Glamoč

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Glamoč
Гламоч
Municipality
From upper left: Panoramic view of Glamoč, panoramic view of Lamele and Luke neighbourhood, Catholic church of Saint Elias, Orthodox church, medieval fortress
From upper left: Panoramic view of Glamoč, panoramic view of Lamele and Luke neighbourhood, Catholic church of Saint Elias, Orthodox church, medieval fortress
Coat of arms of Glamoč
Coat of arms
Map of the town
Map of the town
Glamoč is located in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Glamoč
Glamoč
Location of Glamoč
Coordinates: 44°03′N 16°51′E / 44.050°N 16.850°E / 44.050; 16.850Coordinates: 44°03′N 16°51′E / 44.050°N 16.850°E / 44.050; 16.850
Country  Bosnia and Herzegovina
Entity Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
County Herzeg-Bosnia County
Historical region Tropolje
Government
 • Municipal mayor Radovan Marković (Alliance of Independent Social Democrats)
 • Local Government Municipal Council
Area
 • Total 1,033.6 km2 (399.1 sq mi)
Population (2013)
 • Total 4,038[1]
 • Density 4/km2 (10/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Area code(s) +387 34

Glamoč (Cyrillic: Гламоч) is a town and municipality in Northern Herzegovina, in Canton 10 of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The town is situated at the foot of the hills of Staretina and Velika Golija on the edge of the central part of the Glamoč Field. The municipality encompasses town of Glamoč as a seat of the municipality and more than 50 villages situated along the Field.

History[edit]

Toponymy[edit]

The town is probably named after the sheep, that have been bred on the slopes of the surrounding mountains.

The etymology of Glamoč is uncertain. Name probably derives from the Illyrian word delma meaning sheep. Settlement was first named Delmoč, then Dlamoč and eventually Glamoč. Accordingly, the name of town indicates the area of shepherds, or a place suitable for sheep farming.

Another theory holds that the name comes from the word glama that means rocky hill.

Antiquity[edit]

Area of Glamoč has been inhabited at least since Neolithic times. In the late Bronze Age, the Neolithic population was replaced by more warlike Indo-European tribes known as the Illyrians. The region was inhabited by Illyrian tribe of Dalmatae. Their capital was Delminium which was located in today's Tomislavgrad. The Dalmatae left many remains that testify about their presence in this area. The most important remains are the gradine, remains of Illyrian settlements which were distributed along the Glamoč field. 34 gradinas were found on the territory of Glamoč.[3] The settlements were strategically well placed, that is why the Romans took over 200 years to occupy this region.

After the Roman conquest, several municipia has been established in this area that was located in the Roman province of Dalmatia. The most important of them is Salvium that existed in Illyrian times. Salvium is located 6 km away from town of Glamoč. The early Christian basilica was discovered on the territory of Salvium. The basilica was built in the 6th century, probably on the remains of a Roman temple.[4] North from Glamoč second basilica was built, probably at the same time when the basilica in Salvium was built. In the beginning this basilicas belonged to the diocese of Salona. In 533 they became part of newly established diocese in Ludrum (Knin, Croatia). Basilicas were probably destroyed during the invasion of Avars in 597.[4]

Middle Ages[edit]

Ruins of the Fortess

With the collapse of Roman rule in the 5th century, first barbarian tribes and then the Byzantine Empire occupied this region. In the seventh century Croats arrived and settled here. They brought Slavic culture and customs that have gradually merged with the Illyrian culture. Over the next 100 years, a Slavic-Illyrian community was formed. Gradually, new settlements were formed on the hills of Glamoč Field. Main settlement was established approximately 6km to the west of Salvium, named Delmoč, or 'Town of Sheep'. It was granted status of parish (župa) in the County of Hlivno after Tomislav established Kingdom of Croatia in 925. Therefore, the town, by the end of the 10th century, had developed all the infrastructure necessary for acquiring the status of the parish. Within the walls of the fortress church of Virgin Mary was built.[5] Nearby the town, the church of St. Catherine and the Franciscan Monastery of St. Elias were built.[6] Within the monastery Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary was located. The church was mentioned in 1446 when Pope Eugene IV gave it particular forgiveness.[7] The remains of the churches were found in several surrounding villages which indicates the dense population of the area. Bosnian ban Stjepan II Kotromanić conquered Glamoč and neighboring towns, Hlivno and Dlmno (Tomislavgrad) in 1326. Since then this area is called Tropolje, meaning three fields, or Završje. During the Bosnian-Hungarian war in 1357, Bosnian ban Tvrtko ceded Tropolje to the Hungarian king Louis I the Great. That same year, Grgur Stjepanić was mentioned as Lord of Glamoč. He, along with other nobles of Tropolje rebelled against the Bosnian ban so Glamoč remained under Hungarian rule until 1387. In the meantime, the ban Tvrtko was crowned as the King of Bosnia and with the help of Hrvoje Vukčić Hrvatinić he regain this area. At the end of the 14th century, Pavao Maštrović Klešić became Lord of Glamoč. Bosnian King Stjepan Ostoja took his lordship, but when he needed Pavao as ally he returned it to him in 1404.[8]

Modern history[edit]

Kingdom of Yugoslavia[edit]

From 1929 to 1941, Glamoč was part of the Vrbas Banovina of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.

Bosnian war[edit]

On 9 January 1992, the Bosnian Serb Assembly adopted a declaration on the Proclamation of the Republic of the Serb people of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On 28 February 1992, the constitution of the Serbian Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina was adopted and declared that the state's territory included Serb autonomous regions, municipalities, and other Serbian ethnic entities in Bosnia and Herzegovina including Glamoč where Bosnian Serbs made 79% of population. The war in Glamoč began a few days before it started in the rest of Bosnia and Herzegovina. During January and February 1992 many Bosniaks and Bosnian Croats left Glamoč. Those who remained have suffered great torture done by Serbian extremists.[9] One of the first victims was a Croatian doctor Alojzije Kelava who was murdered in the city center on 24 February 1992 by Petar Vrakela, member of the Army of Republika Srpska.[10]

U.S. Army tankers deployed to Glamoč as part of the Stabilization Force

Shortly thereafter, Serbian extremists started ethnic cleansing of the non-Serb population and the destruction of the Bosnian-Herzegovinian cultural and historical heritage. In the spring of 1992, the Catholic church, the rectory and town's mosque were destroyed.[11] Parish priest of Glamoč, the Reverend Zvonimir Matijevic, was arrested and taken to Knin prison where he was severely tortured.[10] From the area of Glamočko field, Serbs besieged and bombarded the nearby city of Livno. By the beginning of 1995 most of the non-Serb population left the area of the municipality. On 25 July 1995, Croatian army (HV) and Croatian Defence Council (HVO) started operation Summer '95. In the next few days a large part of the Serbian population left the Glamoč led by the Serbian army. On 29 July, HVO troops attacking from the south captured the town.[12][13] Soon, the area was inhabited by refugees from the Republic of Srpska and Central Bosnia. Some of them still has remained to live in Glamoč. Meanwhile, some of Bosniaks and Croats who left Glamoč at the beginning of the war and Serbs who left Glamoč after Croatian Army captured it, have returned. After the signing of the Dayton Agreement, Glamoč became municipality of Canton 10, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. This war has caused economic and demographic decline of the municipality. Large funds are invested in the reconstruction of destroyed infrastructure, but the area is still underdeveloped.

Settlements[edit]

Babića BrdoBiličićCrni VrhĆirićiĆoslijeDolacDragnjićDubraveĐuličan • Glamoč • GlavicaHalapićHasanbegovciHasićiHotkovciHozićiHrbineIsakovciJakirKamenKarajzovciKarlovacKopićKorićnaKovačevciKrasinacMalkočevciMalo SeloMaslina StranaMladeškovciOdžakOpačićPerduhovo SeloPetrovo VreloPodglavicaPodgradinaPodgredaPotkrajPopovićiPribeljaPrijaniRadaslijeRajićkeReljino SeloRoreRudineSkucaniStaro SeloStekerovciŠumnjaciVaganVidimlijeVrbaZaglavicaZajaruga.

Governance[edit]

Municipal Council of Glamoč
Općinsko vijeće Glamoč
Type
Type
Leadership
Marko Damjanović (HDZ)
Structure
Seats 15 council members
4 / 15
2 / 15
2 / 15
1 / 15
1 / 15
1 / 15
1 / 15
1 / 15
Elections
Last election
7 October 2012
Meeting place
Općinsko vijeće
Glamoč, Herzeg-Bosnia County
Bosnia and Herzegovina

The main local government of the municipality is Municipal Council of Glamoč (Bosnian: Općinska skupština; Croatian: Općinsko vijeće; Serbian: Opštinska skupština). Council has 15 members elected for a four year term by proportional representation. Glamoč also has its municipal mayor who is the highest-ranking officer in the municipal government.

Structure of the Council[edit]

    Political party Council members Current members
2000 2004 2008 2012
  Alliance of Independent Social Democrats (SNSD) 2 2 3 4        
  Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ) 4 3 2 2        
  Party of Democratic Action (SDA) 4 2 3 2        
  Social Democratic Union (SDU) - 2 2 1        
  Socialist Party - - - 1        
  Social Democratic Party (SDP) - - - 1        
  Party of Democratic Progress (PDP) - 1 1 1        
  Croatian Democratic Union 1990 (HDZ 1990) - - 1 1        
  Croatian Christian Democratic Union (HKDU) - 3 1 1        
  Serb Democratic Party (SDS) - 3 2 1        
Sources:[14][15][16][17]

Municipal mayor[edit]

Municipal mayor is the highest-ranking officer in the municipal government. Radovan Marković currently serving his second term as a mayor of Glamoč.

List of Mayors[edit]

Mayor Term of office Party
1 Ivan Damjanović 13 September 1997 7 September 2000 HDZ
Croatian Democratic Union
2 Petar Kalinić 7 September 2000 19 March 2002 HDZ
Croatian Democratic Union
3 Rade Gvero 19 March 2002 12 February 2003 ZSD
Homeland Social Democrats
4 Ivan Damjanović 12 February 2003 4 November 2004 HDZ
Croatian Democratic Union
5 Rade Gvero 4 November 2004 5 October 2008 SDS
Serb Democratic Party
6 Radovan Marković 5 October 2008 Incumbent SNSD
Alliance of Independent Social Democrats

Demographics[edit]






Circle frame.svg

Nationalities structure, according to the 1991 census

  Serbs (79.02%)
  Bosniaks (17.92%)
  Croats (1.46%)
  Yugoslavs (0.93%)
  Other (0.67%)
Population of Glamoč according to ethnic group 1931–2013
Ethnic
group
census 1931 census 1961 census 1971 census 1981 census 1991 1999a 2005a 2011a census 2013
Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  %
Serbs 19,924 80.09 12,904 81.49 13,870 81.68 11,106 78.65 9,951 79.02 TBA TBA
Bosniaksb 3,607 14.50 1,413 8.92 2,621 15.43 2,276 16.11 2,257 17.92 TBA TBA
Croatsc 1,342 5.39 451 2.85 378 2.22 238 1.68 184 1.46 2,120 c. 42.4 986 c. 20.12 921 c. 20.01 TBA TBA
Yugoslavs - - 1,020 6.44 31 0.18 350 2.47 118 0.93 - - - - - - TBA TBA
Others/undeclared 4 0.02 47 0.29 79 0.49 150 1.09 83 0.67 0.67 0.67 TBA TBA
Total 24,877 Decrease 15,835 Increase 16,979 Decrease 14,120 Decrease 12,593 c. 5,000 c. 4,900 c. 4,602 Decrease 4,038d
aEstimation
bIn 1961 Bosniaks were still not recognized as a nationality. In 1971 with constitutional amendments Muslims became a nationality.
cThe number of Croats in 1999, 2005 and 2011 refers to the number of Roman Catholics according to the parish censuses (Source:[18])
dPreliminary results

Climate[edit]

The climate of Glamoč is classified as an oceanic climate (Cfb in Köppen climate classification system), near the boundary of the humid continental climate. Glamoč has four separate seasons. Summers are warm, and winters are cold, without a discernible dry season.

Climate data for Glamoč
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C 0.7 2.6 6.6 11.4 16.5 20.2 22.7 22.4 18.3 12.2 6.7 2.5 11.9
Daily mean °C −1.8 −0.6 2.8 6.9 11.6 15.2 17.3 16.9 13.3 8.3 3.8 0.1 7.82
Average low °C −4.2 −3.8 −1 2.5 6.8 10.2 11.9 11.4 8.3 4.5 1 −2.3 3.78
Precipitation mm 81 85 80 85 86 98 72 71 77 101 139 138 1,113
Average high °F 33.3 36.7 43.9 52.5 61.7 68.4 72.9 72.3 64.9 54 44.1 36.5 53.43
Daily mean °F 28.8 30.9 37 44.4 52.9 59.4 63.1 62.4 55.9 46.9 38.8 32.2 46.06
Average low °F 24.4 25.2 30 36.5 44.2 50.4 53.4 52.5 46.9 40.1 34 27.9 38.79
Precipitation inches 3.19 3.35 3.15 3.35 3.39 3.86 2.83 2.8 3.03 3.98 5.47 5.43 43.83
Source: [19]

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Rezultati popisa 2013. (Census 2013 Results)". http://www.bhas.ba/ (in Croatian). Agency for Statistics of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Retrieved 7 November 2013. 
  2. ^ http://www.postcodesdb.com/AlphabeticSearch.aspx?%7Ccountry=Bosnia%20and%20Herzegovina&city=Glamo%C4%8D&zip=80230
  3. ^ (Croatian) Bosnia and Herzegovina, Commission to Preserve National Monuments, Old City (Glamoč)
  4. ^ a b (Croatian) Bosnia and Herzegovina, Commission to Preserve National Monuments, Remains of early Christian basilica
  5. ^ Desanka Kovačević-Kojić (1978). Gradska naselja srednjovjekovne bosanske države (Urban settlements of Medieval Bosnian State. Sarajevo: Veselin Masleša. 
  6. ^ "Župa Glamoč (Glamoč Parish)". http://www.biskupija-banjaluka.org/ (in Croatian). Roman Catholic Diocese of Banja Luka. Retrieved 18 August 2013. 
  7. ^ "Kratka povijest provincije (Short History of the Province)". http://www.franjevci.info/ (in Croatian). Franciscan Province of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Retrieved 18 August 2013. 
  8. ^ "Stari grad Glamoč, graditeljska cjelina". http://www.kons.gov.ba/ (in Bosnian). Commission to Preserve National Monuments. Retrieved 18 August 2013. 
  9. ^ "New War Crimes Verdicts in Bosnia". balkaninsight.com. Balkan Transitional Justice. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 12 August 2013. 
  10. ^ a b Franjo Komarica. "IN DEFENCE OF THE RIGHTLESS". hic.hr. Retrieved 12 August 2013. 
  11. ^ Andras Riedlmayer (30 September 2003). "Glamoc Abandoned". bosnia.org.uk. Bosnian Institute. Retrieved 12 August 2013. 
  12. ^ Central Intelligence Agency, Office of Russian and European Analysis (2002). Balkan Battlegrounds: A Military History of the Yugoslav Conflict, 1990–1995. Washington, D.C.: Central Intelligence Agency. OCLC 50396958. 
  13. ^ http://www.nato.int/sfor/media/2003/ms030319t.htm
  14. ^ "Potvrđeni izborni rezultati - lokalni izbori 2012: Glamoč". izbori.ba (in Bosnian). Central Election Commission of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Retrieved 22 May 2013. 
  15. ^ "Potvrđeni izborni rezultati - lokalni izbori 2008: Glamoč". izbori.ba (in Croatian). Central Election Commission of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Retrieved 22 May 2013. 
  16. ^ "Potvrđeni izborni rezultati - lokalni izbori 2004: Glamoč". izbori.ba (in Bosnian). Central Election Commission of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Retrieved 22 May 2013. 
  17. ^ "Potvrđeni izborni rezultati - lokalni izbori 2000: Glamoč". izbori.ba (in Bosnian). Central Election Commission of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Retrieved 22 May 2013. 
  18. ^ (Croatian)Diocese of Banja Luka
  19. ^ "Climate data for cities worldwide". Retrieved February 7, 2013. 

External links[edit]