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|Molar mass||801.01 g/mol|
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Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
Ginsenosides have been the target of research, as they are viewed as the active compounds behind the claims of ginseng's efficacy. Because ginsenosides appear to affect multiple pathways, their effects are complex and difficult to isolate.
Ginsenosides are separated by column chromatography. Ginsenoside content can vary widely depending on species, location of growth, and growing time before harvest.
The root, the organ most often used, contains saponin complexes. These are often split into two groups: the Rb1 group (characterized by the protopanaxadiol presence : Rb1, Rb2, Rc and Rd) and the Rg1 group (protopanaxatriol: Rg1, Re, Rf, and Rg2).
Appears to be most abundant in Panax quinquefolius (American Ginseng).
Another study shows that Rb1 may increase testosterone production in male rats indirectly through the stimulation of the luteinizing hormone. Traditional Chinese medicine asserts that Panax quinquefolius promotes yin in the body.
It appears to enhance the uptake of choline. The clinical significance of uptake enhancers is not completely understood; one might expect coluracetam to have similar effects to Rb1, and tianeptine to have the opposite effects of SSRIs, but there are not enough data to verify this (please note that uptake and re-uptake are different phenomena, although many researchers and amateurs mistakenly use the terms interchangeably).
Ginsenoside-Rc is a steroid molecule that can be found in the ginseng plant and is recognized for producing more sedative related results than other ginsenosides, such as ginsenoside-Re or ginsenoside-Rg.
In one study on breast cancer and different ginsenosides, it was found that ginsenoside-Rc was capable of inhibiting the growth of these cancer cells. This suggests that there is a possibility that ginsenoside-Rc may have effects that prevent or limit the development of breast cancer.
An experiment was performed on Caenorhabditis elegans and their survival in a cholesterol-absent medium with the presence of ginsenoside-Rc. While the lack of cholesterol for Caenorhabditis elegans had been expected to reduce the lifetime of the worm, results proved otherwise: The consumption of ginsenoside-Rc had elongated the normal life span of the worm.
A further study was also able to demonstrate a possible effect of ginsenoside-Rc on the motility of sperm. Data from this experimentation showed a significant increase in motility when the sperm was in a ginsenoside-Rc solution.
Appears to be most abundant in Panax ginseng (Chinese/Korean Ginseng). Improves spatial learning and increase hippocampal synaptophysin level in mice, plus estrogen-like activity (which could account for the boosting of "yin" theory). A recent study demonstrated that Rg1, isolated from Panax ginseng is able to attenuate the oxidative stress in the liver of exhaustive exercised rats.
Rg2 is a α-L-Rha→β-D-Glc glycoside of panaxatriol.
M1 (20-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol) is a ppd-type monoglucoside ginsenoside metabolized by intestinal bacteria in humans.
- [http://www.eshre.com/emc.asp?pageId=450 eshre.com][dead link]
- Chan LY, Chiu PY, Lau TK (October 2003). "An in-vitro study of ginsenoside Rb1-induced teratogenicity using a whole rat embryo culture model". Human Reproduction 18 (10): 2166–8. doi:10.1093/humrep/deg401. PMID 14507839.
- Shergill, Amandeep (1998). "Ginseng and Memory". Nutrition Bytes 4 (2). Retrieved 2012-07-16.
- Murphy, Laura (August 2000). "American Ginseng in the Prevention and Treatment of Human Breast Cancer". Southern Illinois University Carbondale.
- Lee JH, Choi SH, Kwon OS, et al. (November 2007). "Effects of ginsenosides, active ingredients of Panax ginseng, on development, growth, and life span of Caenorhabditis elegans". Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 30 (11): 2126–34. doi:10.1248/bpb.30.2126. PMID 17978487.
- Chen JC, Chen LD, Tsauer W, Tsai CC, Chen BC, Chen YJ (2001). "Effects of Ginsenoside Rb2 and Rc on inferior human sperm motility in vitro". The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 29 (1): 155–60. doi:10.1142/S0192415X01000174. PMID 11321473.
- Assinewe VA, Baum BR, Gagnon D, Arnason JT (July 2003). "Phytochemistry of wild populations of Panax quinquefolius L. (North American ginseng)". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51 (16): 4549–53. doi:10.1021/jf030042h. PMID 14705875.
- Mallikarjuna, Korivi; Hou C.W., Huang C.Y., Lee S.D., Hsu M.F., Yu S.H., Chen C.Y., Liu Y.Y., Kuo C.H. (2012: 932165). "Ginsenoside-Rg1 Protects the Liver against Exhaustive Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats". Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2012: 932165. doi:10.1155/2012/932165. PMC 3176525. PMID 21941591.
- Zhang G, Liu A, Zhou Y, San X, Jin T, Jin Y (February 2008). "Panax ginseng ginsenoside-Rg2 protects memory impairment via anti-apoptosis in a rat model with vascular dementia". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 115 (3): 441–8. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2007.10.026. PMID 18083315.
- Yoon SR, Nah JJ, Kim SK, et al. (July 1998). "Determination of ginsenoside Rf and Rg2 from Panax ginseng using enzyme immunoassay". Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 46 (7): 1144–7. PMID 9692222.
- http://www.eshre.com/ecm/main.asp?lan=99&typ=308[dead link] European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology Researchers caution over using ginseng in early pregnancy
- Tsai SC, Chiao YC, Lu CC, Wang PS (March 2003). "Stimulation of the secretion of luteinizing hormone by ginsenoside-Rb1 in male rats". The Chinese Journal of Physiology 46 (1): 1–7. PMID 12817698.
- Ginsenosides as Quality Indicators in Woods-grown American Ginseng
- Title: The Effect of Production Practices on the Quality of Ginseng Roots
- The King's University College Biology Department