ASTRO-C, renamed Ginga (Japanese for 'galaxy'), was an X-ray astronomy satellite launched from the Kagoshima Space Center on 5 February 1987 using M-3SII launch vehicle. The primary instrument for observations was the Large Area Counter (LAC). Ginga was the third Japanese X-ray astronomy mission, following Hakucho and Tenma. Ginga reentered the Earth's atmosphere on 1 November 1991.
- Large Area Proportional Counter (LAC 1.5-37 keV)
- All-Sky Monitor (ASM 1-20 keV)
- Gamma-ray Burst Detector (GBD 1.5-500 keV)
- Discovery of transient Black Hole Candidates and study of their spectral evolution.
- Discovery of weak transients in the galactic ridge.
- Detection of cyclotron features in 3 X-ray pulsars: 4U1538-522, V0332+53, and Cep X-4.
- Evidence for emission and absorption Fe feature in Seyfert probing reprocessing by cold matter.
- Discovery of intense 6-7 keV iron line emission from the galactic center region.