28 September 1959 |
BA (linguistics, 1981)
|Alma mater||University of Edinburgh, University of Pennsylvania, Clayton College of Natural Health|
|Occupation||Nutritionist, television presenter, writer|
|Television||You Are What You Eat (Channel 4, UK)
Dr Gillian McKeith's Feel Fab Forever (Granada Television, UK)
Eat Yourself Sexy (W Network, Canada)
|Children||Two daughters, Skylar (b. 1994) and Afton (b. 2000)|
|Awards||Soil Association's Best Organic Businesses 2005 Consumer Education Award|
Gillian McKeith (born 28 September 1959) is a Scottish nutritionist, television presenter, pseudoscientist, and writer. She is the former host in the UK of Channel 4's You Are What You Eat and Granada Television's Dr Gillian McKeith's Feel Fab Forever, and as of 2010 presents Eat Yourself Sexy on the W Network in Canada. She is the author of several books about nutrition, including You Are What You Eat (2004), and Dr Gillian McKeith's Ultimate Health Plan (2006).
McKeith advocates a pescetarian diet high in fruits and vegetables, grains, beans, nuts, and tofu, and the avoidance of processed and high-calorie foods, sugar and fat, red meat, alcohol, caffeine, white flour, and additives. She recommends detox diets and colonic irrigation (neither of which is scientifically supported), argues that the colour of food is nutritionally significant, and claims that she can diagnose ailments by examining people's tongues and stools.
McKeith describes herself as having one or more PhDs, but in fact possesses only one doctorate, from a non-accredited institution. She has been barred by the Advertising Standards Authority from using the title Doctor in advertisements on the grounds that to continue to do so would be misleading.
Her advice has attracted criticism and praise. You Are What You Eat has sold over two million copies, and in 2005 she was awarded a Consumer Education Award by the Soil Association. At the same time, the validity of her approach and the safety of her recommendations have been questioned by a number of health professionals.
Early life and education
McKeith was born in Perth, Scotland, and grew up on a council estate. Her father, Robert, was a shipyard worker and her mother an office worker. She has said that she was raised eating the junk food she now advises against: "We all know the kind of food I grew up with—a typical Scottish diet. We'd have meat three times a day. I certainly never ate a mango, and had no idea what macrobiotic meant." Her father smoked for many years and died of cancer of the oesophagus in 2005.
She obtained a degree in linguistics from the University of Edinburgh in 1981, later moving to the United States, where she worked in marketing and international business. In 1984, she received an MA in international relations from the University of Pennsylvania. In 1994, she claims to have obtained an MA and, in 1997, a PhD, both in holistic nutrition, via a distance-learning program from the non-accredited American Holistic College of Nutrition, later the Clayton College of Natural Health in Birmingham, Alabama (but since closed). She is a member of the American Association of Nutritional Consultants, but this association runs no checks on the qualifications of its certified members, permitting Ben Goldacre to register his dead cat for the same qualification as McKeith. Her website lists post-graduate membership of The Centre for Nutrition Education; certificates from the London School of Acupuncture and the Kailash Centre of Oriental Medicine; and a Master Herbalist Diploma (Honors) from The American College of Healthcare Sciences.
She met her American husband, Howard Magaziner, a lawyer, in Edinburgh, where he was spending a year studying. At the time he ran a chain of health food shops in the United States, with which she became involved. The couple now live in London and have two daughters, Skylar (born 1994) and Aston (born 2000). She suffers from scoliosis, and has said there is not a moment in her life when she is not in pain because of it.
According to her Channel 4 biography, she was celebrity health reporter for the Joan Rivers show, and when she first moved to the United States she co-presented a syndicated radio show called Healthline Across America.
You Are What You Eat
Her book, You Are What You Eat, had sold over two million copies by 2006, and was the most borrowed non-fiction library book in the UK between July 2005 and June 2006. The book derived from the Channel 4 show she presented, You Are What You Eat, broadcast until 2007, in which she attempted to motivate people to lose weight and change their lifestyle. Ian Marber, a nutritionist, described her in 2006 as fervent in her beliefs and thinks of her as a sort of health televangelist. In each episode of the fourth series, called Gillian Moves In: You Are What You Eat, two people were chosen to stay with McKeith at a house in London "with no escape". She first showed each of the subjects their typical week's food consumption. The food was laid out on a table in a cold, congealed and unpleasant state. The subjects were often shown emptying the display into refuse sacks. According to Jan Moir in The Daily Telegraph, she was seen "shouting at sobbing, fat women while forcing them to eat quinoa and undergo frequent sessions of colonic irrigation enthusiastically administered by her good self." She then offered advice on diet and exercise, and forbade alcohol. Once trained, the participants were able to return home, and were expected to stick to their new regime for eight weeks. If they failed to stick to it, McKeith moved in with them to make sure they followed her advice. The participants were shown at the end of the eight weeks to have lost body mass, and said they felt healthier.
She often attributes some of the featured clients' health problems to a vitamin or mineral deficiency. There are certain foods she considers to be particularly nutritious, and these are often mentioned in her programmes. These can be unusual foods, some of which are available only from healthfood shops or from McKeith's own range of products. Asked about her advice, Amanda Wynne, senior dietician with the British Dietetic Association, said: "We are appalled. I think it is obvious she has not a clue about nutrition. In fact her advice, if followed to the limit, could be dangerous. Her TV programme takes obese people and puts them on a crash diet that is very hazardous to health." A spokesperson for Celador, the production company behind McKeith's television series, said that the criticism of her is reflective of her rejection of traditionalist approaches to nutrition: "You have to realise that when someone takes a holistic approach, there is always going to be an old school of traditionalists who are going to be sceptical and besmirch that. That's what's going on."
In her book You Are What You Eat, McKeith advocates examination of the tongue, the mapping of pimples, and detailed scrutiny of faecal matter and urine as indicators of health. She asserts that many exterior parts of the body provide insight into illness: "I always think of the tongue as being like a window to the organs. The extreme tip correlates to the heart, the bit slightly behind is the lungs. The right side shows what the gallbladder is up to and the left side the liver. The middle indicates the condition of your stomach and spleen, the back the kidneys, intestines and womb." These claims have no scientific basis.
She assesses people's nutritional needs based on the appearance of their nails, hair, lips, and skin. She also attributes the presence of depression or PMS to mineral deficiencies, and maintains that the location of pimples can suggest the source of health problems. Former professor of human nutrition John Garrow says of her diagnostic abilities: "One of the programmes showed her prodding at the abdomen of a very large lady saying she could feel her intestines were inflamed. That is impossible. There is a large layer of fat between you and any intestines — it would be like trying to guess what's under a mattress." McKeith also argues that the appearance, smell and consistency of faeces can give clues to bodily malfunction. She frequently engages in this activity during her television shows, a technique that has led to Ben Goldacre, a physician who writes for The Guardian, to dub her "the awful poo lady". Her management company writes that she "literally gets to the bottom of some of the country's worst eaters."
McKeith's advice is based on both standard and non-standard medicine, including common sense tips, such as avoiding shopping when hungry, eating fruit and vegetables instead of cakes or buns, and favouring fresh fish over processed products such as fish-fingers. She recommends a detox diet in which the "top 12 toxic terrors to avoid" are: smoking; caffeine; alcohol; chocolate and sweet snacks; pub snacks such as crisps, nuts, and pork scratchings; processed meat; white bread, white pasta, white rice; products containing added sugar; takeaways and ready meals; table salt; saturated fats; and fizzy drinks. Her clients have included Jennifer Aniston and Demi Moore.
Goldacre writes that he finds it offensive that the British media is "filled with people who adopt a cloak of scientific authority while apparently misunderstanding the most basic aspects of biology." He offers as an example McKeith's recommendation to eat darker leaves because they are rich in chlorophyll, writing that her claim that it will "really oxygenate your blood" is erroneous as sunlight usually is absent inside the human bowel. McKeith's advice in her book Miracle Superfood: Wild Blue-Green Algae is also disputed. Jan Krokowski of the Scottish Environment Protection Agency wrote a letter to New Scientist, as a private individual, saying "blue-green algae—properly called cyanobacteria—are able to produce a range of very powerful toxins, which pose health hazards to humans and animals and can result in illness and death." In response to the criticism, McKeith argues: "I am on a crusade to change the nation and fortunately, or unfortunately, that is going to put me in the limelight. But you cannot have change without a bit of resistance." The algal toxin BMAA has since been identified as a cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or motor neurone disease).
McKeith's website sells books, advice, club membership, food (e.g. Goji berries, hemp seeds, "Living Food Energy Powder", "Immune Defence" pills, weight loss pills, "Raw and unprocessed wild blue green algae", etc.), and accessory equipment (blender, juicers, sprouters, and a mini-trampoline). She was censured in November 2006 by the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) for selling unproven herbal sex aids. The products, "Fast Formula Wild Pink Yam Complex" and "Fast Formula Horny Goat Weed Complex" were both advertised as having been shown, in a controlled study, to promote sexual satisfaction. The MHRA found McKeith guilty of "selling goods without legal authorisation whilst making medicinal claims about their efficacy." The products have since been withdrawn. McKeith's website suggested the sex aids had been withdrawn because of EU regulations. Goldacre contacted the MHRA, who said the removal had nothing to do with any European Union regulations.
In 2007 McKeith presented Three Fat Brides, One Thin Dress for Channel 4, a competitive version of the You Are What You Eat format in which three women compete for a designer wedding dress. In addition to presenting her own TV shows, she occasionally appears in other programmes. She competed in The X Factor: Battle of the Stars, singing her rendition of "The Shoop Shoop Song". She also appeared in a health show transmitted on E4 called Supersize vs Superskinny. In 2009 she appeared on the W Network in Canada on Eat Yourself Sexy, in which participants claimed to have a diminished sense of sex appeal or sex drive, with McKeith employing the same practices as in You Are What You Eat. In November 2010 she became a contestant on the UK version of "I'm a Celebrity...Get Me Out of Here!".
In May 2005, McKeith was given the Best Organic Businesses 2005 Consumer Education Award by the Soil Association, a British charity promoting organic food, in recognition of her work in "tackling obesity, championing healthier eating and promoting the contribution that organic fruit, vegetables and other products can make to sound nutrition."
Controversy over qualifications
One of the earliest criticisms focuses on McKeith's diploma in nutrition from American Association of Nutritional Consultants. In 2004, the same diploma was also awarded, upon application and payment, to Ben Goldacre's dead cat Henrietta.
Responding to criticism that her use of her qualifications in linguistics and language and international relations, subjects entirely unrelated to diet and nutrition, are misleading to the public she said she was challenging orthodox medical opinions. She denied that using the title to promote her theories on nutrition was unethical.
McKeith has threatened legal action against a number of critics, including nutrition professor John Garrow, who questioned her credentials in 2004. Ben Goldacre speculated that parts of her PhD thesis may have been published as a 48-page pamphlet entitled "Miracle Superfood: Wild Blue-Green Algae"; he called the pamphlet cargo cult science, describing it as full of "anecdote, but no data." In his book Bad Science (2008) Goldacre dedicates a chapter to an analysis of her scientific credibility.
- (1996) Miracle Superfood: Wild Blue-Green Algae: the nutrient powerhouse that stimulates the immune system, boosts brain power and guards against disease. ISBN 0-87983-729-2
- (2004) Gillian McKeith's living food for health: 12 natural superfoods to transform your health. ISBN 0-7499-2673-2
- (2004) You Are What You Eat. ISBN 0-452-28717-0
- (2005) You Are What You Eat Cookbook. ISBN 0-7181-4797-9
- (2006) Dr Gillian McKeith's Ultimate Health Plan: The Diet Programme That Will Keep You Slim for Life. Michael Joseph. ISBN 0-7181-4891-6
- (2006) Dr Gillian McKeith’s Shopping Guide. Michael Joseph. ISBN 0-7181-4954-8
- (2007) Slim for Life. Plume. ISBN 0-452-28925-4
- (2009) Gillian McKeith's Food Bible: How to Use Food to Cure What Ails You. Plume. ISBN 0-452-28997-1
- (2009) Gillian McKeith's Boot Camp Diet: Fourteen Days to a New You!. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-103716-4
- (2010) Women's Health: A Practical Guide to All the Stages and Ages of the Female Life Cycle. Michael Joseph. ISBN 0-7181-5435-5
- "A spoonful of cruelty helps the weight go down", The Sunday Times, 4 September 2005.
- "What's wrong with Gillian McKeith" by Ben Goldacre, The Guardian 11 February 2007
- Sweet, Lucy. "Why she's moved by bowels", The Times, 25 July 2004.
- "Detoxification". NY Langone Medical Center. Retrieved May 10, 2014.
- "Debunking Detox". Sense About Science. Jan 5, 2009. Retrieved May 10, 2014.
- Cooke, Rachel. "The vegetable monologues", The Observer, 12 June 2005.
- "You Are What You Eat: The Plan That Will Change Your Life", Barnes and Noble. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
- "Best organic businesses 2005 announced by Soil Association, UK", Medical News Today, 14 May 2005.
- Christie, Janet. "Gillian McKeith interview: Fighting fit", Scotland on Sunday, 4 January 2009.
- "Gillian McKeith's Credentials" at the Wayback Machine (archived April 20, 2008), gillianmckeith.info. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
- Goldacre, Ben. "Dr Gillian McKeith (PhD) continued", The Guardian, 30 September 2004.
- "You are what you eat" at the Wayback Machine (archived May 9, 2008), Channel 4. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
- "You Are What You Eat: The Plan That Will Change Your Life", Barnes and Noble. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
- TV diet expert in borrowing boom, BBC News, 9 February 2007.
- Conlan, Tara and Tryhorn, Chris. "Channel 4 rests Celebrity Big Brother", The Guardian, 24 August 2007.
- Marber, Ian. "It must have been something I ate: dieting", The Daily Telegraph, 23 January 2006.
- "Channel 4: You Are What You Eat: Gillian Moves In".
- Muir, Jan. "How odd that diet has become a dirty word", The Daily Telegraph, 14 February 2007.
- "Episode 4 – Reverend Brian Statham", You Are What You Eat, Channel 4.
- Cook, Fidelma. "Is Channel 4's latest food guru Dr Gillian really a Quack and a danger to our health?" at the Wayback Machine (archived May 19, 2008), Mail on Sunday, 22 August 2004. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
- Bannerman, Lucy. "TV health guru admits buying doctorate by post," The Glasgow Herald, 4 August 2004.
- You Are What You Eat (2004), pp. 51–52.
- You Are What You Eat (2004), p. 33.
- Goldacre, Ben. Bad Science. Pages 112–135. London: Fourth Estate, 2008.
- You Are What You Eat (2004), p. 38.
- You Are What You Eat (2004), pp. 42, 51–52.
- You Are What You Eat (2004), pp. 44–45.
- Goldacre, Ben. "Brought to book: the poo lady's PhD", The Guardian, 3 February 2007.
- Also see Goldacre, Ben. "Dr Gillian McKeith (PhD) continued", The Guardian, 30 September 2004.
- "Gillian McKeith" at the Wayback Machine (archived February 15, 2008), First Artist Management. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
- McKeith, Gillian. "You are what you buy"[dead link]. Daily Mail. 16 January 2007.
- "You are What you Eat: Detox Facts", Channel 4.
- Goldacre, Ben. "Tell us the truth about nutritionists", British Medical Journal, vol 334, no. 7588, 10 February 2007, p. 292.
- Krokowski, Jan. "Blue-green for danger" at the Wayback Machine (archived May 5, 2008), New Scientist, 14 January 2006. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
- Dunlop, R (September 2013). "The Non-Protein Amino Acid BMAA Is Misincorporated into Human Proteins in Place of l-Serine Causing Protein Misfolding and Aggregation". PLoS ONE 8 (9): e75376. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0075376. PMC 3783393. PMID 24086518.
- Holtkamp, Wendee (March 2012). "The Emerging Science of BMAA" (PDF). Environmental Health Perspectives 120 (3): a110–a116. doi:10.1289/ehp.120-a110. PMC 3295368. PMID 22382274.
- "Gillian McKeith's website".
- TV diet guru rapped by regulator, BBC News, 21 November 2006.
- Also see "Press release: MHRA order removal of Gillian McKeith's illegal products", Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency, 21 November 2006. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
- Churchill, Carolyn. "Regulator raps TV diet guru's firm over sex remedy", The Herald, 22 November 2006.
- "Diet guru McKeith out of X Factor", BBC News, 31 May 2006.
- "Eat Yourself Sexy", W Network. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
- Deans, Jason. "I'm a Celebrity: Gillian McKeith drama draws 10m", The Guardian, 22 November 2010.
- "Best organic businesses 2005 announced by Soil Association" at the Wayback Machine (archived November 25, 2007), Soil Association, 17 May 2005. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
- Walker, Tim (November 27, 2010). Gillian McKeith: Rumbled in the jungle. London:The Independent. Retrieved January 14, 2010.
- Sanderson, David. "Food guru agrees to slim her name", The Times, 12 February 2007.
- For the ASA request, see "Adjudications" at the Wayback Machine (archived February 26, 2008), Advertising Standards Authority, 14 February 2007 (click on "Informally resolved complaints"). Retrieved 5 December 2010.
- For a previous, unrelated, ASA case concerning McKeith, see Broadcasting Advertising Adjudications at the Wayback Machine (archived September 28, 2007), Advertising Standards Authority, June 2005. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
- Goldacre, Ben. "Ben Goldacre: why I'm battling it out with Gillian McKeith again", The Guardian, 18 July 2010.
- Chivers, Tom: "Gillian McKeith should have a PhD in how not to use Twitter", The Daily Telegraph, 14 July 2010.