Publishing houses in the Soviet Union

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Publishing houses in the Soviet Union, with the exception of the brief initial period and the period of perestroika before the dissolution of the Soviet Union, were state enterprises under strict ideological control and censorship for the compliance with the communist ideology under the guidelines of the CPSU.

Centralization[edit]

On August 8, 1930 RSFSR Sovnarkom established the state publishing monopoly, OGIZ (ОГИЗ, Объединение государственных книжно-журнальных издательств, Union of the State Book and Magazine Publishers), subordinated to Sovnarkom. Its core was Gosizdat. Other union republics followed the pattern.

During the era of centralization the names of the most of them contained the acronym "гиз" ("giz") standing for "государственное издательство" (gosudarstvennoye izdatelstvo, i.e., "State Publisher", S.P.).

List[edit]

Early publishers[edit]

As of January 1, 1930 there were 995 publishers in the RSFSR alone.[1]

  • «Новая Москва» (New Moscow)
  • «Долой неграмотность» (Down with illiteracy)
  • «Прибой»

Period of centralization[edit]

  • Gosizdat (Госиздат) (State Publisher)
  • «Земля и фабрика» (Land and Factory)
  • «Московский рабочий» (The Moscow Worker)
  • «Молодая гвардия» (The Young Guard)
  • «Советская энциклопедия» (Soviet Encyclopedia)
  • «Работник просвещения» (The Worker for Enlightenment)
  • Госмедиздат
  • Госюриздат
  • Госсельхозиздат (State Agriculture Publishing House)
  • Госхимиздат
  • «Безбожник» (The Atheist)
  • «Academia»
  • «Федерация» (Federation)
  • Центроиздат,
  • Издательство АН СССР (Publishing House of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR)
  • Издательство Коммунистической академии (Publishing House of the Communist Academy)
  • Издательство НКВД (Publishing House of the NKVD)
  • Издательство Осоавиахима
  • OGIZ
    • Detgiz (Детгиз) - stands for "State Publishing House for childrens' literature"
    • Sotsekgiz (Соцэкгиз, Изд-во социально-экономической литературы, Publisher for Social-Economic Literature) -
      • Renamed as Государственное издательство экономической литературы, S.P. for Economic Literature
    • Uchpedgiz (Учпедгиз) - stands for "S.P. for student's and pedagogical literature"
    • Масспартгиз
    • Gostekhizdat Гостехиздат
    • Сельколхозгиз
    • Медиздат
    • Государственное издательство художественной литературы - ГИХЛ (State Publishing House for literary works)
    • Юндетиздат
    • Военгиз
    • Музгиз
    • Юриздат
    • Изогиз
    • Словарно-энциклопедическое издательство (Lexicographic-Encyclopedic Publishing House)
    • Гострансиздат
    • Снабкоопгиз
    • Физкультура и туризм (Physical Culture and Tourism)
  • Издательство партийной литературы (Партиздат) (Publishing House for Party Literature)
    • Renamed into Госполитиздат
  • Spin-offs of Gostekhizdat
    • Государственное научно-техническое издательство Наркомтяжпрома (ГНТИ НКТП), later decentralized into the Объединение научно-технических издательств (ОНТИ) that included:
      • Техтеоретиздат
      • Машметиздат
      • Химтехиздат
      • Энергоиздат
      • Стройиздат
      • etc.
    • Гизлегпром
    • Гослестехиздат

Perestroika publishers[edit]

  • Книжная возврата (RKP)

List of printing houses[edit]

  • «Полиграфкнига»
  • «Полиграф»

References[edit]

  1. ^ Creation of the Centralized System of Book Printing in the USSR, from "The History of the Book, a Textbook for Higher Educational Institutions" ("История книги: Учебник для вузов" / Под ред. Говорова А.А., Куприяновой Т.Г.), Moscow, Svetoton (Светотон), 2001, ISBN 5-7419-0040-2 (Russian)