Glans

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For the clam genus Glans, see the article on its family, Carditidae.

The glans (/ɡlænz/,[1][2] plural "glandes" /ˈɡlændˌz/; from the Latin word for "acorn")[3] is a vascular structure located at the tip of the penis in male mammals or a homologous genital structure of the clitoris in female mammals.[3]

Structure[edit]

The exterior structure of the glans consists of mucous membrane, which is usually covered by foreskin or clitoral hood in naturally developed genitalia. This covering, called the prepuce, is normally retractable in adulthood.

The glans naturally joins with the inner labia, and the frenulum of the penis or clitoris. In non-technical or sexual discussions, often the word "clitoris" refers to the external glans alone, excluding the clitoral hood, frenulum, and internal body of the clitoris.[citation needed]

Gender differences[edit]

In males, the glans is known as the glans penis, while in females the glans is known as the clitoral glans.

In females, the clitoris is above the urethra. The glans of the clitoris is the most highly innervated part of the external female genitalia.[citation needed]

The pseudo-penis of a female spotted hyena can be distinguished from the male spotted hyena's penis by its greater thickness and more rounded glans.[4][5][6][7] In both male and female spotted hyenas, the base of the glans is covered with penile spines.[8][9][10]

Development[edit]

In the development of the urinary and reproductive organs, the glans is derived from the genital tubercle.

References[edit]

  1. ^ OED 2nd edition, 1989.
  2. ^ Entry "glans" in Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary.
  3. ^ a b "glans" at merriam-webster.com
  4. ^ Glickman SE, Cunha GR, Drea CM, Conley AJ and Place NJ. (2006). Mammalian sexual differentiation: lessons from the spotted hyena. Trends Endocrinol Metab 17:349–356.
  5. ^ M. G. L. Mills; Gus Mills; Heribert Hofer (1998). Hyaenas: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN. pp. 31–. ISBN 978-2-8317-0442-5. Retrieved 27 January 2013. 
  6. ^ Kevin Robert Theis (2008). Scent Marking in a Highly Social Mammalian Species, the Spotted Hyena, Crocuta Crocuta. ProQuest. pp. 25–. ISBN 978-1-109-03595-7. Retrieved 27 January 2013. 
  7. ^ "The Truth About Hyaenas: debunking hyaena myths". Retrieved 2 May 2014. 
  8. ^ R. F. Ewer (1973). The Carnivores. Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-8493-3. Retrieved 9 January 2013. 
  9. ^ Richard Estes (1991). The Behavior Guide to African Mammals: Including Hoofed Mammals, Carnivores, Primates. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-08085-0. Retrieved 9 January 2013. 
  10. ^ Catherine Blackledge (2003). The Story of V: A Natural History of Female Sexuality. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-0-8135-3455-8. Retrieved 9 January 2013.