Giza East Field

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Map of the East Field in Giza
Mastabas to the east of the pyramid of Khufu.

The East Field is located to the east of Khufu’s pyramid and contains cemetery G 7000. This cemetery was a burial place for some of the family members of Khufu. The cemetery also includes mastabas from tenants and priests of the pyramids dated to the 5th dynasty and 6th dynasty.[1]

The East Field consists of the three Queen's pyramids and a number of mastabas labeled Cemetery G 7000. Reisner constructed a timeline for the construction of the East Field. The first two Queen's Pyramids, G 1a and G 1b, were likely started in year 15-17 of King Khufu. Usually Queen's pyramids were constructed to the south of the king's pyramid, but in this instance a quarry was located to the south and the construction of the smaller pyramids was relocated to the east of the main pyramid complex. The earliest part of the cemetery consisted of 12 mastabas which were built as double mastabas. They were laid out in three rows of four tombs:

The construction of these tombs has been dated to ca year 17-24 of the reign of Khufu. This core was then completed to create a nucleus of eight twin-mastabas by the construction of:

The rest of the eastern field was built around this group of eight twin mastabas. Of these the great mastaba G 7510 of king's son and vizier Ankhhaf stands out due to its size. The construction of several other mastabas can be dated to the time of King Khafra. G 7530 + 7540, the tomb of Meresankh III, contains quarry inscriptions dating to year 13 of that king. Mastaba G 7050, belonging to Nefertkau I, was built during the reign of Khafra as well. Further additions date to the end of the 4th, 5th and 6th dynasty and even later.[2]

Queen's pyramids[edit]

Pyramid G 1a was at first thought to belong to Queen Meritites I but Lehner has shown that the pyramid belonged to Hetepheres I instead. All three pyramids have a square base measuring about 45 – 49 m. on a side. The angle of inclination is about 51° 50‘ for all three.[3]

Pyramid number Pyramid Name of owner Title owner Time Period Comments
G 1a Queen Pyramid of Hetepheres (G1a).jpg Hetepheres I
Htp
t p
Hr
r
s
King's wife, king's daughter 4th Dynasty Wife of Sneferu and mother of Khufu.
G 1b Queen Pyramids G1b.jpg Meritites I
mr
r
t
t
f
s
King's wife 4th Dynasty Wife of Khufu
G 1c Queen Pyramid of Henutsen (G1c).jpg Henutsen
H W24
t
s n
King's daughter 4th Dynasty Said to be a daughter of Khufu on a stela placed in the temple during the 26th dynasty, but more likely to be a wife.

Shaft tomb:

Pyramid number Type Name of owner Title owner Time Period Comments
G 7000X Burial Shaft Hetepheres I
Htp
t p
Hr
r
s
King's Wife and King's Mother 4th dynasty (time of Sneferu to Khufu) Her sarcophagus (empty) and funerary equipment were found in this shaft which is located to the north-east of the Queen's pyramids.

Cemetery G 7000[edit]

Nucleus of Cemetery G 7000

Tomb number Type Name of owner Title owner Time Period Comments
G 7110 +7120 Double-Mastaba Kawab and Hetepheres II Eldest king's son 4th Dynasty (Khufu) Son and daughter of Khufu
G 7130 +7140 Mastaba Gizeh 112004.JPG
Double-Mastaba
Khufukhaf I and his wife Nefertkau King's Son 4th Dynasty (Khufu) Son of Khufu.
G 7210 +7220 Double-Mastaba Hordjedef and his wife King’s son of his body, Count, Keeper of Nekhen, etc. 4th dynasty (time of Khufu) Son of Khufu
G 7230 +7240 Double-Mastaba 4th dynasty (time of Khufu)
G 7310 +7320 Double Mastaba Bauefre/Babaef King's son 4th dynasty Son of Khufu. It is possible that Bauefre and Babaef are one and the same person. Some texts attribute the tomb to Bauefre, others to Babaef.
G 7330 +7340 Double-Mastaba Middle or late 4th Dynasty
G 7430 +7440 (LG 61) Double-Mastaba Minkhaf I Kinig's son and Vizier 4th dynasty Minkhaf was a son of Khufu
G 7410 +7420 Double-Mastaba Meresankh II and Horbaef Meresankh: King's daughter, King's wife; Horbaef: King's Son End of 4th dynasty A daughter Nebtitepites is mentioned in the chapel.

The later additions to the cemetery:

Tomb number Type Name of owner Title owner Time Period Comments
G 7011 Stone-Mastaba Khnumwer
G 7050 Stone-Mastaba Nefertkau I King's daughter 4th dynasty Daughter of Sneferu. Mother of Nefermaat II and grandmother of Sneferukhaf.
G 7060 (LG 57) Stone-Mastaba Nefermaat II King's Son and Vizier 4th Dynasty (Khafre) Son of Nefertkau I
G 7070 (LG 56) Stone-Mastaba Sneferukhaf Treasurer of the King of Lower Egypt, Herdsman of Apis, etc. Mid 4th to 5th dynasty Son of Nefermaat II
G 7101 Stone-Mastaba Merirenefer called Kar Overseer of all works, he who is at the head of the king, true royal document scribe in the presence, etc. 6th dynasty (Pepi I or later)
G 7102 Stone-Mastaba Idu Overseer of the great chapel, overseer of scribes of the meret-serfs, etc. 6th dynasty (Pepi I or later)
G 7111 Stone-Mastaba Late 4th to early 5th dynasty
G 7112 Mud-brick mastaba 5th dynasty (reign of Niuserre)
G 7121 Stone-Mastaba 4th dynasty? Ushabti fragments inscribed for the High Priest of Ptah in Memphis, named Pahemnetjer, were found.
G 7133 Stone-Mastaba Minankh Royal acquaintance Late 4th dynasty Khufukhaf I is mentioned in the tomb.
G 7142 Mud-brick mastaba 5th to 6th Dynasty (?) Names of Nabeni and Nebuka appear on lintel.
G 7145 +7147 Double-Mastaba The mastaba had 7 burial shafts
G 7148 +7149 Double-Mastaba The mastaba had 5 burial shafts
G 7150 Mastaba Khoufoukhaf II 01.jpg
Stone-Mastaba
Khufukhaf II and his wife Khentkaues Khentkaues is a King’s daughter of his body 5th dynasty (time of Niuserre) Possibly a son of Khufukhaf I
G 7152 Stone-Mastaba Sekhemankhptah Late 5th or 6th dynasty
G 7211 Stone-Mastaba There are 16 burial shafts. Attested are Mereru and Ipty (on a lintel reused in roofing of shaft G 7214 B) and Inkaf (judge, inspector of scribes shaft G 7214 A)
G 7214 Stone and brick Mastaba Kaemankh Late Dynasty 5 or Dynasty 6
G 7215 Rock-cut tomb Bendjet? 6th dynasty? Bendjet is the daughter of Idu (G 7102) and likely the sister of Qar (G 7101). Nebit, wife of Qar is attested on a doorjamb. The names of Nebenheb, Nedjfu are inscribed on a headrests. Mentioned in inscriptions are Nefrethakhufu (named Sherit?) and Wabha
G 7244 +7246 Double-Mastaba Khuenptah 5th Dynasty Khuenptah's mother Intkaes and wife Khenut are mentioned.
G 7248 Stone and rubble mastaba Mestju ? ka-priest Dynasty 5 or Dynasty 6 Mestju may not be the actual owner. He is the owner of a false door which depicts him with his wife Nebuhetep and a daughter Khenut.
G 7249 Stone and brick Mastaba Menib 4th or 5th dynasty
G 7331 +7332 Double-Mastaba
G 7350 Stone-Mastaba Hetepheres II (?) End of 4th dynasty Kawab, Djedefre and Hetepheres II are mentioned in inscriptions.
G 7391 Stone-Mastaba Iteti and his wife Senetankh 5th dynasty Mentioned in the tomb are Iteti's sons Washkakhafre, Iteti, and Werkaukhafre, and a daughter named Autib. Also shown are his brother Khafreankh and sister Rudj.
G 7411 Stone-Mastaba Kaemtjenenet and his wife Hathornefer 5th dynasty
G 7413 Rock-cut tomb, stone casing Niankh-Khufu
G 7432 Stone-Mastaba Qar Late 5th dynasty
G 7509 Shafts only Meresankh Isi
G 7510 Stone-Mastaba Ankhhaf and wife Hetepheres Ankhaf: King's Son and Vizier 4th dynasty Hetepheres was a daughter of Sneferu and Hetepheres I
G 7511 Stone-Mastaba Ptolemaic Period Shabtis inscribed for Djedhor and Isetreshet
G 7512 Mud-brick mastaba Maakheru 5th - 6th dynasty
G 7521 Mud-brick mastaba 'Nihetep-ptah Hepi Inspector of palace attendants of the Great House Wife: Imty, sisters: Inty, Teti and Meresankh. Sons: Sesiheryib, Sesikhemetnu, Sesiwer. Daughters: Wehemre, Shefetnet, Henenti and Nebet.
G 7523 Stone-Mastaba Sedaf Iby Overseer of the Two Houses, director of the broad hall 5th - 6th dynasty
G 7524 Stone-Mastaba Kay Judge and administrator, preeminent of place, overseer of commissions 26th dynasty
G 7530 +7540 Stone-Mastaba Meresankh III King's daughter Late 4th dynasty Meresanch was a daughter of Kawab and wife of king Khafre. Graffiti with mention of years were found in the tomb.[4]
G 7550 (LG 58) Stone-Mastaba Duaenhor King's son 4th dynasty
G 7560 Stone-Mastaba Middle or late Dynasty 4
G 7631 Stone Mastaba Ninefer 5th - 6th dynasty
G 7632 Stone-Mastaba Late Period People attested in the tomb are: Nesiptah, Tashamsha, Wahibre, Ahmose, Ankhenes-(?), Hetepef-hesu-(?), Psamtik-seneb, Wadjetirdis, Ankhtef, and Isiskhebit.
G 7650 Stone-Mastaba Akhethotep and his wife Meritites II Akhethotep: director of the palace Meritites: King's daughter of his body 4th dynasty Meritites was a daughter of Khufu.
G 7660 (LG 59) Stone-Mastaba Kaemsekhem King's Son Late 4th dynasty Son of Kawab
G 7690 Stone-Mastaba Iui Inspector of ka-priests Old Kingdom
G 7710 Rock-cut tomb, Stone casing Iby Royal acquaintance, juridical scribe, secretary, etc. 5th - 6th dynasty
G 7711 Rock-cut tomb Khnumdjedef King's son 5th - 6th dynasty
G 7721 Rock-cut tomb Kakherptah 5th dynasty
G 7750 Stone-Mastaba Mid to late 4th dynasty Sons of the owner named Khenuka and Kamenekh are mentioned.
G 7757 Stone-Mastaba Kheperre General (Overseer of the army) Ptolemaic Period His mother Tashereteniset was buried here as well. The sarcophagus is now in the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston.[5]
G 7760 (LG 60) Stone-Mastaba Mindjedef King's Son 4th dynasty Mindjedef is a son of Kawab
G 7772 Stone-Mastaba 5th dynasty
G 7788 Stone-Mastaba 18th dynasty
G 7792 Stone-Mastaba 26th dynasty Ushabtis were found with names: Wahibre, Denitptah, Denitenkhonsu, Tasheri-ihet, and Patjenef. A statue of Osiris is now in the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston.[6]
G 7803 Rock-cut tomb 5th - 6th dynasty Graffiti mentioning dates were found in the tomb.[7]
G 7809 Mud-brick, rubble mastaba Reti royal acquaintance, overseer of ka-priests 5th Dynastie
G 7810 Stone-Mastaba Djati King's son Late 4th or early 5th dynasty
G 7814 Rock-cut tomb Kaaper 5th - 6th dynasty
G 7815 Rock-cut tomb Hapennebti 5th - 6th dynasty
G 7820 Stone-Mastaba Nefertkau III and her husband Iynefer Late 4th or early 5th dynasty Nefertkau may be a daughter of Meresankh II
G 7821 Rock-cut tomb Neferseshemptah Sheshi and his wife Meresankh royal acquaintance, steward of the Great Estate 5th - 6th dynasty
G 7822 Rock-cut tomb Mesu and his wife Neferdjes 5th - 6th dynasty
G 7836 Rock-cut tomb Nebtyherkaus 5th dynasty
G 7837 +7843 Rock-cut tomb Ankhmare First half of 5th dynasty Two separate mastabas were combined into one.[8]
G 7851 Rock-cut tomb Wermeru and his wife Isutkau Royal wab-priest, priest of Heka, priest of Snefru, priest of Khafre Late 5th - 6th dynasty
G 7911 Mud-brick mastaba Nikhasutnisut Scribe, ka-priest 5th - 6th dynasty
G 7946 Mud-brick mastaba Nefu and his wife Khenmetsetju 5th - 6th dynasty
G 7948 (LG 75) Rock-cut tomb Khafreankh and his wife Nikahor Dynasty 5 or later

References[edit]

  1. ^ Porter, Bertha and Moss, Rosalind, Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Statues, Reliefs and Paintings Volume III: Memphis, Part I Abu Rawash to Abusir. 2nd edition (revised and augmented by Dr Jaromir Malek, 1974). Retrieved from gizapyramids.org
  2. ^ George A. Reisner, A History of the Giza Necropolis I, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1942, pp 70-74, Retrieved from Giza Digital Library: History of the Giza Necropolis Series
  3. ^ Verner, Miroslav. The Pyramids: The Mystery, Culture, and Science of Egypt's Great Monuments. Grove Press. 2001 (1997). pp 210-212, 462, ISBN 0-8021-3935-3
  4. ^ William Stevenson Smith: Inscriptional Evidence for the History of the Fourth Dynasty. Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Bd. 11, Chicago 1952, Fig. 7 (PDF; 2,5 MB)
  5. ^ Dows Dunham: The Bulletin of the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. Bd. 30, Boston 1932, S. 90
  6. ^ Dows Dunham: The Bulletin of the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. Bd. 29, Boston 1931, S. 26
  7. ^ William Stevenson Smith: Inscriptional Evidence for the History of the Fourth Dynasty. Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Bd. 11, Chicago 1952, S. 128, Fig. 8 (PDF; 2,5 MB)
  8. ^ Reisner, Giza Necropolis I, S. 238-239, 314