Gillis van Coninxloo
Gillis van Coninxloo (24 January 1544 – January 1607) was a Flemish-born and trained painter of forest landscapes, the most famous member of a large family of artists. In order to avoid religious persecution he travelled through France, and lived in Germany for several years before settling in the Dutch Republic.
He was born in Antwerp and studied under Pieter Coecke van Aelst, Lenaert Kroes and Gillis Mostaert. He practiced his art in France, but in 1587, on account of religious persecution, emigrated to Frankenthal and passed his later life in Amsterdam, where he died in 1607.
Coninxloo ranks as one of the most important Dutch landscape painters of the transition from the sixteenth to the seventeenth century. He exercised a strong influence on Jan Brueghel the Elder, Schoubroeck, Savery, and other Flemish and Dutch landscape painters of the transition period. His earlier landscapes were often Northern Mannerist versions of the established world landscape type, though with close views of trees already narrowing the panoramic view, but beginning in the 1590s Coninxloo was introduced an opposite approach to Flemish landscape painting, with close-up views of forests reminiscent of Albrecht Altdorfer and the Danube school nearly a century earlier almost or entirely shutting out a distant view. While earlier forest landscapes had used woods as backdrops for human activity, van Coninxloo made them a subject, submerging tiny human figures in elaborate compositions of trees in hugely exaggerated scale. A Forest Landscape of 1598 in the Liechtenstein Collection is the first work to take this to its extreme; sky is only visible in a few patches between branches and a single tiny human figure reclines under a tree. 
During his stay at Frankenthal from 1588 to 1595, he influenced several better known Dutch landscape-painters collectively referred to as the Frankenthal School. Karel van Mander wrote about him and his father Jan den Hollander in his Schilder-boeck. He wrote that his teacher Pieter Coeke van Aelst was his cousin, and that his landscapes were among the best of all Dutch landscape artists of his age.
- "The Judgment of Midas" (Dresden)
- "Latona" (Hermitage, St. Petersburg)
- "Landscape with Venus and Adonis" (Frankenthal)
- "Landscape with Duckhunters" (Saarland Museum, Saarbrücken)
- Vlieghe, 175-176
- Vlieghe, 175-176
- Vlieghe, H. (1998). Flemish art and architecture, 1585-1700. Yale University Press Pelican history of art. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0300070381
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gillis van Coninxloo.|
- Web Gallery of Art: Biography of Gillis van Coninxloo
- Web Gallery of Art: Paintings by Gillis van Coninxloo
- Gillis van Coninxloo on Artcyclopedia
- Pieter Bruegel the Elder: Drawings and Prints, a full text exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which includes material on Gillis van Coninxloo (see index)