|41st Prime Minister of Italy|
17 February 1972 – 7 July 1973
|Preceded by||Emilio Colombo|
|Succeeded by||Mariano Rumor|
29 July 1976 – 4 August 1979
|Deputy||Ugo La Malfa|
|Preceded by||Aldo Moro|
|Succeeded by||Francesco Cossiga|
22 July 1989 – 24 April 1992
|Preceded by||Ciriaco de Mita|
|Succeeded by||Giuliano Amato|
|Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs|
4 August 1983 – 22 July 1989
|Prime Minister||Bettino Craxi
Ciriaco de Mita
|Preceded by||Emilio Colombo|
|Succeeded by||Gianni De Michelis|
|Italian Minister of Defense|
15 February 1959 – 23 February 1966
|Prime Minister||Antonio Segni
|Preceded by||Antonio Segni|
|Succeeded by||Roberto Tremelloni|
14 March 1974 – 23 November 1974
|Prime Minister||Mariano Rumor|
|Preceded by||Mario Tanassi|
|Succeeded by||Arnaldo Forlani|
|Italian Minister of the Interior|
18 January 1954 – 8 February 1954
|Prime Minister||Amintore Fanfani|
|Preceded by||Amintore Fanfani|
|Succeeded by||Mario Scelba|
11 May 1978 – 13 June 1978
|Preceded by||Francesco Cossiga|
|Succeeded by||Virginio Rognoni|
19 June 1991 – 6 May 2013
by President Cossiga
14 January 1919|
Rome, Lazio, Italy
|Died||6 May 2013
Rome, Lazio, Italy
|Political party||Christian Democracy (1942–1994)
Italian People's Party (1994–2001)
European Democracy (2001–2002)
Union of the Centre (2008–2013)
|Children||Lamberto, Marilena, Stefano, Serena|
|Alma mater||University of Rome La Sapienza|
Giulio Andreotti (Italian: [ˈʤuːljo andreˈɔtti]; 14 January 1919 – 6 May 2013) was an Italian centre-right politician and prominent member of Italy's centrist Christian Democracy party and one the most enduring Italian politician of the post-World War II period He served as the 41st Prime Minister of Italy from 1972 to 1973, from 1976 to 1979 and from 1989 to 1992. He also served as Minister of the Interior (1954 and 1978), Defense Minister (1959–1966 and 1974) and Foreign Minister (1983–1989) and was a Senator for life from 1991 until his death in 2013. He was also a journalist and author.
Andreotti was sometimes called Divo Giulio (from Latin Divus Iulius, "Divine Julius", an epithet of Julius Caesar after his posthumous deification). During the 16th term of the Senate in 2008–2013, he opted to join the parliamentary group UDC – independence.
- 1 Early years and education
- 2 Career
- 3 Mafia trial
- 4 Involvement in other judicial affairs
- 5 Political movement
- 6 Involvement in film
- 7 Death and legacy
- 8 Popular culture
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
Early years and education
He studied law at the University of Rome and graduated in 1942. During his studies at the university he was member of the Federazione Universitaria Cattolica Italiana (FUCI, or Italian Catholic University Federation), which was then the only Catholic university association allowed by the Fascist government. Its members included many of the future leaders of the Italian Democrazia Cristiana (or DC, the Christian Democracy party).
In July 1939, while Aldo Moro was president of FUCI, Andreotti became director of its magazine Azione Fucina. In 1942, when Moro was enrolled in the Italian Army, Andreotti succeeded him as president of FUCI, a position he held until 1944. During his early years Andreotti suffered violent migraines that forced him to sporadically assume psychoactive drugs and opiates.
During World War II, Andreotti wrote for the Rivista del Lavoro, a fascist propaganda publication, but was also a member of the then clandestine newspaper Il Popolo. In 1944 he became a member of the National Council of DC. After the end of the conflict, he became responsible for the youth organization of the party.
In 1946, Andreotti was elected to the Assemblea Costituente, the provisional parliament which had the task of writing the new Italian constitution. His election was supported by Alcide De Gasperi, founder of the modern DC, whose assistant Andreotti became. In 1948, he was elected to the newly formed Chamber of Deputies to represent the constituency of Rome-Latina-Viterbo-Frosinone, which remained his stronghold until the 1990s.
First government positions (1950s and 1960s)
Andreotti began his government career in 1947, when he became undersecretary to the President of the Council of Ministers in the fourth De Gasperi cabinet, a position he held until January 1954, covering all subsequent cabinets led by De Gasperi and the following one led by Giuseppe Pella. Among his actions was the signing of the act establishing the Canto degli Italiani as Italy's national anthem.
In 1954, Andreotti became minister of the interior. Later he was finance mMinister, and was involved in the so-called scandalo Giuffrè (a banking fraud) of 1958, due to his lack of vigilance as minister. The Chamber of Deputies rejected all accusations against him in December of the following year. In 1961–1962 he was officially censured by the Chamber for irregularities in the construction of Rome's Fiumicino Airport.
In the same period, Andreotti started to form a corrente (unofficial political association) within DC, which was then the largest party in Italy. His corrente was supported by the Roman Catholic right wing. It started its activity with a press campaign accusing Piero Piccioni, son of the deputy national secretary of the DC, Attilio Piccioni, of the murder of fashion model Wilma Montesi at Torvaianica. After eliminating De Gasperi's old followers in the DC National Council, Andreotti helped another newly formed corrente, the Dorotei, to oust Amintore Fanfani, who was on the left of the party, as Prime Minister of Italy and National Secretary of the DC.
On 20 November 1958 Andreotti, then minister of treasury, was appointed president of the organizing committee of the 1960 Summer Olympics to be held in Rome. In the early 1960s Andreotti was minister of defence. This was the period of the SIFAR dossiers scandal and of the Piano Solo, a coup planned by the neo-fascist general Giovanni De Lorenzo. Andreotti, as minister, was entrusted with the destruction of the dossiers. It has been ascertained that the dossiers, before being destroyed, had been copied and given to Licio Gelli, the leader of the secret masonic lodge Propaganda 2, which was involved in numerous scandals during the 1980s, and with which Andreotti was frequently associated.
In 1968, Andreotti was named speaker of the parliamentary group of the DC, a position he held until 1972.
In 1972, Andreotti began his first term as prime minister of Italy. He held the post in two consecutive centre-right cabinets in 1972 and in 1973. He also held important positions in subsequent governments.
When he was minister of defense, he declared in an interview that the state had provided a cover for the far-right activist Guido Giannettini, investigated for the Piazza Fontana bombing. Andreotti was acquitted of having helped Giannettini.
From 1974 to 1976, Andreotti served as minister of foreign affairs. During his tenure, Italy opened and developed diplomatic and economic relationships with Arab countries of the Mediterranean Basin, a policy previously pursued only at non-government level, such as by Enrico Mattei's ENI. He also supported business and trade between Italy and Soviet Union.
In 1976, the Italian Socialist Party left the centre-left government of Aldo Moro. The ensuing elections saw the growth of the Italian Communist Party (PCI) and the DC kept only a minimal advantage as the relative majority party in Italy, which was then suffering from an economic crisis and from terrorism. After the success of his party, PCI secretary Enrico Berlinguer approached DC's left-leaning leaders, Moro and Fanfani, with a proposal to bring forward the so-called "historic compromise", a political pact proposed by Moro which would see a government coalition between DC and PCI for the first time. Andreotti was called in to lead the first experiment in that direction: his new cabinet, formed in July 1976, included only DC members but had the indirect support of the other parties, except the post-fascist Movimento Sociale Italiano. This support was based on the so-called non-sfiducia ("non-challenge"), meaning that these parties would abstain in any confidence vote. This cabinet fell in January 1978.
In March 1978, the crisis was overcome by the intervention of Moro, who proposed a new cabinet, again formed only by DC politicians, but this time with positive confidence votes from the other parties, including the PCI. This cabinet was also chaired by Andreotti, and was formed on 16 March 1978, the day on which Aldo Moro was kidnapped by the communist terrorist group the Red Brigades. The dramatic situation which followed brought PCI to vote for Andreotti's cabinet for the sake of what was called "national solidarity", despite its refusal to accept several previous requests.
Andreotti's role during the kidnapping of Moro is controversial. He refused any negotiation with the terrorists, and was sharply criticized for this by Moro's family and by a segment of public opinion. Moro, during his imprisonment, wrote a statement expressing very harsh judgements against Andreotti. Moro was killed by the Red Brigades in May 1978. After his death, Andreotti continued as Prime Minister of the "National Solidarity" government with the support of the PCI. Laws approved during his tenure include the reform of the Italian National Health Service. However, when the PCI asked to participate more directly in the government, Andreotti refused, and the government was dissolved in June 1979. Due also to conflict with Bettino Craxi, secretary of the Italian Socialist Party (PSI), the other main party in Italy at the time, Andreotti did not hold any further government position until 1983.
A number of social reforms were enacted during Andreotti's various terms as prime minister. A law of 11 August 1972 extended health insurance to citizens over the age of 65 in receipt of a social pension. A law of 30 June 1973 extended cost of living indexation to the social pension. A Land Use law of 28 January 1977 introduced severe constraints on construction, such as new criteria for land expropriations and new planning procedures. A Fair Rent Law of 27 July 1978 completed state control of rents with general rules for rent levels and terms of leases. A law of 5 August 1978 introduced a ten-year housing plan, with the state making funds available t regions for public housing and subsidies for private housing. A law of 16 February 1977 introduced ad hoc upgrading of cash benefits for the agricultural sector.In November 1977, pension linkage to the industrial wage was extended to all other pension schemes not administered by INPS. A law of 16 February 1977 extended family allowances to agricultural part-time workers.
1980s and 1990s
In 1983, Andreotti became minister of foreign affairs in the first cabinet of Bettino Craxi. He held this position until 1989, among other things encouraging diplomacy between the USA and the Soviet Union and improving Italian links with Arab countries. In this respect he followed a line similar to that of Craxi, with whom he had an otherwise troubled political relationship. Andreotti supported Craxi's moves during the hijacking of the Achille Lauro ship.
On 14 April 1986, Andreotti revealed to Libyan Foreign Minister Abdel Rahman Shalgham that the United States would bomb Libya the next day in retaliation for the Berlin disco terrorist attack which had been linked to Libya. As a result of the warning from Italy – a supposed ally of the US – Libya was better prepared for the bombing. Nevertheless, on the following day Libya fired two Scuds at the Italian island of Lampedusa in retaliation. However, the missiles passed over the island, landing in the sea, and caused no damage.
As Craxi's relationship with the then National Secretary of the DC, Ciriaco de Mita, was even worse, Andreotti was instrumental in the creation of the so-called "CAF triangle" (from the initials of the surnames of Craxi, Andreotti and another DC leader, Arnaldo Forlani) opposing De Mita's power. In 1989, when De Mita's government fell, Andreotti was called to succeed him. He remained Prime Minister until 1992.
This last period as prime minister was turbulent. Andreotti chose not to dissolve the cabinet after ministers on the left of the DC resigned after the approval of a law strengthening Silvio Berlusconi's monopoly on private television. Tension with Craxi re-emerged after the publication of letters by Moro in which Andreotti saw a role for the leader of the PSI. The Gladio scandal, the violent political declarations by President Francesco Cossiga and the first revelations of the Tangentopoli corruption scandal characterized the last years of his premiership.
1990s and 2000s
In 1992, at the end of the legislature, Andreotti resigned from premiership. The previous year, Cossiga had appointed him senator for life.
Andreotti was one of the most likely candidates to succeed Cossiga as President of the Republic in 1992. He and the members of his corrente had adopted a strategy of launching his candidature only after effectively quenching all the others, including that of Forlani. However, this strategy was thwarted by the assassination of judge Giovanni Falcone in Palermo, which followed that of Salvo Lima, a Sicilian politician strongly linked to Andreotti, two months before. The national emergency which resulted led to the election of Oscar Luigi Scalfaro, a less political figure, supported also by the left.
Andreotti was untouched during the first stages of Tangentopoli, but in April 1993, after being mentioned in the declarations of several pentiti (people abandoning criminal and terrorist organizations), he was investigated for having Mafia connections. In 1994 the Democrazia Cristiana vanished from the political sphere. Andreotti joined the Italian People's Party founded by Mino Martinazzoli, abandoning it in 2001 after the creation of La Margherita.
On 21 January 2008 he abstained from a vote in the Senate concerning Minister Massimo D'Alema's report on foreign politics. Together with the abstentions of another life senator, Sergio Pininfarina, and of two communist senators, this caused the government to lose the vote. Consequently, Prime Minister Romano Prodi resigned. On previous occasions, Andreotti had always supported Prodi's government with his vote.
Andreotti was investigated for his role in the 1979 murder of Mino Pecorelli, a journalist who had published allegations that Andreotti had links with the Mafia and with the kidnapping of Aldo Moro. A court acquitted him in 1999 after a trial that lasted three years, but he was convicted on appeal in November 2002 and sentenced to twenty-four years' imprisonment. The eighty-three-year-old Andreotti was immediately released pending an appeal. On 30 October 2003 an appeal court overturned the conviction and acquitted Andreotti of the original murder charge. That same year, the court of Palermo acquitted him of ties to the Mafia, but only on grounds of expiry of statutory terms. The court established that Andreotti had indeed had strong ties to the Mafia until 1980 and had used them to further his political career to such an extent as to be considered part of the Mafia itself.
Andreotti defended himself by saying he took harsh measures against the Mafia while in government. Andreotti's seventh government (1991–92) did take a number of decisive steps against the Mafia, thanks to the presence of anti-Mafia judge Giovanni Falcone at the Ministry of Justice. "When he says that he took extremely harsh measures against the Mafia, he isn't lying", wrote Eugenio Scalfari, editor of the newspaper La Repubblica. "I think at a certain point in the late Eighties he realised that the Mafia could not be controlled. He awoke from his perennial distraction ... and the Mafia, which realised that it could no longer count on his protection or tolerance, assassinated his man in Sicily." His man in Palermo was Salvo Lima, who was murdered by the Mafia in March 1992. The murder of Lima was a turning point in relations between the Mafia and its political associates. The Mafia felt betrayed by Lima and Andreotti. In their opinion they had failed to block the January 1992 confirmation by the Court of Cassation (court of final appeal) of the sentence in the Maxi Trial of 1986, which had sent scores of Mafiosi to jail.
Involvement in other judicial affairs
Assassination of Carlo Alberto Dalla Chiesa
In 1982 Andreotti asked Carabinieri General Carlo Alberto Dalla Chiesa to accept the position of Prefect of Palermo. In a note dated 2 April 1982 to Prime Minister Giovanni Spadolini, Dalla Chiesa wrote that the Sicilian membership of Democrazia Cristiana linked with Andreotti were the most infiltrated by the Mafia.
According to Mino Pecorelli's sister, Dalla Chiesa met with Pecorelli (they were both members of the secret masonic lodge Propaganda 2) a few days before the latter was assassinated in 1979. Pecorelli gave Dalla Chiesa several documents containing serious accusations against Andreotti. Just before his death in 1993, Andreotti's collaborator Franco Evangelisti described to a journalist an alleged secret meeting between Andreotti and Dalla Chiesa, during which Dalla Chiesa had shown Andreotti the complete statement of Aldo Moro (published only in 1990) containing dangerous revelations about Andreotti.
Dalla Chiesa was ambushed in his car and shot dead, together with his wife, in September 1982. The judges' reconstruction has proved that the Mafia had been planning the assassination of Dalla Chiesa since 1979, three years before he became Prefect of Palermo.
Relationship with Michele Sindona
According to the Tribunals of Perugia and Palermo, "Andreotti had long-standing relationships with people who, in several ways, were interested in the Banca Privata Italiana banker and member of masonic lodge P2, Michele Sindona."
Such relationships became closer in 1976, when Sindona's banks went bankrupt: Licio Gelli, chief of the P2 lodge, proposed a plan to save the Banca Privata Italiana to Andreotti, then Minister of Defense. Andreotti, however, could not get the plan approved by Minister of the Treasury Ugo La Malfa. Later Andreotti denied any personal involvement, declaring that the attempt to save the bank was merely institutional. Andreotti did not terminate his relationship with Sindona when the latter fled to the United States.
Sindona, who in 1984 had been arrested, brought to Italy and condemned to life imprisonment for bankruptcy and for the assassination of Giorgio Ambrosoli, was killed by a poisoned cup of coffee in Voghera prison on 20 March 1986. Journalist and university professor Sergio Turone has suggested that Andreotti had a role in providing the poisoned sugar that caused Sindona's death, after convincing the banker that it would cause him only to faint, hoping that this would help him to be returned to the United States. According to Turone, Andreotti feared that Sindona would reveal dangerous details about his past life, after his conviction had shown that Andreotti had stopped supporting him.
Andreotti's corrente with the DC based its political support on the eastern part of Lazio. His local supporters included politicians Franco Evangelisti, Vittorio Sbardella, nicknamed Lo Squalo ("The Shark"), and the entrepreneur Giuseppe Ciarrapico. All of them were involved in corruption scandals. Andreotti was also a friend of Court of Cassation judge Franco Vitalone, who was investigated for his role in the Moro kidnapping and in the assassination of Pecorelli, and of bishop Fiorenzo Angelini, responsible for health matters in the Vatican, who was involved in the Tangentopoli scandal.
Involvement in film
As the state undersecretary in charge of entertainment in 1949, Andreotti found a way of slowing the advance of American films while also curbing the excesses of Neorealism in Italy. The Andreotti law established import limits, screen quotas, and provided loans to Italian production firms. However, to receive a loan, a government committee had to approve the script; films with an apolitical slant were rewarded with larger sums, while films that were thought to slander Italy could be denied an export license. The Andreotti law created preproduction censorship in Italy. Vittorio de Sica's Umberto D, which depicted the lonely life of a retired man, could only strike government officials as a dangerous throwback, due to the opening scene featuring police breaking up a demonstration of old pensioners and the ending scene featuring Umberto's aborted suicide attempt. In a public letter to De Sica, Andreotti castigated him for his "wretched service to his fatherland." 
Death and legacy
Andreotti died in Rome on 6 May 2013 after suffering from respiratory problems. He was 94. The BBC described him as "one of the most prominent political figures of post-war Italy". The New York Times noted he had "a résumé of signal accomplishments and checkered failings that reads like a history of the republic". The Mayor of Rome, Gianni Alemanno, announced the death, stating that Andreotti was ""the most representative politician" Italy had known in its recent history".
||This section is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. (May 2013)|
- In Italy, his detractors nicknamed him Belzebù (Beelzebub) or "The Prince of Darkness", because of his alleged Mafia links. Other disparaging nicknames include "The Black Pope" and "The Hunchback".
- The fictional character Don Licio Lucchesi from the movie The Godfather Part III, a high-ranking Italian politician with close ties to the Mafia, was modeled on Andreotti. Before Lucchesi was killed, his killer whispered in his ear "Power wears out those who don't have it".
- The novel The Death of Men (1981) by the Scottish novelist Allan Massie, which was inspired by the kidnapping of Aldo Moro, features a character based on Andreotti named Gianni Schicchi.
- He appeared as himself in the 1983 film Il tassinaro, alongside Alberto Sordi.
- The Italian satirical magazine Cuore referred to Andreotti as Giulio "Lavazza" – Lavazza being a leading Italian brand of coffee. This was a reference to the alleged involvement of Andreotti in the assassination of banker and felon Michele Sindona, killed in jail with a poisoned espresso.
- Andreotti is the subject of Paolo Sorrentino's Il Divo, winner of the Jury Prize at the 2008 Cannes Film Festival. Andreotti walked out of the movie and dismissed the film, saying he believes he will in the end be judged "on his record".
- On 2 November 2008, Andreotti appeared on the entertainment program Questa Domenica ("This Sunday"), broadcast on the Italian television channel Canale 5. During his appearance, he seemed to be in difficulty and there was speculation he had suffered a stroke. Andreotti was twice asked a question and simply failed to respond, although his eyes remained open. The director cut to an advertisement break, following which Andreotti reappeared in seemingly better condition. The incident was presented as a consequence of technical difficulties.
- A joke about Andreotti (originally seen in a strip by Stefano Disegni and Massimo Caviglia) had him receiving a phone call from a fellow party member, who pleaded with him to attend judge Giovanni Falcone's funeral. His friend supposedly begged: "The State must give an answer to the Mafia, and you are one of the top authorities in it!". To which Andreotti answered puzzled, "Which one do you mean?"
- "Gianpiero D'Alia: Greetings, Andreotti always set an example for us" (in Italian). UDC official website. 14 January 2011. Retrieved 3 March 2013.
- "Italy state TV: Seven-time Premier Giulio Andreotti dies at 94". The Washington Post. Associated Press. 6 May 2013. Retrieved 6 May 2013.
- "Giulio ANDREOTTI (XVII Legislatura), Dati anagrafici e incarichi" (in Italian). Senate of the Republic (Italy). Retrieved 6 May 2013.
- Jessup, John E. (1998). An Encyclopedic Dictionary of Conflict and Conflict Resolution, 1945-1996. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. p. 25. – via Questia (subscription required)
- Alexander Stille (24 September 1995). "All the prime minister's men". The Independent. Retrieved 5 December 2013.
- Dennis Kavanagh (1998). "Andreotti, Giulio". A Dictionary of Political Biography. Oxford University Press. p. 14. Retrieved 31 August 2013. – via Questia (subscription required)
- Tiziano Torresi, L'altra giovinezza. Gli universitari cattolici dal 1935 al 1940, Cittadella editrice, 2010, with a preface by Andreotti himself. (Italian)
- Ruggero Orfei,"Andreotti", Feltrinelli, 1975. (Italian)
- Messina, Dino (2 July 2009). "Caso Montesi, la talpa di Fanfani". Corriere della Sera. Retrieved 17 October 2010. (Italian)
- Fernando Proietti, "Morto Franco Evangelisti il camerlengo di Andreotti", Corriere della Sera, 12 November 1993, p. 15. (Italian)
- This was a series of dossiers about powerful Italian figures, including the Pope himself, which had been ordered by general Giovanni De Lorenzo when he was chief of the SIFAR, the Italian military secret service.
- SENATO DELLA REPUBBLICA-CAMERA DEI DEPUTATI, XII LEGISLATURA, Doc. XXXIV, n. 1, RELAZIONE DEL COMITATO PARLAMENTARE PER I SERVIZI DI INFORMAZIONE E SICUREZZA E PER IL SEGRETO DI STATO, § 4.2: "Appare credibile quanto affermato a suo tempo dall'ingegnere Francesco Siniscalchi e dai dottori Ermenegildo Benedetti e Giovanni Bricchi circa una possibile donazione di fascicoli che l'ex capo del SIFAR Giovanni Allavena avrebbe effettuato a Gelli al momento di aderire alla loggia P2 nel 1967. Negli anni successivi, inoltre, l'adesione alla loggia di pressoché tutti i principali dirigenti del SID rende più che plausibile un travaso informativo da questi ultimi a Gelli". (Italian)
- XII legislatura, Camera dei deputati-Senato della Repubblica, Doc. XXXIV n. 3, RELAZIONE DEL COMITATO PARLAMENTARE PER I SERVIZI DI INFORMAZIONE E SICUREZZA E PER IL SEGRETO DI STATO SUI DOCUMENTI TRASMESSI DALLA PROCURA DELLA REPUBBLICA DI MILANO – RILIEVI E VALUTAZIONI: "In particolare, nel 1974, egli aveva provocato una crisi nel SID, sia attraverso un'intervista a Massimo Caprara, per il settimanale "Il Mondo", rivelando la identità del neofascista Guido Giannettini, confidente del Servizio, sia attraverso iniziative contro il generale Vito Miceli (allora Direttore del SID), in rapporto alle vicende del cosiddetto golpe Borghese e della "Rosa dei venti", sia offrendo, dal marzo 1974, come Ministro della difesa, un attivo sostegno al generale Gianadelio Maletti (allora Capo dell'Ufficio D), nello scontro interno che lo contrapponeva a Miceli". (Italian)
- Discorsi parlamentari di Enrico Berlinguer, Italian Chamber of Deputies, ed. M.L. Righi, 2001, p. 183. (Italian)
- Moro, Aldo (1978). "Il Memoriale di Aldo Moro". Retrieved 17 October 2010. (Italian)
- Growth to Limits: The Western European Welfare States Since World War II Volume 4 edited by Peter Flora
- Andreotti, Giulio. "Foreign policy in the Italian democracy". Political Science Quarterly 109 (Special Issue 1994): 529.
- Reports: Italy warned Libya of 1986 US strike, Associated Press Writer, 30 October 2008[dead link]
- On 24 October 1990, Andreotti acknowledged before the Chamber of Deputies the existence of Operazione Gladio, a North Atlantic Treaty Organization secret anti-communist structure.
- "Giulio Andreotti". Telegraph. 6 May 2013. Retrieved 31 August 2013.
- 'Kiss of honour' between Andreotti and Mafia head never happened, The Independent, 26 July 2003
- All the prime minister's men, by Alexander Stille, The Independent, 24 September 1995
- Stille, Excellent Cadavers, pp. 378-80
- Dalla Chiesa, Nando (1984). "Sono quattro le domande che restano senza risposta". La Repubblica. Retrieved 17 October 2010. (Italian)
- Bellu, Giovanni Maria (11 June 1993). "E ANDREOTTI DISSE: FERMATE PECORELLI". La Repubblica. Retrieved 17 October 2010. (Italian)
- Calabrò, Maria Antonietta. "Andreotti contro Evangelisti: dice il falso". Corriere della Sera. Retrieved 19 October 2010. (Italian)
- "Sagome, ombre, una immagine sfocata". La Stampa. Retrieved 19 October 2010. (Italian)
- Travaglio, Marco; Peter Gomex. "Giulio Andreotti e le "pene" per l’amico Michele Sindona". La repubblica delle banane. Retrieved 17 October 2010. (Italian)
- Turone, Sergio. "Michele Sindona e Giulio Andreotti". I Siciliani del 1986. Retrieved 17 October 2010. (Italian)
- Giorgio Galli, in Il prezzo della democrazia. La carriera politica di Giulio Andreotti (Kaos, 2002), riassume parlando esplicitamente di "intrighi nella procura romana attraverso il magistrato andreottiano Claudio Vitalone" (Italian)
- "Sua Sanità Fiorenzo Angelini". Retrieved 17 October 2010. (Italian)
- Bordwell, David. Thompson, Kristin. 2010. Film History: An Introduction. 3rd ed. NY: McGraw Hill. p #333.
- "Giulio Andreotti: Ex-Italian prime minister dies". BBC News. 6 May 2013. Retrieved 6 May 2013.
- Tagliabue, John (6 May 2013). "Giulio Andreotti, Premier of Italy 7 Times, Dies at 94". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 May 2013.
- "Giulio Andreotti, former Italian prime minister, dies aged 94". The Guardian. 6 May 2013. Retrieved 6 May 2013.
- Beelzebub spoils Prodi's day, The Times, 29 April 2006
- Il Divo: the Spectacular Life of Giulio Andreotti, The Times, 19 March 2009
- Andreotti: why I walked out of my own biopic, The Times, 17 March 2009
- Youtube Video (Italian).
- Giuseppe Leone, "Federico II Re di Prussia e Giulio Andreotti – Due modi diversi di concepire la politica", su "Ricorditi di me...", in "Lecco 2000", gennaio 1996. (Italian)
- "Les procès Andreotti en Italie" ("The Andreotti trials in Italy") by Philippe Foro, published by University of Toulouse II, Groupe de recherche sur l'histoire immédiate (Study group on contemporary history) (French)
- Il Divo a Paolo Sorrentino Film