Club de Gimnasia y Esgrima La Plata

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Gimnasia
Gimnasia Esgrima LP logo.svg
Full name Club de Gimnasia y Esgrima La Plata
Nickname(s) El Lobo (The Wolf)
Los Triperos (The gut-handlers)[1]
Founded 3 June 1887; 127 years ago (1887-06-03)
Ground Estadio Juan Carmelo Zerillo,
La Plata, Argentina
Ground Capacity 24,544
President Daniel Onofri
Manager Pedro Troglio
League Primera División
2013 Inicial 11th
Website Club home page

Club de Gimnasia y Esgrima La Plata (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈkluβ ðe ximˈnasja i ezˈɣɾima la ˈplata] (English: La Plata Gymnastics and Fencing Club), also known simply as Gimnasia or the acronym GELP, is a professional Argentine sports club based in the city of La Plata, Buenos Aires Province. Founded in 1887 as Club de Gimnasia y Esgrima,[2] the club is mostly known for its football team, which currently plays in the Primera División, the first division of the Argentine football league system.

Gimnasia y Esgrima secured promotion to Primera División on May, 2013, after defeating Instituto de Córdoba by 2-0 with three fixtures remaining for the end of the championship.

History[edit]

The 1929 team that won its only Primera División title to date. Francisco Varallo is seated second, from left to right.

The "Club de Gimnasia y Esgrima La Plata" was founded on 3 June 1887 as a civil association, and thus is the oldest surviving football club still participating in the Argentine Football League. The club also claims to be the oldest football club in the Americas,[3][4] despite other football clubs, such as the Lima Cricket and Football Club, have older foundation dates. Its foundation came barely five years after the creation of the City of La Plata in 1882.[5]

The first sports offered to its members were, as its Spanish name indicates, gymnastics and fencing. Clubs supporting these sports were common among the upper classes at the end of the 19th century (cf. the prior foundation of Gimnasia y Esgrima de Buenos Aires in 1880). Later on, other disciplines were added, including track and field, football, basketball and rugby.[6]

The institution changed name a few times: from April to December 1897 it was called a "Club de Esgrima" (in English, "Fencing Club") because fencing was the only activity practised at that moment. On 17 December 1897 it returned to its original name: "Club de Gimnasia y Esgrima" ("Gymnastics and Fencing Club"). From July 1952 to 30 September 1955, the club was named "Club de Gimnasia y Esgrima de Eva Perón" ("Gymnastics and Fencing Club of Eva Perón"), because the city of La Plata itself had been renamed "Eva Perón" in 1952, after Eva Perón's death. The city returned to its previous name during the government of the "Liberating Revolution", and so did the club. However, it remained unduly identified legally as "Club de Gimnasia y Esgrima de La Plata" ("Gymnastics and Fencing Club of La Plata"), a mistake that was corrected on 7 August 1964 after the new statute was approved.[2]

Gimnasia y Esgrima was promoted to the first division after becoming champions of the División Intermedia of Argentine football in 1915. Later, in 1929, the club would become champions of the Primera División. Once in the professional era, Gimnasia became champions of the Argentine 2nd division in 1944, 1947 and 1952 and won the Copa Centenario de la AFA in 1994. Additionally, the squad has been a runner-up in the Primera División on five occasions.[1][7][8] The club has remained at the top level of Argentine football for 69 seasons, giving it the eighth longest participation at this level.

Clásico Platense[edit]

Main article: La Plata derby

The Clásico Platense (La Plata derby) is the nickname given to the match between La Plata's two main football teams: Gimnasia y Esgrima La Plata and Estudiantes de La Plata. The first official derby took place as part of the Asociación Argentina de Football First Division Championship on 27 August 1916. On that occasion, Gimnasia won 1–0 over Estudiantes, with an own goal by Ludovico Pastor.[9]

The first derby of the professional era took place on 14 June 1931. Since then, they have played 142 official matches in tournaments organized by the Asociación del Fútbol Argentino. To date, Estudiantes has won 48 times, with 207 goals, and Gimnasia has won 44 times, with 190 goals. There have been 50 draws.[10]

Between 12 August 1932 and 9 September 1934 Gimnasia won five consecutive La Plata derbies, the longest run of victories in that derby until Estudiantes emulated that feat in 2006-08. On 25 June 1963 Gimnasia obtained a 5–2 victory, this being the best result so far against Estudiantes. On the other hand, Gimnasia's worst result was a 7–0 defeat on 15 October 2006.[11]

A curiosity among the derbies occurred on 5 April 1992, when Gimnasia won over Estudiantes 1–0 at the latter's stadium. On that date, as the stands erupted and Gimnasia's fans shouted in celebration at the goal being scored, the seismograph of the local Astronomical Observatory registered a low-intensity seismic event. That goal was scored by the Uruguayan José Perdomo on a freekick, and it has been known ever since as "El gol del terremoto" ("The earthquake goal").[12][13]

Presidents[edit]

Saturnino Perdriel was the first president of the club.

Through more than 120 years of history, the Club de Gimnasia y Esgrima La Plata has had 56 Presidents, who are elected individuals who took on the responsibility of steering the Institution. Many of them contributed to the growth of the club over the years. Some of them have remained more vivid in the fans' memory for their achievements or outstanding works.[1]

Saturnino Perdriel was the founder and first president of Gimnasia y Esgrima La Plata. Perdriel was a merchant during the first few years of the city of La Plata, in addition to being a civil servant at the Treasury Department of the Province of Buenos Aires. He died prematurely in 1888, after one year as Club president.[1]

Currently, the President of Club de Gimnasia y Esgrima La Plata is chosen by its associates, by means of general elections that take place every three years.[14] Any club member over 18 years of age, and with at least three years membership of the Club, have a right to vote. Members with over seven years membership have a right to be elected to the Club governmental body, the Management Commission or "Directory".

The current acting President of Gimnasia y Esgrima La Plata is Daniel Onofri, following the July 2012 resignation of Héctor Delmar, nineteen months into his three-year term [1] [2]. Onofri was elected as club Vice-President on Delmar's ticket. Delmar's exit was caused by unrest among board members and affiliates, caused by the team's poor performance, Delmar's management style, and the meddling of Delmar's daughter Graciela in club activities and finances [3].

Facilities[edit]

Gimnasia's facilities include, besides its football stadium, a campus of 160 hectares, a campus for children's football, a sports center, a kindergarten, a primary school and one high school. There are also dozens of subsidiaries located in the country and the world.

  • Juan Carmelo Zerillo football stadium: also known as El Bosque (Spanish for "the forest", because it is located in the La Plata park of the same name), has the capacity to accommodate approximately 24,544 spectators.
  • Estancia Chica: It is a property of 160 hectares, a place where you'll find the training staff of professional football and concentrations before each meeting.
  • El Bosquecito: It is a campus of 11 hectares where they practice and perform children's categories.
  • Educación: The club has opened a kindergarten in 1999 (works on Calle 62 No. 474), a Primary School called "Dr. René Favaloro" opened in 2001 (it works on the streets 123 and 58) and a High School opened in early 2008.[15][16]
  • Polideportivo: Opened in 1978, Gimnasia y Esgrima has a sports complex, where it competes in the first division of basketball and volleyball with capacity for 2,600 people, which rises to 3,500 spectators when performing musicals.
  • Sede Social: Where in addition to the administration and the attention of the partners, play sports like basketball and volleyball, among others. This seat also has a gym.

Anthem[edit]

The official anthem of Gimnasia was written in 1915 by the popular poet born in Magdalena Délfor B. Méndez and the music was composed by the master Juan Serpentini, who was composing versions of the National Argentine Anthem and "El tambor de Tacuarí", with Rafael Obligado's letter.

The official anthem of Gimnasia was intoned by the first time on 9 July 1915 on the occasion of the reception that was given to the delegation of the club River Plate of Uruguay. In 1967 the official anthem was recorded by the musical ensemble of the Buenos Aires Police.

Emblems and colors[edit]

Badge[edit]

The first crest, by Emilio Coutauret (1900-28).

The shield of the Club de Gimnasia y Esgrima La Plata is a wreath in which, in the top part, a helmet is outlined with a heraldic crest. At the center, on enamel and with the colors of the club (white and navy blue), is the club monogram appears. In the top cantons, like a guard, there appears the hilts of a saber and a foil, with their sharp points emerging in lower part of the shield. To the sides of the center laurels spread around the helmet.[1][17]

Since its inception, the club shield has undergone some modifications. The fist symbol of the club appeared on a document dated 30 April 1888. This emblem consisted in the coat of arms of La Plata with the legend "Club de Gimnasia y Esgrima La Plata - Mens Sana in Corpore Sano" surrounding it.

But the first new crest was indeed devised in 1900 by Emilio Coutauret, which was characterized by a handcrafted and adorned design. Due to this symbol had some difficults to be reproduced at small sizes, the club commissioned technical draftsman Raúl Felices to design a more syntetic emblem. As a result, a new symbol was released in 1928. It has remained until present days.[18]

During Héctor Domínguez's presidency, the abbreviation CGE (Club de Gimnasia y Esgrima) at the center of the shield was replaced by GELP (Gimnasia y Esgrima La Plata). Since the beginning of Walter Gisande's presidency, it was decided to return to the original abbreviation of 'CGE'.[1]

Uniform[edit]

The official historical uniform of Gimnasia y Esgrima is based on the colours displayed in the club shield, as established in the institutional statute, a white jersey with a single horizontal navy-blue stripe over the chest.

In the first years of the institution, the colors adopted were white and light blue, seeking to highlight the fact that it was an Argentine club. The first vest used by the team had vertical white and light blue stripes.[19]

In 1905, it was decided to change the colors to make it distinct from Racing Club. This resulted in a vest with vertical stripes of white and navy-blue color.[19]

Finally, in 1910, the design was modified, changing the vertical stripes into the horizontal band of navy-blue color over a white jersey, which has been used ever since.[20]

Uniform evolution[edit]

1903
1905
1910-present

Apparel and sponsors[edit]

The table below details the companies that provided the team's apparel, and have been sponsoring the club since 1980 to date:

Supporters[edit]

La 22 at Estadio Ciudad de La Plata during the match against Boca Juniors by Clausura 2008.

Fan base[edit]

Within the city of La Plata and its environs, Gimnasia's fan base used to be identified with the working class, in contrast with the mostly middle class Estudiantes' constituency. Most of Gimnasia y Esgrima fans are from the Greater La Plata area.

The barra brava section named itself "La 22", after 22nd street in La Plata where many famous violent fans lived, notably Marcelo Amuchástegui. Known as Loco Fierro, Amuchástegui was famous for his exploits, such as hanging a 100-meter Gimnasia flag in the Bombonera stadium. He was shot to death by Rosarian police in a murky episode on 28 May 1991, allegedly during an armed robbery.[1][34]

As is the case with other clubs in the Argentine First Division, the fans celebrate the "Worldwide Day of Gimnasia's Fans" on 10 December with a large party and outside gathering.[35][36][37]

Nicknames[edit]

Since the 1960s, Gimnasia has been known as El Lobo (short for "El Lobo del Bosque", Spanish for "the wolf in the Forest") after the story of "Red Riding Hood", since its historical football field is located in the middle of La Plata's main park, known as El Bosque ("the forest").[38] Another nickname, mensanas, derives from the Latin motto used in the shield: Mens sana in corpore sano (a healthy mind in a healthy body).[39]

An original nickname was (and still is) triperos ("tripe" or "gut-handlers"). This name has its origin in the fact that many of Gimnasia's original supporters worked in the meat-processing plants of nearby Berisso. In newspaper caricatures from the early 1900s, Gimnasia was accordingly depicted as a "butcher", instead of the current "wolf". however, Gimnasia is still often greeted by its fans with a resounding "Tripa corazón!" (Spanish for "Heart of tripe!"). Curiously, the same nickname is applied when referring to the population of Porto in Portugal, although the meaning of the nickname in Portuguese is closer to "tripe-eaters".[38]

Another nickname is basureros ("garbage or waste collectors"), acquired during the presidency of Mr. Venturino in the 1970s, who also managed the private company dealing with trash pickup in La Plata.[38][40]

Stadium[edit]

The Juan Carlos Zerillo stadium, known as El Bosque (Spanish for "the forest", because it is located in the La Plata park of the same name) had a capacity of 31,460 and was used continuously until 2005.

When a new city stadium was built for La Plata, both Gimnasia and Estudiantes initially chose to stay at their respective fields, but this arrangement collapsed when both fields were closed down due to new security regulations. In the 2006 Clausura tournament, Gimnasia began to use the city stadium for home games.[41]

Beginning on March 2008, Gimnasia made various reforms to its old stadium, seeking to secure the permit for its use at selected games. Finally on June 2008, the "El Bosque" grounds were reapproved for First Division competitions. On Saturday 21 June 2008, in the last game of the Clausure 2008 championship, Gimnasia returned to its old home in a match against Lanús.[42][43] Now the Juan Carlos Zerillo stadium has a capacity of 24,544.

Team records[edit]

  • Largest victories:
10–1 to River Plate (in 1905 playing in the División III)
8–1 to Racing Club (22 November 1961)[44]
In international tournaments: 5–1 to Alianza Lima (at the Copa Libertadores 2003)[45]
  • Most consecutive victories:
8 (Apertura 2005) The 6th-best in the history of Argentina football.[46] (in small tournaments)
9 (1962)
  • Worst defeats:
In national championships: 0–8 to Huracán.[1][1][2]
In international tournaments: 0–4 to IA Sud América (at the Copa Conmebol 1995)
  • Participation in international competitions:
Copa Conmebol (3): 1992 (being a Semi-Finalist), 1995[47] and 1998.[48]
Copa Sudamericana (2): 2002 and 2006 (reached the Round of Eight).[1]
Copa Libertadores (2): 2003 and 2007.

Players[edit]

See also: Category:Gimnasia y Esgrima de La Plata footballers

In its 121-year history, the team has had more than 800 players play for their first team. From its low divisions they have arisen a great quantity of football players of national and international renown, as being Guillermo and Gustavo Barros Schelotto, Mariano Messera, Lucas Lobos, Roberto "Pampa" Sosa, Andrés Guglielminpietro, Sebastián Romero, Lucas Licht, Hernán Cristante and Leandro Cufré, among others.[1]

The AFA allowed football teams to have a maximum of four foreign football players; Gimnasia y Esgrima has historically formed its squads with a mixture of local and foreign players, being the Uruguayans who prevail in the preferences, with 49 football players.

Current squad[edit]

Current squad of Club de Gimnasia y Esgrima La Plata as of February 12, 2014 (edit)
Sources: Official site and BDFA

No. Position Player
1  ARG GK Fernando Monetti
2  ARG DF Osvaldo Barsottini
3  ARG DF Juan Carlos Blengio
4  ARG DF Facundo Oreja
5  URU MF Omar Pouso
6  ARG DF Maximiliano Coronel
7  ARG MF Franco Mussis
8  ARG MF Ignacio Fernández
9  ARG FW Iván Borghello
10  ARG FW Facundo Pereyra
11  ARG MF Ariel Matías García
12  ARG GK Pablo Bangardino
13  ARG DF Leandro Corulo
14  ARG FW Gustavo Bou
15  ARG MF Ignacio Jaúregui
No. Position Player
16  ARG MF Dardo Miloc
17  COL FW Luis Arturo Peralta
19  ARG DF Nicolás Benavidez
20  ARG MF Ignacio Lachalde
23  ARG GK Fernando Monetti
24  ARG DF Gastón Díaz
25  ARG DF Lucas Licht
26  ARG DF Oliver Benítez
27  COL FW José Erick Correa
28  ARG FW Federico Rasic
30  ARG MF Javier Mendoza
31  ARG GK Alexis Martín Arias
32  ARG MF Maximiliano Meza
34  ARG FW Joaquín Romea

Manager: Pedro Troglio

Individual records[edit]

Most appearances[edit]

Arturo Naón, all-time topscorer with 95 goals.
Rank Player Marches Period
1 Argentina Jorge San Esteban 462 1992–2003, 2004–2009
2 Uruguay Guillermo Sanguinetti 383 1991–2003
3 Argentina Oscar Montañéz 343 1932–1945
4 Argentina Enzo Noce 321 1990–2004

Topscorers[edit]

Rank Player Goals Matches
1 Argentina Arturo Naón 95 97
2 Argentina Manuel Fidel 80 201
3 Argentina Diego Bayo 71 138
4 Argentina Italy Delio Onnis 64 113

Managers[edit]

Main category: Category:Gimnasia y Esgrima de La Plata managers

Since the beginning of the professional era, the Club Gimnasia y Esgrima La Plata has had a total of 63 managers (coaches). The first one was Emérico Hirschl, a Hungarian who trained the team between 1932 and 1934.[1][2]

Several prominent coaches for the team have been Nito Veiga (who led the team to promotion in 1984), Roberto Perfumo (who was coach in the final of the Centenary Cup), Carlos Timoteo Griguol (who led the team for ten years) and former footballer Pedro Troglio.

On 30 September 2008, the Club de Gimnasia y Esgrima La Plata hired Leonardo Madelón as manager.[49]

Other sports[edit]

First basketball team of 1924.

Basketball was practiced for the first time at the club in the 1920s. In 1924 the institution built a stadium on the corner of 60 and 118 streets. Since that time, it would become one of the major sports in the club.[50]

The basketball team peaked during the 1978 and 1979 campaigns, when it won two Metropolitano championships.[51] In both cases, team prevailed over favorite Obras Sanitarias, Argentina's powerhouse at the time. The team included players such as "Gallego" González, "Finito" Gehrmann, Peinado, as well as some Americans: Michael Jackson, Lawrence Jackson Jr., and the team leader and star, point-guard Clarence Edgar Metcalfe, chosen as the league MVP in 1979. The twice-champions were coached by Rolando Sfeir.[51][52]

Gimnasia was also runner-up in the 2003-04 Liga Nacional de Básquetbol's Primera División tournament, when it was defeated by Boca Juniors by 4–2 in the final series.[53][54]

In the following season, the team was relegated to the TNA (Second Division) after president Juan José Muñoz decreased substantially the basketball budget, thereby causing the loss of its principal players.[55]

Some of Gimnasia's notable basketball players were Carlos "Gallego" González, Ernesto "Finito" Gehrmann, Roberto López, Carlos Bejarano and Mariano Cerutti among others. Likewise, club's notable coaches include José Ripullone, Miguel Ángel Ripullone and Gonzalo García.

Gimnasia y Esgrima also has a female volleyball team, who are the only one of the nine founder clubs from the Federación de Voleibol y Pelota al Cesto,[56] still playing volleyball and in the highest division. The federation is current Federación Metropolitana de Voleibol (FMV).[57]

Former sports[edit]

In addition to the aforementioned sport activities, Gimnasia y Esgrima La Plata participated in other disciplines throughout its history. The following sports are no longer practiced in the club:

  • Rugby union: In 1933, the "Unión de Rugby del Río de la Plata" (current Unión Argentina de Rugby) decided not to allow the affiliation of clubs that participated professionally in other sports (e.g., association football). As a result, the mens sana team playing rugby was forced to rename itself distinctly as "Gimnasia y Esgrima La Plata Rugby Club". Four years later, however, it was decided to channel rugby activities through an independent institution, thereby creating "La Plata Rugby Club",[58] which currently competes in the Torneo de la URBA, first division of the Unión de Rugby de Buenos Aires.
  • Table tennis: The "Asociación Platense de Tenis de Mesa" ("La Plata Association for Table-tennis", part of the Argentine Federation of the sport) existed between 1945 and 1951. Gimnasia was a founding member of the Association, and it obtained the majority of the tournaments organized during these six years.
  • Fencing: From its creation, the practice of fencing was an important activity at the club. The sport reached its peak during the first two decades of the 20th century. Between 1914 and 1924, it was dominated by the outstanding performances of Horacio Casco, then president of the club, and Carmelo Merlo, both Argentine representatives in the 1924 Paris Olympic Games. At the end of the 1940s, the practice of this discipline was discontinued.
  • Greco-Roman wrestling: Between 1924 and 1928 the club had a team of Greco-Roman wrestling.
  • Field hockey: In 1949, the club starts informally the practise of the sport, and it affiliates formally on April 1949. The hockey field was located in the Estadio Juan Carmelo Zerillo, at the El Bosque grounds.
  • Gymnastics: During the 1930s, the practice of gymnastics played a central role in the club's activities. Members of the Gimnasia team were part of the Argentine delegation that competed in the 1936 Berlin Olympic Games. This discipline was discontinued after 1976.[51]

Other activities were available at the club at various periods, namely: water polo, boxing, cycling, pétanque, auto racing, judo and tennis, among others.

Honours[edit]

Football[edit]

Official
Friendly
  • Copa Competencia Adolfo J. Bullrich (1): 1915
  • Copa Amistad (2): 1977, 2006
  • Copa Ciudad de Mar del Plata (1): 2009
  • Copa Municipalidad de La Plata (2): 1999, 2001
  • Copa Gobernador Alende (1): 1960
  • Copa Colonia del Sacramento (1): 1998
  • Cuadrangular de Asunción (1): 1975
  • Copa Cristal (1): 2005

Basketball[edit]

  • Federación de Capital Federal's League (3): 1937, 1978, 1979, 1984, 1985
  • Campeonato Argentino de Clubes (2): 1979, 1980
  • Asociación Platense de Básquetbol's League (13): 1958, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1965, 1966, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1973
  • Torneo Nacional de Ascenso (1): 2000-01
  • Copa "Ismael Genaro Cerisola" (1): 1996[67]

Volleyball[edit]

  • Copa Morgan (1): 1951,
  • Torneos Evita (1): 1954
  • Torneo Lola Berta (1): 1955
  • Torneo Cuadrangular Chile (1): 1972,1975,
  • Torneo Cuadrangular Náutico de Uruguay (1): 1976,
  • Liga Argentina de Clubes (3): 1999-00,[68][69] 2000-01,[70] 2003
  • Federación Metropolitana (): 2000[71]
  • Liga Metropolitana (1): 2004
  • Torneo Norma Rimoldi (1): 2005[72]

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Gimnasia y Esgrima La Plata, 100 Años, by Carlos Asnaghi. Publisher: Editorial Ceyne (1988) - ISBN 978-950-9871-04-5
  • Gimnasia: Historia de una Pasión, by Héctor Collivadino. Publisher: Editorial Deportiva Bonaerense y Diario El Día (2005) - ISBN 987-43-0446-4
  • Asociación del Futbol Argentino: Cien Años con el Fútbol, by Beto Devoto. Publisher: Manrique Zago Ediciones (1993) - ISBN 978-950-9517-40-0
  • 140 Años de Fútbol Argentino, by Diego Estévez. Publisher: Edición del Autor (2009) - ISBN 978-987-05-5872-9
  • Yo, el Basurero, by Aníbal Guidi & Oscar Venturino. Publisher: Editorial Universitaria de La Plata (2005) - ISBN 978-987-595-012-2
  • La Barrabrava: Fútbol y Política, by Gustavo Veiga. Publisher: Grupo Editorial Agora (1998) - ISBN 978-987-96235-3-4

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Only three editions were held from 1920 to 1929.[65]
  2. ^ The matches of this cup belonged to the Primera División championship. From 1963 to 1985 it was played between the team best placed and its rival.[66]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Gimnasia: Historia de una Pasión, by Héctor Collivadino. Publisher: Editorial Deportiva Bonaerense & Diario El Día (2005) - ISBN 987-43-0446-4
  2. ^ a b c d Gimnasia y Esgrima La Plata, 100 Años, by Carlos Asnaghi, Editorial Ceyne, 1988 - ISBN 978-950-9871-04-5
  3. ^ "Campeón Centenario" (in Spanish). Letra G. Retrieved 2009-03-14. 
  4. ^ Argentina - Foundation Dates of Clubs - RSSSF
  5. ^ "Orígenes históricos de la fundación de La Plata" by Fernando Barba, El Día, 20 March 2009
  6. ^ Historia de los deportes, Gimnasia y Esgrima website
  7. ^ Final Tables Argentina Second Level 1935-2007 at RSSSF
  8. ^ Historia en fútbol, official site
  9. ^ "El fútbol en La Plata" on LaPlataMagica.com.ar
  10. ^ Estudiantes v Gimnasia - La Plata Derby - Clásico Platense at RSSSF
  11. ^ "Gimnasia se dio el mayor de los gustos: pasó por encima a Estudiantes", Clarín, 13 June 2005
  12. ^ "Perdomo: el fútbol uruguayo está en decadencia", El Gráfico
  13. ^ "Estos ya conocen el paño", Olé, 13 Feb 2007
  14. ^ "Estatuto Social" (in Spanish). Gimnasia.org.ar. Retrieved 2009-03-15. 
  15. ^ "Se inaugura la secundaria" (in Spanish). Letra G. 2008. Retrieved 2009-03-18. 
  16. ^ "Nueva escuela en Gimnasia" (in Spanish). Letra G. 2008. Retrieved 2009-03-18. 
  17. ^ "GELP - Estatuto Oficial - Capitulo 1" (in Spanish). Gimnasia.org.ar. Retrieved 2009-02-13. 
  18. ^ "Símbolos: El Escudo" at Club website
  19. ^ a b "Historia de la albiazul" (in Spanish). Gimnasia.org.ar. Retrieved 2009-03-20. 
  20. ^ Angelo, Clerici (2005/2008). "Club de Gimnasia y Esgrima La Plata". RSSSF. Retrieved 2009-02-13. 
  21. ^ a b "¿Quién vestirá al Lobo?" (in Spanish). Diario El Día. 2008. Retrieved 2009-02-13. 
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Historia de la Albiazul" (in Spanish). Gimnasia. 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-13. 
  23. ^ "Números que dan escalofríos" (in Spanish). El Día. 1998. Retrieved 2009-02-13. 
  24. ^ "Apuntamos a un Gimnasia campeón" (in Spanish). El Día. 1998. Retrieved 2009-02-13. 
  25. ^ "Kappa vestirá a Gimnasia por dos años desde enero" (in Spanish). Cielo Sports. 2008. Retrieved 2009-02-13. 
  26. ^ "Nuevas camisetas Kappa 2009 de Gimnasia y Esgrima de La Plata" (in Spanish). Arte y Sport. 2008. Retrieved 2009-02-13. [dead link]
  27. ^ a b "Los sponsors que no llegan" (in Spanish). Diario El Día. Retrieved 2009-02-13. 
  28. ^ "Visto y oído en el Bosque platense" (in Spanish). Diario El Día. 2001. Retrieved 2009-02-13. 
  29. ^ "Nuevo sponsor" (in Spanish). Diario El Día. 2002. Retrieved 2009-02-13. 
  30. ^ "Nuevo sponsor" (in Spanish). Diario El Día. 2005. Retrieved 2009-02-13. 
  31. ^ "Los sponsors" (in Spanish). Diario El Día. 2007. Retrieved 2009-02-13. 
  32. ^ "Apuran por el Sponsor" (in Spanish). Diario El Día. 2008. Retrieved 2009-02-13. 
  33. ^ "Nuevo sponsor:Rapicuotas" (in Spanish). Alma Tripera. 2010. Retrieved 2009-02-13. 
  34. ^ "Murió un conocido barrabrava del Lobo", El Día, 8 June 2001
  35. ^ Allan, Juan Manuel (2006). "Fue un lobazo" (in Spanish). Diario Olé. Retrieved 2008-06-30. 
  36. ^ "Día del hincha" (in Spanish). Edición Nacional. 2005. Retrieved 2008-06-30. [dead link]
  37. ^ "Una fiesta bien tripera" (in Spanish). Diario Olé. 2004. Retrieved 2008-06-29. 
  38. ^ a b c "Los apodos, una marca registrada" (in Spanish). Diario El Día. 2007. Retrieved 2008-06-30. 
  39. ^ Mens sana in corpore sano Juvenal. Spirit balanced in a sensible body.
  40. ^ Guidi (2005). Oscar Emir Venturino : yo, el basurero. p. 25. 
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External links[edit]