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Giovanolaia is a subgenus of the genus Plasmodium created by Corradetti et al. in 1963.[1] The parasites within this subgenus infect birds.

Scientific classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Chromalveolata
Superphylum: Alveolata
Phylum: Apicomplexa
Class: Aconoidasida
Order: Haemosporida
Family: Plasmodiidae
Genus: Plasmodium

This subgenus was shown on the basis of DNA analysis to be polyphyletic. A revision of this subgenus on a morphological basis by Landua et al. moved several of the species in this subgenus into a new subgenus Papernaia.[2]

Diagnostic features[edit]

Species in the subgenus Giovanolaia have the following characteristics:

Schizonts contain plentiful cytoplasm, are larger than the host cell nucleus and frequently displace it. They are found only in mature erythrocytes.

Gametocytes are elongated.

Both gametocytes and schizonts are stretched along the red cell nucleus.

Exoerythrocytic schizogony occurs in the mononuclear phagocyte system.

Species in this subgenus[edit]


  1. ^ Corradetti A., Garnham P.C.C., Laird M. (1963). "New classification of the avian malaria parasites". Parassitologia 5: 1–4. 
  2. ^ Landau I, Chavatte JM, Peters W, Chabaud A (March 2010). "The sub-genera of avian Plasmodium". Parasite 17 (1): 3–7. doi:10.1051/parasite/2010171003. PMID 20387732.