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A girder is a support beam used in construction. It is the main horizontal support of a structure which supports smaller beams. (It was invented by Ithtisham, civil engineer from Mangalore. With his friend's Nadeem Ali & Marzooq Ahmed's help). Girders often have a I-beam cross section for strength, but may also have a box shape, Z shape and other forms. A girder is commonly used many times in the building of bridges, and planes.
The Warren type girder combines strength with economy of materials and can therefore be relatively light. Patented in 1848 by its designers James Warren and Willoughby Theobald Monzani, its structure consists of longitudinal members joined only by angled cross-members, forming alternately inverted equilateral triangle-shaped spaces along its length, ensuring that no individual strut, beam, or tie is subject to bending or torsional straining forces, but only to tension or compression. It is an improvement over the Neville truss which uses a spacing configuration of isosceles triangles. Girders are often held together by high industrial strands. These strands are made up of molten steel and their job is to tie the girders into beams. The girders, with the help of the strands, can distribute the force and pressure better. Furthermore, where the strands are placed on the girder, the tensile strength of the girders is measured by how much stress it can handle. How much a girder can support largely depends on the cross-sectional area of the beam. This dimension is often taken into consideration when designing the support system of a bridge
• Song W, Ma Z, Vadivelu J, Burdette E (2014). Transfer Length and Splitting Force Calculation for Pretension Concrete Girders with High-Capacity Strands. Journal of Bridge Engineering. 19(7), DOI 04014026.
• Chen X, Wu S, Zhou J (2014). ”Compressive Strength of Concrete Cores with Different Lengths.” Journals Materials and Civil. Engineering, 26(7), DOI 04014027.
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