Ginger

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For other uses, see Ginger (disambiguation).
Ginger
Koeh-146-no text.jpg
1896 color plate from
Köhler's Medicinal Plants
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Clade: Commelinids
Order: Zingiberales
Family: Zingiberaceae
Genus: Zingiber
Species: Z. officinale
Binomial name
Zingiber officinale
Roscoe 1807[1]

Ginger or ginger root is the rhizome of the plant Zingiber officinale, consumed as a delicacy, medicine, or spice. It lends its name to its genus and family (Zingiberaceae). Other notable members of this plant family are turmeric, cardamom, and galangal. The distantly related dicots in the Asarum genus have the common name wild ginger because of their similar taste.

Ginger is indigenous to southern China, from whence it spread to the Spice Islands and other parts of Asia, and subsequently to West Africa and the Caribbean.[2] Ginger appeared in Europe, via India, in the first century AD as a result of the lucrative spice trade.[3]

Etymology[edit]

The origin of "ginger" is from the mid-14th century, from Old English gingifer, from Medieval Latin gingiber, from Latin zingiberi, from Greek zingiberis, from Prakrit (Middle Indic) singabera, from Sanskrit srngaveram, from srngam "horn" + vera- "body", from the shape of its root. But this may be Sanskrit folk etymology, and the word may be from an ancient Dravidian name that also produced the Tamil name for the spice, inchi-ver, from inchi "root." Cf. gin (v.). The word apparently was readopted in Middle English from Old French gingibre (modern French gingembre).[4]

Horticulture[edit]

Ginger Plant with Flower - South India
Ornamental Ginger near Cooktown, Queensland, Australia

Ginger produces clusters of white and pink flower buds that bloom into yellow flowers. Because of its aesthetic appeal and the adaptation of the plant to warm climates, ginger is often used as landscaping around subtropical homes. It is a perennial reed-like plant with annual leafy stems, about a meter (3 to 4 feet) tall. Traditionally, the rhizome is gathered when the stalk withers; it is immediately scalded, or washed and scraped, to kill it and prevent sprouting. The fragrant perisperm of Zingiberaceae is used as sweetmeats by Bantu, also as a condiment and sialogogue.[5]

Uses[edit]

Gari, a type of pickled ginger

Ginger produces a hot, fragrant kitchen spice.[6] Young ginger rhizomes are juicy and fleshy with a very mild taste. They are often pickled in vinegar or sherry as a snack or just cooked as an ingredient in many dishes. They can also be steeped in boiling water to make ginger tea, to which honey is often added; sliced orange or lemon fruit may also be added. Ginger can also be made into candy, or ginger wine which has been made commercially since 1740.

Mature ginger rhizomes are fibrous and nearly dry. The juice from old ginger roots is extremely potent[7] and is often used as a spice in Indian recipes, and is a quintessential ingredient of Chinese, Korean, Japanese, Vietnamese and many South Asian cuisines for flavoring dishes such as seafood or goat meat and vegetarian cuisine.

Ginger acts as a useful food preservative.[8][9]

Fresh ginger can be substituted for ground ginger at a ratio of 6 to 1, although the flavors of fresh and dried ginger are somewhat different. Powdered dry ginger root is typically used as a flavoring for recipes such as gingerbread, cookies, crackers and cakes, ginger ale, and ginger beer.

Candied ginger, or crystallized ginger, is the root cooked in sugar until soft, and is a type of confectionery.

Fresh ginger may be peeled before eating. For longer-term storage, the ginger can be placed in a plastic bag and refrigerated or frozen.

Regional use[edit]

Ginger field
Fresh ginger rhizome.

In Indian cuisine, ginger is a key ingredient, especially in thicker gravies, as well as in many other dishes, both vegetarian and meat-based. Ginger also has a role in traditional Ayurvedic medicine. Ginger is also an ingredient in traditional Indian drinks, both cold and hot, including spiced Masala chai. Across India, ginger is variously called adrak in Hindi, Punjabi and Urdu, aad in Maithili, aadi in Bhojpuri, aada in Assamese and Bengali, Adu in Gujarati, Allam (అల్లం) in Telugu, hashi shunti (ಹಸಿ ಶುಂಟಿ) in Kannada, inji (இஞ்சி) in Tamil and Malayalam, inguru (ඉඟුරු) in Sinhalese, alay in Marathi, and aduwa(अदुवा ) in Nepali. Fresh ginger is one of the main spices used for making pulse and lentil curries and other vegetable preparations. Fresh, as well as dried, ginger is used to spice tea and coffee, especially in winter. Ginger powder is also used in certain food preparations, particularly for pregnant or nursing women, the most popular one being katlu which is a mixture of gum resin, ghee, nuts, and sugar. Ginger is also consumed in candied and pickled form. In Bangladesh, ginger is finely chopped or ground into a paste to use as a base for chicken and meat dishes alongside onion and garlic.

In Japan, ginger is pickled to make beni shoga and gari or grated and used raw on tofu or noodles. It is also made into a candy called shoga no sato zuke. In the traditional Korean kimchi, ginger is either finely minced or just juiced in order to avoid the fibrous texture and added to the ingredients of the spicy paste just before the fermenting process.

In Burma, ginger is called gyin. It is widely used in cooking and as a main ingredient in traditional medicines. It is also consumed as a salad dish called gyin-thot, which consists of shredded ginger preserved in oil, and a variety of nuts and seeds. In Indonesia, a beverage called wedang jahe is made from ginger and palm sugar. Indonesians also use ground ginger root, called jahe, as a common ingredient in local recipes. In Malaysia, ginger is called halia and used in many kinds of dishes, especially a soup. In the Philippines, it is a common ingredient in local dishes and it is brewed into a tea called salabat. In Vietnam, the fresh leaves, finely chopped, can also be added to shrimp-and-yam soup (canh khoai mỡ) as a top garnish and spice to add a much subtler flavor of ginger than the chopped root.

In China, sliced or whole ginger root is often paired with savory dishes such as fish, and chopped ginger root is commonly paired with meat, when it is cooked. However, candied ginger is sometimes a component of Chinese candy boxes, and an herbal tea can also be prepared from ginger.

In the Caribbean, ginger is a popular spice for cooking, and making drinks such as sorrel, a seasonal drink made during the Christmas season. Jamaicans make ginger beer both as a carbonated beverage and also fresh in their homes. Ginger tea is often made from fresh ginger, as well as the famous regional specialty Jamaican ginger cake.

Two varieties of ginger as sold in Haikou, Hainan, China

On the island of Corfu, Greece, a traditional drink called τσιτσιμπύρα (tsitsibira), a type of ginger beer, is made. The people of Corfu and the rest of the Ionian islands adopted the drink from the British, during the period of the United States of the Ionian Islands.

In Arabic, ginger is called zanjabil, and in some parts of the Middle East, gin�gayu (生姜湯).[10] From its main ingredient ginger tea derives a flavor that is spicy and stimulating.[11] Ginger, known as Adarak in Hindi, is used frequently in tea made in all parts of India as well.

In Western cuisine, ginger is traditionally used mainly in sweet foods such as ginger ale, gingerbread, ginger snaps, parkin, ginger biscuits and speculaas. A ginger-flavored liqueur called Canton is produced in Jarnac, France. Ginger wine is a ginger-flavored wine produced in the United Kingdom, traditionally sold in a green glass bottle. Ginger is also used as a spice added to hot coffee and tea.

Medicinal use and research[edit]

According to the American Cancer Society, ginger has been promoted as a cancer treatment "to keep tumors from developing", but "available scientific evidence does not support this". They add: "Recent preliminary results in animals show some effect in slowing or preventing tumor growth. While these results are not well understood, they deserve further study. Still, it is too early in the research process to say whether ginger will have the same effect in humans."[12]

In limited studies, ginger was found to be more effective than placebo for treating nausea caused by seasickness, morning sickness and chemotherapy,[13][14][15][16] although ginger was not found superior to placebo for pre-emptively treating post-operative nausea. Some studies advise against taking ginger during pregnancy,[14] suggesting that ginger is mutagenic, though some other studies have reported antimutagenic effects.[14] Other preliminary studies showed that ginger may affect arthritis pain or have blood thinning and cholesterol lowering properties, but these effects remain unconfirmed.[17]

A 2013 in vivo evaluation demonstrated ginger extract showed a hepatoprotective effect in rats.[18] A 2013 review found that ginger is a free radical scavenger, antioxidant; thus inhibits lipid peroxidation and that these attributes could be contributing to its known gastroprotective effects.[19] A 2012 review found ginger extract and ginger juice possess anti-emetic effects against chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in experimental animals.[20] A 2012 review found the radioprotective properties of ginger extract might be effective to protect against gamma radiation-induced side effects from cancer treatment in mice.[21] A 2011 review found ginger displays chemopreventive and antineoplastic effects.[22] The same review found that ginger appears to be promising for cancer prevention, though further research is necessary to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ginger.[22] Advanced glycation end-products are possibly associated in the development of diabetic cataract for which ginger was effective in preliminary studies, apparently by acting through antiglycating mechanisms.[23][24][25] Zingerone may have activity against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in enterotoxin-induced diarrhea in mice.[26]

Chemistry[edit]

The essential oil of ginger

The characteristic odor and flavor of ginger is caused by a mixture of zingerone, shogaols and gingerols, volatile oils that compose one to three percent of the weight of fresh ginger. In laboratory animals, the gingerols increase the motility of the gastrointestinal tract and have analgesic, sedative, antipyretic and antibacterial properties.[27] A study at the University of Michigan demonstrated that gingerols can inhibit growth of ovarian cancer cells in vitro.[28][29][30] [6]-gingerol (1-[4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl]-5-hydroxy-3-decanone) is the major pungent principle of ginger.

Ginger contains up to three percent of a fragrant essential oil whose main constituents are sesquiterpenoids, with (-)-zingiberene as the main component. Smaller amounts of other sesquiterpenoids (β-sesquiphellandrene, bisabolene and farnesene) and a small monoterpenoid fraction (β-phelladrene, cineol, and citral) have also been identified.

The pungent taste of ginger is due to nonvolatile phenylpropanoid-derived compounds, particularly gingerols and shogaols, which form from gingerols when ginger is dried or cooked. Zingerone is also produced from gingerols during this process; this compound is less pungent and has a spicy-sweet aroma.[31] Ginger is also a minor chemical irritant, and because of this was used as a horse suppository by pre-World War I mounted regiments for feaguing.

Ginger has a sialagogue action, stimulating the production of saliva, which makes swallowing easier.[32]

Folk medicine[edit]

Ginger house rum, Madagascar

The traditional medical form of ginger historically was called Jamaica ginger; it was classified as a stimulant and carminative and used frequently for dyspepsia, gastroparesis, slow motility symptoms, constipation, and colic.[33] It was also frequently employed to disguise the taste of medicines.[34]

Some studies indicate ginger may provide short-term relief of pregnancy-related nausea and vomiting.[35] Studies are inconclusive about effects for other forms of nausea or in treating pain from rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, or joint and muscle injury. Side effects, mostly associated with powdered ginger, are gas, bloating, heartburn, and nausea.[36]

Tea brewed from ginger is a common folk remedy for colds. Ginger ale and ginger beer are also drunk as stomach settlers in countries where the beverages are made.

  • In Burma, ginger and a local sweetener made from palm tree juice (htan nyat) are boiled together and taken to prevent the flu.
  • In China, ginger is included in several traditional preparations. A drink made with sliced ginger cooked in water with brown sugar or a cola is used as a folk medicine for the common cold.[37] "Ginger eggs" (scrambled eggs with finely diced ginger root) is a common home remedy for coughing.[citation needed] The Chinese also make a kind of dried ginger candy that is fermented in plum juice and sugared, which is also commonly consumed to suppress coughing. Ginger has also been historically used to treat inflammation, which several scientific studies support, though one arthritis trial showed ginger to be no better than a placebo or ibuprofen for treatment of osteoarthritis.[17]
  • In Congo, ginger is crushed and mixed with mango tree sap to make tangawisi juice, which is considered a panacea.
  • In India, ginger is applied as a paste to the temples to relieve headache, and consumed when suffering from the common cold. Ginger with lemon and black salt is also used for nausea.[35]
  • In Indonesia, ginger (jahe in Indonesian) is used as a herbal preparation to reduce fatigue, reducing "winds" in the blood, prevent and cure rheumatism and control poor dietary habits.[citation needed]
  • In Nepal, ginger is called aduwa, अदुवा and is widely grown and used throughout the country as a spice for vegetables, used medically to treat cold and also sometimes used to flavor tea.
  • In the Philippines, ginger is known as luya and is used as a throat lozenge in traditional medicine to relieve sore throat. It is also brewed into a tea known as salabat.[38][39]
  • In the United States, ginger is used to prevent motion and morning sickness.[citation needed] It is recognized as safe by the Food and Drug Administration[40] and is sold as an unregulated dietary supplement. Ginger water is also used to avoid heat cramps.[citation needed]
  • In Peru, ginger is sliced in hot water as an infusion for stomach aches as infusión de Kión.
  • In Japan it is purported to aid blood circulation.[41] Scientific studies investigating these effects have been inconclusive.[36]

Nutritional information[edit]

Ginger root (ground)
Ginger powder.JPG
A packet of ginger powder from the Philippines used in brewing
salabat (ginger tea)
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 1,404 kJ (336 kcal)
71.62 g
Sugars 3.39 g
Dietary fiber 14.1 g
4.24 g
8.98 g
Vitamins
Thiamine (B1)
(4%)
0.046 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(14%)
0.17 mg
Niacin (B3)
(64%)
9.62 mg
(10%)
0.477 mg
Vitamin B6
(48%)
0.626 mg
Folate (B9)
(3%)
13 μg
Vitamin C
(1%)
0.7 mg
Vitamin E
(0%)
0.0 mg
Trace metals
Calcium
(11%)
114 mg
Iron
(152%)
19.8 mg
Magnesium
(60%)
214 mg
Manganese
(1586%)
33.3 mg
Phosphorus
(24%)
168 mg
Potassium
(28%)
1320 mg
Sodium
(2%)
27 mg
Zinc
(38%)
3.64 mg

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
Ginger root (raw)
Ginger cross section.jpg
Ginger section
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 333 kJ (80 kcal)
17.77 g
Sugars 1.7 g
Dietary fiber 2 g
0.75 g
1.82 g
Vitamins
Thiamine (B1)
(2%)
0.025 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(3%)
0.034 mg
Niacin (B3)
(5%)
0.75 mg
(4%)
0.203 mg
Vitamin B6
(12%)
0.16 mg
Folate (B9)
(3%)
11 μg
Vitamin C
(6%)
5 mg
Vitamin E
(2%)
0.26 mg
Trace metals
Calcium
(2%)
16 mg
Iron
(5%)
0.6 mg
Magnesium
(12%)
43 mg
Manganese
(11%)
0.229 mg
Phosphorus
(5%)
34 mg
Potassium
(9%)
415 mg
Sodium
(1%)
13 mg
Zinc
(4%)
0.34 mg

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Safety[edit]

If consumed in reasonable quantities, ginger has few negative side effects,[42] and is on the FDA's "generally recognized as safe" list, though it does interact with some medications, including warfarin. Ginger is contraindicated in people suffering from gallstones, because it promotes the production of bile.[34]

Allergic reactions to ginger generally result in a rash, and although generally recognized as safe, ginger can cause heartburn, bloating, gas, belching and nausea, particularly if taken in powdered form. Unchewed fresh ginger may result in intestinal blockage, and individuals who have had ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease or blocked intestines may react badly to large quantities of fresh ginger.[43] Ginger can also adversely affect individuals with gallstones.[17][43] There are also suggestions that ginger may affect blood pressure, clotting, and heart rhythms.[43]

Products in Taiwan made from Hebo Natural Products Limited (禾博天然產物有限公司) of China contained ginger contaminated with DIBP, some 80,000 nutritional supplement capsules made with imported ginger powder were seized by the Public Health Department of Taiwan in June 2011.[44]

Similar ingredients[edit]

Myoga (Zingiber mioga Roscoe) appears in Japanese cuisine; the flower buds are the part eaten.

Another plant in the Zingiberaceae family, galangal, is used for similar purposes as ginger in Thai cuisine. Galangal is also called Thai ginger, fingerroot (Boesenbergia rotunda), Chinese ginger, or the Thai krachai.

A dicotyledonous native species of eastern North America, Asarum canadense, is also known as "wild ginger", and its root has similar aromatic properties, but it is not related to true ginger. The plant also contains aristolochic acid, a carcinogenic compound.[citation needed]

Production[edit]

Top ten ginger producers – 11 June 2008
Country Production (tonnes)
 India 380,100
 China 331,393
 Indonesia 192,500
   Nepal 174,268
 Thailand 170,125
 Nigeria 152,106
 Bangladesh 72,608
 Japan 52,000
 Philippines 27,415
 Cameroon 12,000
 World 1,615,974

Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Division

From 1585, Jamaican ginger was the first oriental spice to be grown in the New World and imported back to Europe.[45] India, with over 30% of the global share, now leads in global production of ginger, replacing China, which has slipped to the second position (~20.5%), followed by Indonesia (~12.7%), Nepal (~11.5%) and Thailand (~10%).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Zingiber officinale information from NPGS/GRIN". ars-grin.gov. Retrieved 3 March 2008. 
  2. ^ "Spices: Exotic Flavors & Medicines: Ginger". Retrieved 2 May 2014. 
  3. ^ http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/265990.php
  4. ^ "ginger". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 22 January 2011. 
  5. ^ "Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa" - Watt & Brandwijk
  6. ^ Ginger n Oxford Dictionary of English
  7. ^ "All about ginger at All Things Ginger". Allthingsginger.co.uk. Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
  8. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root out Ailments with this Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper.com
  9. ^ Antioxidant activity of a ginger extract published by
  10. ^ "Japanese Cold Remedies". Japanesefood.about.com. 9 April 2012. Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
  11. ^ "Plain Ginger Tea". Buzzle.com. Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
  12. ^ "Ginger". American Cancer Society. May 2010. Retrieved 22 September 2013. 
  13. ^ Marx, WM; Teleni L; McCarthy AL; Vitetta L; McKavanagh D; Thomson D; Isenring E. (2013). "Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: a systematic literature review". Nutr Rev 71 (4): 245–54. doi:10.1111/nure.12016. PMID 23550785. 
  14. ^ a b c Ernst, E.; Pittler, M.H. (1 March 2000). "Efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials" (PDF). British Journal of Anesthesia 84 (3): 367–371. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.bja.a013442. PMID 10793599. Retrieved 6 September 2006. 
  15. ^ Wood, C. (1988). "Comparison of efficacy of ginger with various antimotion sickness drugs". Clin Res Pr Drug Regul Aff 6 (2): 129–36. PMID 11538042. 
  16. ^ Grøntved, A. (1988). "Ginger root against seasickness. A controlled trial on the open sea". Acta Otolaryngol. 105 (1-2): 45–9. PMID 3277342. 
  17. ^ a b c University of Maryland Medical Centre (2006). "Ginger". Retrieved 2 August 2007. 
  18. ^ Abdulaziz Bardi, D; Halabi, M. F.; Abdullah, N. A.; Rouhollahi, E; Hajrezaie, M; Abdulla, M. A. (2013). "In vivo evaluation of ethanolic extract of Zingiber officinale rhizomes for its protective effect against liver cirrhosis". BioMed Research International 2013: 918460. doi:10.1155/2013/918460. PMC 3874366. PMID 24396831.  edit
  19. ^ Haniadka, R; Saldanha, E; Sunita, V; Palatty, P. L.; Fayad, R; Baliga, M. S. (2013). "A review of the gastroprotective effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)". Food & Function 4 (6): 845–55. doi:10.1039/c3fo30337c. PMID 23612703.  edit
  20. ^ Haniadka, R; Rajeev, A. G.; Palatty, P. L.; Arora, R; Baliga, M. S. (2012). "Zingiber officinale (ginger) as an anti-emetic in cancer chemotherapy: A review". The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 18 (5): 440–4. doi:10.1089/acm.2010.0737. PMID 22540971.  edit
  21. ^ Baliga, M. S.; Haniadka, R; Pereira, M. M.; Thilakchand, K. R.; Rao, S; Arora, R (2012). "Radioprotective effects of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger): Past, present and future". Food & Function 3 (7): 714–23. doi:10.1039/c2fo10225k. PMID 22596078.  edit
  22. ^ a b Baliga, M. S.; Haniadka, R; Pereira, M. M.; d'Souza, J. J.; Pallaty, P. L.; Bhat, H. P.; Popuri, S (2011). "Update on the chemopreventive effects of ginger and its phytochemicals". Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 51 (6): 499–523. doi:10.1080/10408391003698669. PMID 21929329.  edit
  23. ^ Saraswat M. Suryanarayana P. Reddy PY. Patil MA. Balakrishna N. Reddy GB. 2010 "Antiglycating potential of Zingiber officinalis and delay of diabetic cataract in rats. Molecular Vision. 16:1525–37
  24. ^ Al-Amin, Zainab M. et al.; Thomson, M; Al-Qattan, KK; Peltonen-Shalaby, R; Ali, M (2006). "Anti-diabetic and hypolipidaemic properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats". British Journal of Nutrition (Cambridge University Press) 96 (4): 660–666. doi:10.1079/BJN20061849. PMID 17010224. Retrieved 5 November 2007. 
  25. ^ Afshari, Ali Taghizadeh et al.; Shirpoor, A; Farshid, A; Saadatian, R; Rasmi, Y; Saboory, E; Ilkhanizadeh, B; Allameh, A (2007). "The effect of ginger on diabetic nephropathy, plasma antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation in rats". Food Chemistry (Elsevier) 101 (1): 148–153. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.01.013. 
  26. ^ Chen, Jaw-Chyun; Li-Jiau Huang, Shih-Lu Wu, Sheng-Chu Kuo, Tin-Yun Ho, Chien-Yun Hsiang (2007). "Ginger and Its Bioactive Component Inhibit Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin-Induced Diarrhoea in Mice". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55 (21): 8390–8397. doi:10.1021/jf071460f. PMID 17880155. 
  27. ^ O'Hara, Mary; Kiefer, David; Farrell, Kim; Kemper, Kathi (1998). "A Review of 12 Commonly Used Medicinal Herbs". Archives of Family Medicine 7 (6): 523–536. doi:10.1001/archfami.7.6.523. PMID 9821826. 
  28. ^ Rhode, J.; Fogoros, S.; Zick, S.; Wahl, H.; Griffith, K. A.; Huang, J.; Liu, J. R. (2007). "Ginger inhibits cell growth and modulates angiogenic factors in ovarian cancer cells". BMC Complementary & Alternative Medicine 7: 44. doi:10.1186/1472-6882-7-44. PMC 2241638. PMID 18096028. 
  29. ^ Kim, J. S.; et al., Sa Im; Park, Hye Won; Yang, Jae Heon; Shin, Tae-Yong; Kim, Youn-Chul; Baek, Nam-In; Kim, Sung-Hoon et al. (2008). "Cytotoxic components from the dried rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe". Archives of Pharmacal Research 31 (4): 415–418. doi:10.1007/s12272-001-1172-y. PMID 18449496. 
  30. ^ Choudhury, D.; et al., Amlan; Bhattacharya, Abhijit; Chakrabarti, Gopal (2010). "Aqueous extract of ginger shows antiproliferative activity through disruption of microtubule network of cancer cells". Food Chem Toxicol. 48 (10): 2872–2880. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2010.07.020. 
  31. ^ McGee, Harold (2004). On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen (2nd ed.). New York: Scribner. pp. 425–426. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. 
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  33. ^ Wood, George B. (1867). "XV. Ginger. Zingiber. U.S., Br". A Treatise On Therapeutics, And Pharmacology Or Materia Medica Volume 1. J. B. Lippincott & Co. Retrieved 2 March 2013. 
  34. ^ a b Al-Achi, Antoine. "A Current Look at Ginger Use". Retrieved 14 September 2014. 
  35. ^ a b "Tamilnadu Herb Ginger". Tamilnadu.com. 17 February 2013. 
  36. ^ a b "Ginger NCCAM Herbs at a Glance". Nccam.nih.gov. Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
  37. ^ Jakes, Susan (15 January 2007). "Beverage of Champions". Times on-line. Archived from the original on 1 July 2007. Retrieved 2 August 2007. 
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  40. ^ "Electronic Code of Federal Regulations". 26 December 2013{{inconsistent citations}} 
  41. ^ "Traditional Japanese Cold Remedies". Pref.ibaraki.jp. 27 June 2008. Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
  42. ^ Marcello Spinella (2001). The Psychopharmacology of Herbal Medications: Plant Drugs That Alter Mind, Brain, and Behavior. MIT Press. pp. 272–. ISBN 978-0-262-69265-6. Retrieved 13 April 2013. 
  43. ^ a b c Mayo Clinic (1 May 2006). "Drugs & Supplements: Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)". Retrieved 2 August 2007. 
  44. ^ "Taichung City: Nutrition products made with contaminated ginger powder seized – Taiwan News Online". Etaiwannews.com. 16 June 2011. Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
  45. ^ "ginger" A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition. Ed. David A. Bender. Oxford University Press 2009

PD-icon.svg This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainWard, Artemas (1911). The Grocer's Encyclopedia. 


External links[edit]