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A gymnasium (pronounced with a [hard g] in several languages) is a type of school with a strong emphasis on academic learning, and providing advanced secondary education in some parts of Europe and the CIS, comparable to British grammar schools, sixth form colleges and U.S. preparatory high schools. In its current meaning, it usually refers to secondary schools focused on preparing students to enter a university for advanced academic study.
Historically, the German Gymnasium also included in its overall accelerated curriculum post secondary education at college level and the degree awarded substituted for the bachelor's degree (Baccalaureat) previously awarded by a college or university so that universities in Germany exclusively became graduate schools. In the US, the German Gymnasium curriculum was used at some rather reputable universities such as the University of Michigan as a model for their undergraduate college programs. The word γυμνάσιον (gymnasion) was used in Ancient Greece, meaning a locality for both physical and intellectual education of young men (see gymnasium (ancient Greece)). The latter meaning of a place of intellectual education persisted in German and other languages, whereas in English the meaning of a place for physical education was retained, more familiarly in the shortened form gym.
In the Polish educational system the gimnazjum is a middle school (junior high school) for pupils aged 13 to 16. The same applies in the Greek educational system, with the additional option of Εσπερινό Γυμνάσιο (evening gymnasium) for adults and working students aged 14 upwards.
- 1 School structure
- 2 History
- 3 By country
- 4 Countries with gymnasium schools
- 5 Final degree
- 6 Relationship with other education facilities
- 7 See also
- 8 References
The gymnasium is a secondary school which prepares the student for higher education at a university. They are thus meant for the more academically minded students, who are sifted out at about the age of 10–13. In addition to the usual curriculum, students of a gymnasium often study Latin and Ancient Greek.
Some gymnasiums provide general education, others have a specific focus. (This also differs from country to country.) The four traditional branches are:
- humanities education (specialising in classical languages, such as Latin and Greek)
- modern languages (students are required to study at least three languages)
- mathematical-scientific education
- economical and social-scientific education (students are required to study economics, world history, social studies and business informatics)
Curricula differ from school to school, but generally include language, mathematics, informatics, physics, chemistry, biology, geography, art (as well as crafts and design), music, history, philosophy, civics / citizenship, social sciences, and several foreign languages.
Schools concentrate not only on academic subjects, but on producing well-rounded individuals, so physical education and religion or ethics are compulsory, even in non-denominational schools which are prevalent. For example, the German constitution guarantees the separation of church and state, so although religion or ethics classes are compulsory, students may choose to study a specific religion or none at all.
Today, a number of other areas of specialization exist, such as gymnasiums specializing in economics, technology or domestic sciences. In some countries, there is a notion of progymnasium, which is equivalent to beginning classes of the full gymnasium, with the rights to continue education in a gymnasium. Here, the prefix "pro" indicates that this curriculum precedes normal gymnasium studies.
In the German-speaking, the Central-European, the Nordic, the Benelux (Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg) and the Baltic countries, this meaning for "gymnasium", that is a secondary school preparing the student for higher education at a university, has been the same at least since the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century. The term was derived from the classical Greek word "gymnasium", which was originally applied to an exercising ground in ancient Athens. Here teachers gathered and gave instruction between the hours devoted to physical exercises and sports, and thus the term became associated with and came to mean an institution of learning.
This use of the term did not prevail among the Romans, but was revived during the Renaissance in Italy, and from there passed into the Netherlands and Germany during the 15th century. In 1538, Johannes Sturm founded at Strasbourg the school which became the model of the modern German gymnasium. In 1812, a Prussian regulation ordered that all schools which had the right to send their students to the university should bear the name of gymnasia. By the 20th century, this practice was followed in almost all German states, in Austria and in Russia.
In Austria the Gymnasium has two stages, from the age of 11 to 14, and from 15 to 18, concluding with Matura. Historically, three types existed. The Humanistisches Gymnasium focuses on Ancient Greek and Latin. The Neusprachliches Gymnasium puts its focus on actively spoken languages. The usual combination is English, French and Latin; sometimes French can be swapped with another foreign language (like Italian, Spanish or Russian). The Realgymnasium puts its focus on science. In the last couple of decades more autonomy was granted to schools and various types were developed, focusing on sports, music or economics, for example.
North European countries
In Denmark, Estonia, the Faroe Islands, Finland, Greenland, Latvia, Norway and Sweden gymnasium consists of three years, usually starting at age 16 after nine or ten years of primary school. In Iceland and Lithuania the gymnasium usually consists of four years of schooling starting at the age of 16, the last year roughly corresponding to the first year of college.
In all of Scandinavia and the Nordic countries, education is meant to be free. This includes not only primary school, but most gymnasiums and universities as well. Furthermore, to help decrease the heritage of historic social injustice, all countries except Iceland have generous universal grants for students. However, entrance is competitive and based on merit.
In Denmark, there are four kinds of gymnasiums: stx (Regular Examination Programme), hhx (Higher Business Examination Programme), htx (Higher Technical Examination Programme) and hf (Higher Preparatory Examination Programme). To attend hf, it is a prerequisite that students add a voluntary tenth year to their primary school education. Hf then lasts only two years, instead of the three required for stx, hhx, and htx. All four type of gymnasiums theoretically gives the same eligibility for university. However because of different subjects offered, students may be better qualified in an area of further study. ex. HHX students have subjects that make them practically more eligible, for studies such as business studies or economy at university.
In the Faroe Islands, there are also four kinds of gymnasiums, which are equivalents to the Danish educations: Studentaskúli (equivalent to stx), Handilsskúli (hhx), Tekniski skúli (htx) and HF (hf). Studentaskúli and HF are usually located at the same institutions as can be seen in the name of the institute in Eysturoy: Studentaskúlin og HF-skeiðið í Eysturoy.
In Greenland, there is introduced one kind of gymnasiums, "Den Gymnasiale Uddannelse" (Ilinniarnertuunngorniarneq), this replace the current Greenlandic Secondary Education Programme (GU), the Greenland Higher Commercial Examination Programme (HHX) and the Greenland education to Higher Technical Examination Programme (HTX). This shape allows a more flexible Greenland gymnasium, where students based on a common foundation course can choose between different fields of study that meets the individual student's abilities and interests. The course is offered in Aasiaat, Nuuk, Sisimiut and Qaqortoq. (Ilulissat from 2015 latest 2016 if approved by Inatsisartut)
In Finland, the admissions to gymnasiums are competitive, the accepted people comprising 51% of the age group. The gymnasiums concludes with the matriculation exam (Abitur), an exam whose grades are the main criteria for college admissions.
In Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, and Slovenia, a gymnasium education takes four years following a compulsory eight or nine-year elementary education and ending with a final aptitude test called Matura. In Croatia, Slovenia, Montenegro and Macedonia, the final test is standardized at the state level and serves as an entrance qualification for universities.
There are both public (state-run and tuition-free) and private (fee-paying) gymnasium schools in these countries.
The subjects taught are mathematics, the native language, one to three foreign languages, history, geography, informatics, the natural sciences (biology, chemistry, physics), history of art, music, philosophy, logic, physical education and the social sciences (sociology, ethics, psychology, politics and economy). Religious studies are optional. In Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, Serbia and Macedonia Latin is also an obligatory subject in all gymnasiums, just as Ancient Greek is in a certain type of gymnasiums called Classical Gymnasiums (klasična gimnazija).
In all these countries, the gymnasium (Gimnazija) is generally viewed as a destination for best performing students and as the type of school that serves primarily to prepare students for university, while other students go to technical/vocational schools. Therefore, gymnasiums often base their admittance criteria on an entrance exam, elementary school grades or some combination of the two.
German Gymnasiums are selective schools. They offer the most academically promising youngsters a quality education that is free in all state-run schools (and generally not above 50 €/month cost in Church-run schools, though there are some expensive private schools). Gymnasiums may expel students who academically underperform their classmates or behave in a way that is seen as unacceptable. Pupils study subjects like German, mathematics, physics, chemistry, geography, biology, arts, music, physical education, religion, history and civics/citizenship/social sciences and computer science. Recently, a very basic form of computer science is being added. They are also required to study at least two foreign languages. The usual combinations are English and French or English and Latin, although many schools make it possible to combine English with another language, most often Spanish, Ancient Greek, or Russian. Religious education classes are a part of the curricula of all German schools, yet not compulsory; a student or their parents or guardians can conscientously object taking them, in which case they (along with the confessionless pupils and those whose religion is not being taught in the school) can either elect to take an RE course of another confession or is taught ethics. In state schools, a student who is not baptised into either the Catholic or the Protestant faith is allowed to choose which of these classes to take. The only exception to this is the state of Berlin in which the subject ethics is mandatory for all students and classes and (Christian) religious studies can only be chosen additionally. A similar situation is to be found in Brandenburg where the subject life skills, ethics, and religious education (Lebensgestaltung, Ethik, Religionskunde – LER) is the primary subject but parents/guardians or students older than 13 can choose to replace it with (Christian) religious studies or take both. The intention behind LER is that students should get an objective insight on questions of personal development and ethics as well as on the major world religions.
For younger students nearly the entire curriculum of a Gymnasium is compulsory; in higher grades elective subjects are available and some of the formerly compulsory subjects can be dropped, but the choice is not as wide as in, for example, a US high school.
Although some specialist Gymnasiums have English or French as the language of instruction, at most Gymnasiums lessons (apart from foreign language courses) are conducted in Standard German.
The number of years of instruction at a Gymnasium differs between the states. It varies between six to seven years in Berlin and Brandenburg (primary school is six years in both as opposed to four years in the rest of Germany) and eight in Bavaria, Hessen and Baden-Württemberg among others. While in Saxony and Thuringia students have never been taught more than eight years in Gymnasium (by default), nearly all states now conduct the Abitur examinations, which complete the Gymnasium education, after 12 years of primary school and Gymnasium combined. In addition to that, some states still or again offer a 13-year curriculum leading to the Abitur. These final examinations are centrally drafted and controlled (Zentralabitur) in all German states except for Rhineland-Palatinate and provide a qualification to attend any German university.
The vast majority of Gymnasiums are public (i.e., state-funded) and do not charge tuition fees. Most private Gymnasiums have low tuition fees (generally not higher than €50/month) and/or offer scholarships. There are few expensive private schools.
In Italy originally the Ginnasio indicated a typology of five-year junior high school (age 11 to 16) and preparing to the three year Liceo Classico (age 16 to 19), a high school focusing on classical studies and humanities. After the school reform that unified the junior high school system, the term Ginnasio stayed to indicate the first two year of Liceo Classico, now five years long. Oddly enough, an Italian high school student who enrolls in Liceo Classico follows this study path: Quarta Ginnasio (gymnasium fourth year, age 14), Quinta Ginnasio (gymnasium fifth year, age 15), Prima Liceo (Liceo first year, age 16), Seconda Liceo (Liceo second year, age 17) and Terza Liceo (Liceo third year, age 18). Some believe this still has some sense, since the two-year Ginnasio has a very different set of mind from the Liceo. Ginnasio students spend almost all their time studying Greek and Latin grammar, laying the bases for the "higher" and more complicated set of studies of the Liceo, such as Greek and Latin literature, Philosophy and Art History.
In the Netherlands, gymnasium is the highest variant of secondary education, offering the academically most promising youngsters a quality education that is in most cases free (and in other cases at low cost). Gymnasiums may expel students who academically underperform their classmates or behave in a way that is seen as unacceptable. It consists of six years, after 8 years (including kindergarten) of primary school, in which pupils study the same subjects as their German counterparts, with the addition of compulsory Ancient Greek, Latin and Klassieke Culturele Vorming, Classical Cultural Education, history of the Ancient Greek and Roman culture and literature. The equivalent without classical languages is called Atheneum, and gives access to the same university studies (although some extra classes are needed when starting a degree in classical languages or theology). All are government-funded. See vwo for the full article on Dutch "preparatory scientific education".
In the Czech Republic, gymnázium (also spelled gymnasium) is one type of schools that provide secondary education. There are three types of gymnázium distinguished by the length of study: eight-year, six-year and four-year types. It leads to the maturita exam.
Slovak Republic (Slovakia)
In the Slovak Republic, gymnázium (also spelled gymnasium) is one type of schools that provide secondary education. There are two types of gymnázium distinguished by the length of study: eight-year and four-year types (more common). Another types are bilingual (usually Slovak/French or Slovak/English) and private gymnasiums. All of them leads to the maturita exam.
Countries with gymnasium schools
- Albania Gjimnaz 3 Years, after 9 years of primary (4) and "medium" (5) education, ends with Matura Shtetërore at the age of 18.
- Argentina: Colegio Nacional de Buenos Aires, 6 years; Rafael Hernández National College of La Plata, 5 years (formerly 6 years), after 7 years of primary school; and Gymnasium Universidad Nacional de Tucumán 61 years.
- Austria 8 years, after 4 years of primary school, or 4 years, after primary school and 4 years of Hauptschule, ends with Matura at the age of 18.
- Belgium 6 years, starting at age 11/13, after 6 years of primary school, ends at the age of 18 where students progress to a university.
- Brazil Humboldt Schule of São Paulo is a German School in São Paulo. There are more Gymnasiums in the country and some of them receive recurses from German Government.
- Bosnia and Herzegovina (4 years, starting at age 14/15 after 9 years in elementary school, ends with Matura)
- Bulgaria 5 years, after 7 years of primary school. Currently graduation after passing at least two Matriculation Examinations.
- Canada Generally called a private school.
- Colombia Gimnasio Campestre (all-male, traditional and conservative Pre-K to 11th grade private school located in Bogotá, Colombia).
- Croatia (4 years, starting at age 14/15 after 8 years in elementary school, five different educational tracks: opća gimnazija (general education), klasična gimnazija (focused on Latin and Ancient Greek), jezična gimnazija (focused on modern languages), prirodoslovna gimnazija (biology, chemistry, physics) and prirodoslovno-matematička gimnazija (mathematics, physics and computer science), ends with Matura). Students of all tracks have compulsory classes in Latin and English as well as in at least one additional foreign language (most commonly German, Italian, Spanish and French).
- Cyprus 3 years, starting at age 12 and following 6 years of Elementary School. Compulsory for all students. Followed by the non-mandatory Lyceum (ages 15–18) for students with academic aspirations or TEL for students who prefer vocational training.
- Czech Republic (4 years starting at age 15/16; 6 years starting at age 13/14(not usual); 8 years starting at age 11/12; all of them end with a Maturita)
- Denmark 3 years (4 years for athletes who are part of the Team Danmark elite sports program, or musicians who have chosen MGK ("Musical Elementary Course")), usually starting after 10 or 11 years of primary school). This is more like a prep school or the first years of college than high school. Everyone is eligible to go to a US high school, but you have to be deemed competent to get into a gymnasium. (For more information, see Gymnasium (Denmark).) Gymnasium is also available in an intensive 2 year program leading to the Højere Forberedelseseksamen ("Higher Preparatory Exam").
- Estonia (3 years, after 9 years of primary school)
- Faroe Islands 3 years, usually starting after 9 or 10 years of primary school. The system is similar to the Danish system. A gymnasium level education is also available in an intensive 2 year programme leading to Hægri fyrireikingarpróvtøka ("Higher Preparatory Exam").
- Finland: lukio (educational language is Finnish) or gymnasium (educational language is Swedish) takes 2–5 years (most students spend 3 years), after 9 years of primary school (peruskoulu in Finnish, grundskola in Swedish); lukio starts usually in the autumn of the year when the student turns 16 and ends with abitur after passing the matriculation examination; lukio is not compulsory and its entrance is competitive.
- In France:, called a lycée.(3 years, after 4 years of primary school and 4 years of secondary school, age 15/18).The last year (terminale), you pass the baccalauréat to enter université (also called faculté)
- Germany (formerly 8–9 years depending on the Bundesland – now being changed to 8 years nationwide, starting at 5th (at age 11), Abitur in 12th or 13th grade); for more information, see Gymnasium (Germany).
- Greece 3 years, starting at age 12 after 6 years of Elementary School. Compulsory for all children, it is followed by the non-mandatory Lyceum (ages 15–18) for students with academic aspirations, or the Technical Vocational Educational School (TEL) for students who prefer vocational training.
- Hungary (4/6/8 years, starting after 8/6 /4 years of primary school, ends with Matura), see Education in Hungary
- Iceland (usually 4 years, starting at age 15/16 after 10 years of elementary school, though 3 years can also be chosen. If chosen, students at Menntaskólinn Hraðbraut finish the school in 2 years.)
- Israel, five schools termed "gymnasium" located in Tel Aviv, Rishon LeZion, Jerusalem and Haifa.
- Italy, ginnasio is the name of the two first years of Liceo Classico
- Kosovo (3 years, after 9 years of primary school)
- Kyrgyzstan (7 years, after 5 years of primary school)
- Latvia (3 years, after 9 years of primary school)
- Liechtenstein (ends with Matura)
- Lithuania (ususally 4 years: 2 years of basic school after 4 years of basic school and 2 years of secondary school, sometimes 8 years: 6 of basic school and 2 of secondary school)
- Luxembourg (usually 7 years, starting at age 12-13 after 6 years of primary school)
- Republic of Macedonia (4 years, starting at age 14 after 8 years in elementary school, ends with Matura)
- Montenegro (4 years, starting at age 14/15 after 8 years in elementary school, 3 years for those who went in the elementary for 9 years, ends with Matura)
- Netherlands (6 years, starting at age 11-13, after 8 years of primary school. Prepares for admission to University. Gymnasia in the Netherlands have compulsory classes in Ancient Greek and Latin; the same high level secondary school without the classical languages is called "VWO" (Atheneum))
- Norway – the traditional but now discontinued gymnasium led to the completion of examen artium. This has now been succeeded by a 2, 3, or 4 year program ("videregående skole"), depending on course path taken, starting at the age of 15/16, culminating with an exam that qualifies for university matriculation ("studiekompetanse")
- Poland – gimnazjum is the name of Polish compulsory middle school lasting 3 years, starting at the age of 12/13, and following 6 years of primary school. Gimnazjum ends with a standardized test. Further education is encouraged, but optional and consists of either 3 years liceum, 4 years technikum, or 2 to 3 years vocational school (which may be followed by a supplementary liceum or technikum).
- Romania – 4 years, starting at age 10 ends with Diploma de Capacitate at the age of 14. Primary education lasts for four years. Secondary education consists in: 1) lower secondary school education organized in Gymnasium for grades 5 to 8 and lower cycle of Highschool or Arts and trades schools (vocational) for grades 9 and 10. 2) upper secondary school education organized in Ciclul superior al liceului for grades 11, 12 and 13 followed, if necessary, by an additional high school year for those who want to move from vocational training (grade 10) to upper secondary school education. High school education (lower cycle of high school and upper secondary school education) offers three different orientations (academic, technological, specialization).
- Imperial Russia: since 1726, 8 years since 1871. Women gymnasiums since 1862; 7 years + optional 8th for specialisation in pedagogy. Progymnasiums: equivalent to 4 first years of gymnasium.
- Russian Federation: 6 or 7 years, after primary school. Nowadays Russian Gymnasiums specialize in a certain subject (or several subjects), especially in the humanities (example)
- Serbia (4 years, starting at age 14/15 after 8 years in elementary/primary school. There are 3 types of gymnasiums: most commonly 1)general gymnasium (општа гимназија) which offers broad education in either 2) natural (природно-математички смер) or 3) social studies (друштвени смер), available all over Serbia, and a few specialised ones, i.e. science and mathematics (природно-математичка гимназија) -- only one in all of Serbia, in Belgrade; sports (спортска гиманзија) -- just two in Serbia; and language gymnasiums (филолошка гимназија) -- a total of four in Serbia. In the end, everyone has a final exam – Matura. A technical high school (including business/admin. assistant, i.e. економска школа), or a musical high school is a prerequisite for enrollment into a university. English and another foreign language (in addition to the mother tongue, and in case of minorities also Serbian, of course) are compulsory throughout.
- Slovakia (4 years starting at age 15 after completing 9 years of elementary school (more common); 8 years starting at age 11 after completing 5 years of elementary school; both end with Maturita)
- Slovenia (4 years, starting at age 14/15, ends with Matura).
- South Africa (Paul Roos Gymnasium is a well known Gymnasium for boys in the town called Stellenbosch. The school is a boarding school, based on the classic British boarding schools, however it was more influenced by the Protestant faith, hence the German Gymnasium. Foreign languages such as French,German,Mandarin and Latin are studied, Afrikaans and English are compulsory. School in South Africa: 5 years, starting at age 13/14, at a secondary institution, after 7 years of primary school, ends with Matric).
- Sweden Upper secondary school in Sweden lasts for three years (formerly four years on some programmes). "Gymnasium" is the word used to describe this stage of the education system in Sweden. The National Agency of Education has decided that gymnasium is equivalent to the international upper secondary school. The gymnasium is optional and follows after nine years in elementary school. However, the Swedish term "högskola" (translated to "high school") may cause some confusion. It is in Swedish used almost synonymously to "university", with the only difference being that universities have the right to issue doctoral examinations. A högskola is often located in cities with lower population.
- Switzerland (usually 3–4 years after 9 years of compulsory schooling (primary and secondary I); in some cantons it is also possible to attend a so-called "Langzeitgymnasium" which lasts 6 years, following a six-year primary schooling; the Gymnasium ends with Matura at the age of 18/19).
- Ukraine (8 years, starting after 4 years of primary school).
- United Kingdom: historically, grammar schools have been the English equivalent of the gymnasium, selecting pupils on the basis of academic ability and educating them with the assumption that they would go on to study at a university; such schools were largely phased out under the Wilson and Heath governments, with less than 5% of pupils now attending grammar schools, and the UK now has no widespread equivalent of the gymnasium. The exception is Northern Ireland and parts of England including the counties of Buckinghamshire, Lincolnshire and Kent which retained the system. Many private, fee-paying independent schools, including all those commonly referred to as "public" schools, seek to fulfil a similar role to the state grammar school if the scholar has the ability (and thus to the gymnasium in other countries).
- United States
- Public school: As school districts continue to experiment with educational styles, the magnet school has become a popular type of high school. Boston Latin School and Central High School (Philadelphia) are both the oldest public schools in the country, and the oldest magnet schools. As the concept has not become entrenched in the various American educational systems, due partly to the federal, rather than unitary style of education in the US, the term may vary among states.
- Private school: The equivalent among private schools is the preparatory school.
Depending on country, the final degree (if any) is called Abitur, Artium, Diploma, Matura, Maturita or Student and it usually opens the way to professional schools directly. However, depending on which country the issuing school is located in, these degrees are occasionally not fully accredited internationally, and students willing to attend foreign university often have to submit to further exams to be permitted access to them. The final two or three years at a gymnasium can be seen as an equivalent to the first two years at college in the United States.
Relationship with other education facilities
In countries like Canada or Austria, most university faculties only accept students from secondary schools that last four years (rather than three). This includes all Gymnasium students but only a part of vocational high schools, in effect making Gymnasium the preferred choice for all pupils aiming for university diplomas.
In Germany, other types of secondary school are called Realschule, Hauptschule and Gesamtschule. These are attended by about two-thirds of the students and the first two are practically unknown in other parts of the world. A Gesamtschule largely corresponds to a British or American high school. However, it offers the same school leaving certificates as the other three types of German secondary schools—the Hauptschulabschluss (school leaving certificate of a Hauptschule after 9th Grade or in Berlin and North Rhine-Westphalia after 10th Grade), the Realschulabschluss, also called Mittlere Reife (school leaving certificate of a Realschule after 10th Grade), and Abitur, also called Hochschulreife, after 12th Grade. Students who graduate from Hauptschule or Realschule may continue their schooling at a vocational school until they have full job qualifications. It is also possible to get an erweiterter Realschulabschluss after 10th grade that allows the students to continue their education at the Oberstufe of a gymnasium and get an Abitur. There are two types of vocational school in Germany. The Berufsschule, a part-time vocational school and a part of Germany's dual education system, and the Berufsfachschule, a full-time vocational school outside the dual education system. Both types of school are also part of Germany's secondary school system. Students who graduate from a vocational school and students who graduate with a good grade point average from a Realschule can continue their schooling at another type of German secondary school, the Fachoberschule, a vocational high school. The school leaving exam of this type of school, the Fachhochschulreife, enables the graduate to start studying at a Fachhochschule (polytechnic), and in Hesse also at a university within the state. Students who have graduated from vocational school and have been working in a job for at least three years can go to Berufsoberschule to get either a "Fachabitur" (meaning they may go to university, but they can only study the subjects belonging to the "branch" (economical, technical, social) they studied in at Berufschule.) after one year, or the normal "Abitur" (after two years), which gives them complete access to universities.
|Wikisource has the text of a 1905 New International Encyclopedia article about Gymnasia and Realgymnasia.|
- http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bakkalaureat section 'Geschichte' ('History') accessed 3/14/2012
- John Seiler Brubacher, Willis Rudy, "Higher education in transition: a history of American colleges and universities", 4th Edition, 1997 New Brunswick, NJ, page 157/158; see Google Books
- this subject has different names in the different states of Germany. See de:Gemeinschaftskunde
- Rines, George Edwin, ed. (1920). "Gymnasia and Real-gymnasia". Encyclopedia Americana.
- This subject has different names in the different States of Germany; see de:Gemeinschaftskunde
- Die ersten Schritte am Gymnasium
- Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Federal State of Brandenburg – Lebensgestaltung-Ethik-Religionskunde (L-E-R)
- "General upper secondary education". Retrieved 2011-10-31.