Gladstone, Queensland

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Gladstone
Queensland
Gladstone, Queensland, Australia - Auckland Inlet, with the Power House in the background.JPG
Auckland Inlet, with the Gladstone Power Station in the background
Gladstone is located in Queensland
Gladstone
Gladstone
Coordinates 23°50′56″S 151°15′45″E / 23.84889°S 151.26250°E / -23.84889; 151.26250Coordinates: 23°50′56″S 151°15′45″E / 23.84889°S 151.26250°E / -23.84889; 151.26250
Population 28,808 (2006)[1]
 • Density 196.0/km2 (507.6/sq mi)
Area 147 km2 (56.8 sq mi)
Time zone AEST (No Daylight Saving) (UTC+10)
Location 532 km (331 mi) from Brisbane
LGA(s) Gladstone Regional Council, City of Gladstone
State electorate(s) Gladstone
Federal Division(s) Flynn
Mean max temp Mean min temp Annual rainfall
27.7 °C
82 °F
18.5 °C
65 °F
880.0 mm
34.6 in

Gladstone is an Australian city approximately 550 kilometres by road north of Brisbane and 100 kilometres south-east of Rockhampton. Situated between the Calliope and Boyne Rivers, Gladstone is home to Queensland's largest multi-commodity port.

The city's population at the 2011 Census was 31,778 of whom 4.1 percent are of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander origin.[2]

The City of Gladstone contains a land area of 128 square kilometres. In addition to the mainland area, the Local Authority Area contains fourteen (14) islands. The Gladstone Regional Council, formed in 2008, amalgamates multiple previous local government areas.

History[edit]

Ships moored at the docks at Gladstone, ca. 1868
The Providence Nugget, found in Gladstone in 2004 with a metal detector.

Prior to European settlement, the Gladstone region was home of the Baiali (or Byellee), Goereng and Goreng Goreng Aboriginal tribes.

In May 1770, the HM Bark Endeavour, under the command of James Cook, sailed by the entrance to Gladstone Harbour under the cover of darkness. Matthew Flinders, during his 1801–1803 circumnavigation of Australia, became the first recorded European to sight the harbour in August 1802. He named the harbour Port Curtis, after Admiral Roger Curtis, a man who was of assistance to Flinders years earlier at the Cape of Good Hope. John Oxley conducted further exploration of the harbour and surrounding countryside in November 1823. Oxley was dismissive of the region, noting the harbour was difficult to enter, the countryside was too dry, and the timber useless for construction purposes.

Nevertheless, a colony was eventually established at Port Curtis. Colonel George Barney's expedition was eventful. On 25 January 1847, the Lord Auckland, carrying 87 soldiers and convicts, arrived off the southern entrance of Port Curtis and promptly ran aground on shoals off the southern tip of Facing Island. The settlers spent seven weeks on the island before being rescued by the supply ship Thomas Lowry and delivered the intended site of settlement, the region now known as Barney Point.

On 30 January at a proclamation ceremony, Barney was sworn in as Lieutenant Governor of the colony of North Australia.[3] The convict settlement lasted barely two months. A change of government in Britain ordered the withdrawal of Barney and the settlers. However, interest in the region remained. By 1853, Francis MacCabe was surveying the site of a new town on the shores of Port Curtis. Maurice O'Connell was appointed government resident the following year, resulting in an influx of free settlers as land became available throughout the region. In 1863, the town became a Municipality with Richard Hetherington elected Gladstone's first mayor.

The fledgling town was named after the British statesman William Ewart Gladstone and has a 19th-century marble statue on display in its town museum.[4]

Development of Gladstone was slow until 1893, when a meatworks was established at Parsons Point. In 1963, Queensland Alumina Limited established its alumina refinery on the site of the old meatworks. Gladstone's port facilities were expanded and the city launched into an era of industrial development and economic prosperity.

Heritage listings[edit]

Gladstone has a number of heritage-listed sites, including:

Geography[edit]

Gladstone and Rockhampton are the two major cities in the Central Queensland region. In the sister city program, Gladstone is twinned with the Japanese port of Saiki.[16]

Climate[edit]

Gladstone experiences a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification cfa) and is one of the northernmost places in Australia to have this classification.

Climate data for Gladstone
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 38.3
(100.9)
40.1
(104.2)
42.0
(107.6)
34.4
(93.9)
31.3
(88.3)
29.7
(85.5)
29.4
(84.9)
31.6
(88.9)
33.8
(92.8)
40.0
(104)
40.1
(104.2)
39.8
(103.6)
42.0
(107.6)
Average high °C (°F) 31.2
(88.2)
30.9
(87.6)
30.2
(86.4)
28.4
(83.1)
25.7
(78.3)
23.2
(73.8)
22.8
(73)
24.0
(75.2)
26.4
(79.5)
28.4
(83.1)
29.9
(85.8)
31.0
(87.8)
27.7
(81.9)
Average low °C (°F) 22.5
(72.5)
22.4
(72.3)
21.5
(70.7)
19.6
(67.3)
17.0
(62.6)
14.3
(57.7)
13.3
(55.9)
14.2
(57.6)
16.4
(61.5)
18.7
(65.7)
20.5
(68.9)
21.9
(71.4)
18.5
(65.3)
Record low °C (°F) 12.8
(55)
17.2
(63)
16.2
(61.2)
11.0
(51.8)
8.5
(47.3)
6.1
(43)
4.4
(39.9)
4.7
(40.5)
9.6
(49.3)
10.9
(51.6)
14.7
(58.5)
12.4
(54.3)
4.4
(39.9)
Precipitation mm (inches) 143.4
(5.646)
143.4
(5.646)
82.6
(3.252)
46.2
(1.819)
60.5
(2.382)
39.4
(1.551)
35.2
(1.386)
32.4
(1.276)
26.5
(1.043)
62.3
(2.453)
74.2
(2.921)
128.8
(5.071)
880.0
(34.646)
Source: Australian Bureau of Meteorology[17]

Suburbs[edit]

Industry[edit]

Qld Alumina Refinery

Gladstone's primary industries are mining-related. The Port of Gladstone is the fifth largest multi-commodity port in Australia and the world's fourth largest coal exporting terminal.[18] The port consists of a number of wharves and terminal facilities. Boyne Wharf is used by the Boyne Island aluminium smelter and was opened in August 1982.[19] The western part of the harbour basin is currently being expanded, primarily to allow increased exports of liquified natural gas (LNG). Major exports include coal, alumina, aluminium, cement products, Sodium Cyanide[20] and Ammonium Nitrate.[21] Each year 50 million tonnes of coal passes through the port, making up 70% of the total exports.[22]

Gladstone harbour is within the World Heritage Area of the Great Barrier Reef and has historically supported a thriving seafood industry.[23] a Fisheries Queensland spokesman said they received reports of fish with milky eyes.[24] A spokesman from the Gladstone Fish Markets claimed that diseased fish were still being caught in large numbers in November 2011.[25] Losses to the local seafood industry have been estimated at A$36 million a year.[23]

Education[edit]

Gladstone has several primary schools and high schools, and one university campus, Central Queensland University. It is also home to CQIT (TAFE) Gladstone Campus.

Recreation[edit]

Sunset from the Gladstone Marina

Gladstone has direct access to Heron Island, Wilson Island and other islands from the marina and local airstrips.

Boyne Island and Tannum Sands[edit]

Boyne Island and Tannum Sands have grown in popularity because of their beautiful beaches and relaxed lifestyle. The Millennium Esplanade is a big attraction where there are lots of shelters, barbecues and walking paths, and long stretches of beach. Boyne Island and Tannum Sands are not part of the Gladstone township but are part of the Gladstone region and formerly part of the Calliope Shire.[26]

Lake Awoonga[edit]

A little further afield (25 km south of Gladstone) is Lake Awoonga. The recreation area has free barbecues, swimming, landscaped walking trails, as well as a caravan park. The lake has been stocked with several fish species since 1996, and over 2 million barramundi have been released. In addition to the fishing, Lake Awoonga has many natural attractions, especially the wildlife, with more than 225 species of birds (or over 27% of Australia's bird species) found in the region. Lake Awoonga is also the primary source of Gladstone's water supply. Awoonga dam is not part of the Gladstone township but is part of the Gladstone region and formerly part of the Calliope Shire.

Politics[edit]

Gladstone is located within the federal electoral division of Flynn, a marginal seat currently held by the Liberal National Party of Queensland's Ken O'Dowd in Federal elections, and the state electoral district of Gladstone, held by independent Liz Cunningham, a mayor of the former Calliope Shire Council (which has subsequently been incorporated into Gladstone Regional Council).

Transport[edit]

The Dawson Highway originates in Gladstone, and it runs westwards for approximately 400 kilometres (250 mi) to Springsure.

Rail[edit]

Gladstone is also a major stop on the North Coast railway line, with many long-distance passenger trains operated by QR Traveltrain stopping in the area. Freight trains also pass through the region.

Air[edit]

Gladstone Airport is located in the western suburbs of Gladstone about 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) (8 minute drive) from the centre of the city.

The main provider of scheduled passenger air services has been Qantaslink, using mostly Boeing 717 aircraft though Flight West Airlines and Ansett also previously offered service. Strategic Airlines briefly offered services in 2011[27] and Virgin Australia commenced flights in October 2011 and now offers up to 6 return flights a day to Brisbane mostly on ATR 72 aircraft with Embraer 190 and Boeing 737 also a regular appearance in the schedule.

In May 2009, a $65 million upgrade to the airport and nearby area was undertaken,[28] which reached completion in 2011.

Sea[edit]

The Port of Gladstone is Queensland's largest multi-commodity port and the fifth largest multi-commodity port in Australia. It is the world's fourth largest coal exporting terminal.[18]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (25 October 2007). "Gladstone (Urban Centre/Locality)". 2006 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 17 May 2010. 
  2. ^ http://profile.id.com.au/gladstone/population
  3. ^ Early History of Port Curtis[dead link]
  4. ^ Gladstone City & Hinterland[dead link]
  5. ^ "Gladstone Central State School, Block B (entry 16737)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 2013-07-08. 
  6. ^ "Glengarry Homestead (entry 15161)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 2013-07-08. 
  7. ^ "Our Lady Star of the Sea Church & School (entry 15296)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 2013-07-08. 
  8. ^ "Port Curtis Sailing Club Clubhouse (entry 30518)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 2013-07-08. 
  9. ^ "Fig Tree (entry 19506)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 2013-07-08. 
  10. ^ "Gladstone Post Office (former) (entry 16094)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 2013-07-08. 
  11. ^ "Kullaroo House (entry 16093)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 2013-07-08. 
  12. ^ "Commonwealth Bank Building (former) (entry 16101)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 2013-07-08. 
  13. ^ "Gladstone Regional Art Gallery and Museum (entry 16096)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 2013-07-08. 
  14. ^ "Port Curtis Co-operative Dairy Association Ltd Factory (former) (entry 16097)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 2013-07-08. 
  15. ^ "Gladstone Court House (entry 16095)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 2013-07-08. 
  16. ^ Saiki Sister City. Gladstone Regional Council. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
  17. ^ "Climate statistics for Gladstone AWS". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. June 2011. Retrieved 11 May 2009. 
  18. ^ a b "Mystery carrier causing a buzz". Gladstone Observer (APN News & Media). 3 December 2010. Retrieved 5 December 2010. 
  19. ^ "History of Gladstone Ports Corporation". Port of Gladstone. Retrieved 5 December 2010. 
  20. ^ "Orica Mining Chemicals Sodium Cyanide". Orica Limited. Retrieved 13 March 2013. 
  21. ^ "Orica Yarwun Our Operations". Orica Limited. Retrieved 13 March 2013. 
  22. ^ "Gladstone Ports Corporation: Trade Statistics". Port of Gladstone. Retrieved 5 December 2010. 
  23. ^ a b "Great Barrier Grief: A small port benefits and suffers from the boom". The Economist. 2 June 2012. 
  24. ^ Brian Williams (17 September 2011). "Warning: Gladstone fish off the menu and central Qld coast closed to fishing". The Courier Mail (News Queensland). Retrieved 31 May 2012. 
  25. ^ Andree Withey, Francis Tapim and Paul Robinson (8 November 2011). "Government defends probe into Gladstone's sick fish". ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation). Retrieved 31 May 2012. 
  26. ^ Gladstone Regional Council Website 2011. Gladstone.qld.gov.au. Retrieved on 18 August 2011.
  27. ^ David Sparkes (29 July 2011). Strategic Pulls out of Gladstone. The Observer. Gladstone Newspaper Company. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
  28. ^ Media Release: Opening marks milestone in region’s history. None. Retrieved on 18 August 2011.

External links[edit]