Giuseppe Garibaldi-class cruiser
||This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. (January 2013)|
Kasuga in 1900
|Builders:||Ansaldo, Genoa, Italy
|Operators:|| Imperial Japanese Navy
|Displacement:||7,628 long tons (7,750 t) Kasuga
7,698 long tons (7,822 t) Nisshin
|Length:||108.8 m (356 ft 11 in) w/l
111.73 m (366 ft 7 in) o/a
|Beam:||18.9 m (62 ft 0 in)|
|Draught:||7.32 m (24 ft 0 in)|
|Installed power:||13,000–13,500 ihp (9,700–10,100 kW)|
2 Vertical triple-expansion steam engines
|Speed:||19 knots (35 km/h; 22 mph)|
|Range:||5,500 nmi (10,200 km; 6,300 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph)|
|Complement:||555 officers and enlisted men
(578 as flagship)
|Armament:||2 gun turrets, each with
|Armour:||Main Belt: 70–150 mm (2.8–5.9 in)
Deck: 25–38 mm (0.98–1.50 in)
Barbette, Turret, Casemate & Conning tower: 100–150 mm (3.9–5.9 in)
Design and history
Designed by Edoardo Masdea, the Garibaldi-class cruiser was a hybrid between a cruiser and a battleship. With a maximum speed of 20 knots (37 km/h) the design was slightly slower than contemporary cruisers, but was both heavily armed and armoured, in a package with very low displacement and moderate dimensions.
The design was so popular that between 1894 and 1902 ten cruisers were purchased by four different countries; the first five by the Italian Navy, four by the Argentine Navy and one by the Spanish Navy. According to Brassey's Naval Annual, Spain was planning to acquire a second "Garibaldi"-class cruiser, to be named Pedro de Aragon. These plans were shelved after the Spanish–American War and the subsequent downsizing of the Spanish Armada.
Two of the Italian ships ordered in 1902 were sold to the Argentine Navy before completion as the Mitre and Roca; they were renamed as the Rivadavia and the Mariano Moreno. The Argentines in turn sold them to the Imperial Japanese Navy before final completion in 1904, and they were renamed the Kasuga and Nisshin
The class was unusual in that they did not have a uniform main armament. Some had single 10-inch (254 mm) guns in gun turrets fore and aft; others (including the Kasuga) had a mixed armament of a single 10-inch (254 mm) gun in one turret and another turret with twin 8-inch (203 mm) guns. A third variation (including the Nisshin) was a uniform armament of four 8-inch (203 mm) guns in twin gun turrets fore and aft. The Cristobal Colon was fitted with defective 10-inch guns which were removed before it was committed to combat. Therefore, it only went to battle with 10 smokeless powder Armstrong six inch guns mounted in the hull (5 on each side).
|Garibaldi||27 May 1895||Decommissioned, 20 March 1934|
|General Belgrano||1896||Decommissioned, 8 May 1947|
|Pueyrredón||25 July 1898||Decommissioned, 2 August 1954|
|San Martín||1896||Decommissioned, 18 December 1935|
|Francesco Ferruccio||23 April 1902||Decommissioned, 1 April 1930|
|Giuseppe Garibaldi||29 June 1899||Sunk, 18 July 1915, by Austro-Hungarian submarine SM U-4|
|Varese||6 August 1899||Decommissioned, 4 January 1923|
|Kasuga||22 October 1902||Disarmed 1920s, sunk by bombing 18 July 1945|
|Nisshin||9 February 1903||Disarmed 1920s, scuttled 1936. Later raised and expended as a target ship, sunk by the battleship Yamato, 18 January 1942|
|Cristobal Colon||September 1896||Scuttled, 3 July 1898, after being run aground and surrendering during the Battle of Santiago de Cuba.|
|Pedro de Aragon||Cancelled, never built|
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Giuseppe Garibaldi class cruiser.|
- History of the Argentinian ships, at HISTARMAR (Spanish)
- Specifications of the Argentinian ships, at HISTARMAR (Spanish)