anaheim, CA: Centerstream Pub. ISBN 978-1-574-24047-4. 
  • Ingram, Adrian (2007). The Gibson 175: Its History and its Players. Anaheim, CA: Centerstream Pub. ISBN 978-1-574-24223-2. 
  • Marx, Wallace (2009). Gibson Amplifiers 1933-2008. Minneapolis, MN: Blue Book Publications. ISBN 978-1-886-76890-1. 
  • Spann, Joe (2011). Spann’s Guide to Gibson: 1902-1941. Anaheim Hills, CA: Centerstream Pub. ISBN 978-1-574-24267-6. 
  • Thomas, John (2012). Kalamazoo Gals: A Story of Extraordinary Women & Gibson’s ‘Banner’ Guitars of WWII. Franklin, TN: American History Press. ISBN 978-0-983-08278-1. 
  • Wheeler, Tom (1992). American Guitars: An Illustrated History (rev. and updated ed.). New York: HarperPerennial. ISBN 978-0-062-73154-8. 

External links[edit]